PAULUS EPISCOPUS SERVUS SERVORUM DEI UNA CUM SACROSANCTI CONCILII PATRIBUS AD PERPETUAM REI MEMORIAM CONSTITUTIO DOGMATICA DE ECCLESIA LUMEN GENTIUM

Caput I DE ECCLESIAE MYSTERIO

§ 1

[E] Lumen gentium cum sit Christus, haec Sacrosancta Synodus, in Spiritu Sancto congregata, omnes homines claritate Eius, super faciem Ecclesiae resplendente, illuminare vehementer exoptat, omni creaturae Evangelium annuntiando. (cf. Mc 16,15) Cum autem Ecclesia sit in Christo veluti sacramentum seu signum et instrumentum intimae cum Deo unionis totiusque generis humani unitatis, naturam missionemque suam universalem, praecedentium Conciliorum argumento instans, pressius fidelibus suis et mundo universo declarare intendit. Condiciones huius temporis huic Ecclesiae officio urgentiorem vim addunt, ut nempe homines cuncti, variis hodie vinculis socialibus, technicis, culturalibus arctius coniuncti, plenam etiam unitatem in Christo consequantur.

§ 2

[E] Aeternus Pater, liberrimo et arcano sapientiae ac bonitatis suae consilio, mundum universum creavit, homines ad participandam vitam divinam elevare decrevit, eosque lapsos in Adamo non dereliquit, semper eis auxilia ad salutem praebens, intuitu Christi, Redemptoris, «qui est imago Dei invisibilis, primogenitus omnis creaturae». (Col 1,15) Omnes autem electos Pater ante saecula «praescivit et praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis Filii sui, ut sit ipse primogenitus in multis fratribus». (Rom 8,29) Credentes autem in Christum convocare statuit in sancta Ecclesia, quae iam ab origine mundi praefigurata, in historia populi Israel ac foedere antiquo mirabiliter praeparata[1], in novissimis temporibus constituta, effuso Spiritu est manifestata, et in fine saeculorum gloriose consummabitur. Tunc autem, sicut apud sanctos Patres legitur, omnes iusti inde ab Adam, «ab Abel iusto usque ad ultimum electum»[2] in Ecclesia universali apud Patrem congregabuntur.

§ 3

[E] Venit igitur Filius, missus a Patre, qui nos in Eo ante mundi constitutionem elegit ac in adoptionem filiorum praedestinavit, quia in Eo omnia instaurare sibi complacuit. (cf. Eph 1,4-5 et 10) Christus ideo, ut voluntatem Patris impleret, regnum caelorum in terris inauguravit nobisque Eius mysterium revelavit, atque oboedientia sua redemptionem effecit. Ecclesia, seu regnum Christi iam praesens in mysterio, ex virtute Dei in mundo visibiliter crescit. Quod exordium et incrementum significantur sanguine et aqua ex aperto latere Iesu crucifixi exeuntibus (cf. Io 19,34), ac praenuntiantur verbis Domini de morte sua in cruce: «Et ego, si exaltatus fuero a terra, omnes traham ad meipsum». (Io 12,32 gr.) Quoties sacrificium crucis, quo «Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus» (I Cor 5,7), in altari celebratur, opus nostrae redemptionis exercetur. Simul sacramento panis eucharistici repraesentatur et efficitur unitas fidelium, qui unum corpus in Christo constituunt. (cf. I Cor 10,17) Omnes homines ad hanc vocantur unionem cum Christo, qui est lux mundi, a quo procedimus, per quem vivimus, ad quem tendimus.

§ 4

[E] Opere autem consummato, quod Pater Filio commisit in terra faciendum (cf. Io 17,4), missus est Spiritus Sanctus die Pentecostes, ut Ecclesiam iugiter sanctificaret, atque ita credentes per Christum in uno Spiritu accessum haberent ad Patrem. (cf. Eph 2,18) Ipse est Spiritus vitae seu fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam (cf. Io 4,14; 7,38-39), per quem Pater homines, peccato mortuos, vivificat, donec eorum mortalia corpora in Christo resuscitet. (cf. Rom 8,10-11) Spiritus in Ecclesia et in cordibus fidelium tamquam in templo habitat (cf. I Cor 3,16; 6,19), in eisque orat et testimonium adoptionis eorum reddit. (cf. Gal 4,6; Rom 8,15-16 et 26) Ecclesiam, quam in omnem veritatem inducit (cf. Io 16,13) et in communione et ministratione unificat, diversis donis hierarchicis et charismaticis instruit ac dirigit, et fructibus suis adornat. (cf. Eph 4,11-12; I Cor 12,4; Gal 5,22) Virtute Evangelii iuvenescere facit Ecclesiam eamque perpetuo renovat et ad consummatam cum Sponso suo unionem perducit.[3] Nam Spiritus et Sponsa ad Dominum Iesum dicunt: Veni! (cf. Apoc 22,17)

Sic apparet universa Ecclesia sicuti «de unitate Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti plebs adunata».[4]

§ 5

[E] Ecclesiae sanctae mysterium in eiusdem fundatione manifestatur. Dominus enim Iesus Ecclesiae suae initium fecit praedicando faustum nuntium, adventum scilicet Regni Dei a saeculis in Scripturis promissi: «Quoniam impletum est tempus, et appropinquavit regnum Dei». (Mc 1,15; cf. Mt 4,17) Hoc vero regnum in verbo, operibus et praesentia Christi hominibus elucescit. Verbum nempe Domini comparatur semini, quod in agro seminatur (cf. Mc 4,14): qui illud cum fide audiunt et Christi pusillo gregi (cf. Lc 12,32) adnumerantur, regnum ipsum susceperunt; propria dein virtute semen germinat et increscit usque ad tempus messis. (cf. Mc 4,26-29) Miracula etiam Iesu Regnum iam in terris pervenisse comprobant: «Si in digito Dei eicio daemonia, profecto pervenit in vos Regnum Dei». (Lc 11,20; cf. Mt 12,28) Ante omnia tamen Regnum manifestatur in ipsa Persona Christi, Filii Dei et Filii hominis, qui venit «ut ministraret et daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis». (Mc 10,45)

§ 5b

[E] Cum autem Iesus, mortem crucis pro hominibus passus, resurrexerit, tamquam Dominus et Christus Sacerdosque in aeternum constitutus apparuit (cf. Act 2,36; Hebr 5,6; 7,17-21), atque Spiritum a Patre promissum in discipulos suos effudit. (cf. Act 2,33) Unde Ecclesia, donis sui Fundatoris instructa fideliterque eiusdem praecepta caritatis, humilitatis et abnegationis servans, missionem accipit Regnum Christi et Dei annuntiandi et in omnibus gentibus instaurandi, huiusque Regni in terris germen et initium constituit. Ipsa interea, dum paulatim increscit, ad Regnum consummatum anhelat, ac totis viribus sperat et exoptat cum Rege suo in gloria coniungi.

§ 6

[E] Sicut in Vetere Testamento revelatio Regni saepe sub figuris proponitur, ita nunc quoque variis imaginibus intima Ecclesiae natura nobis innotescit, quae sive a vita pastorali vel ab agricultura, sive ab aedificatione aut etiam a familia et sponsalibus desumptae, in libris Prophetarum praeparantur.

§ 6b

[E] Est enim Ecclesia ovile, cuius ostium unicum et necessarium Christus est. (cf. Io 10,1-10) Est etiam grex, cuius ipse Deus pastorem se fore praenuntiavit (cf. Is 40,11; Ez 34,11 ss.), et cuius oves, etsi a pastoribus humanis gubernantur, indesinenter tamen deducuntur et nutriuntur ab ipso Christo, bono Pastore Principeque pastorum (cf. Io 10,11; I Pt 5,4), qui vitam suam dedit pro ovibus. (cf. Io 10,11-15)

§ 6c

[E] Est Ecclesia agricultura seu ager Dei. (cf. I Cor 3,9) In illo agro crescit antiqua oliva, cuius radix sancta fuerunt Patriarchae, et in qua Iudaeorum et Gentium reconciliatio facta est et fiet. (cf. Rom 11,13-26) Ipsa plantata est a caelesti Agricola tamquam vinea electa (cf. Mt 21,33-43 par.; Is 5,1ss.) Vitis vera Christus est, vitam et fecunditatem tribuens palmitibus, scilicet nobis, qui per Ecclesiam in ipso manemus, et sine quo nihil possumus facere. (cf. Io 15,1-5)

§ 6d

[E] Saepius quoque Ecclesia dicitur aedificatio Dei. (cf. I Cor 3,9) Dominus ipse se comparavit lapidi, quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, sed qui factus est in caput anguli. (cf. Mt 21,42 par.; Act 4,11; I Pt 2,7; Ps 118,22) Super illud fundamentum Ecclesia ab Apostolis exstruitur (cf. I Cor 3,11), ab eoque firmitatem et cohaesionem accipit. Quae constructio variis appellationibus decoratur: domus Dei (cf. I Tim 3,15), in qua nempe habitat eius familia, habitaculum Dei in Spiritu (cf. Eph 2,19-22), «tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus» (Apoc 21,3), et praesertim templum sanctum, quod in lapideis sanctuariis repraesentatum a Sanctis Patribus laudatur, et in Liturgia non immerito assimilatur Civitati sanctae, novae Ierusalem.[5] In ipsa enim tamquam lapides vivi his in terris aedificamur (cf. I Pt 2,5) Quam sanctam civitatem Ioannes contemplatur, in renovatione mundi descendentem de caelis a Deo, «paratam sicut sponsam ornatam viro suo». (Apoc 21,2)

§ 6e

[E] Ecclesia etiam, «quae sursum est Hierusalem» et «mater nostra» appellatur (Gal 4,26; cf. Apoc 12,17), describitur ut sponsa immaculata Agni immaculati (cf. Apoc 19,7; 21,2 et 9; 22,17), quam Christus «dilexit ... et se ipsum tradidit pro ea, ut illam sanctificaret» (Eph 5,25-26), quam sibi foedere indissolubili sociavit et indesinenter «nutrit et fovet» (Eph 5,29), et quam mundatam sibi voluit coniunctam et in dilectione ac fidelitate subditam (cf. Eph 5,24), quam tandem bonis caelestibus in aeternum cumulavit, ut Dei et Christi erga nos caritatem, quae omnem scientiam superat, comprehendamus. (cf. Eph 3,19) Dum vero his in terris Ecclesia peregrinatur a Domino (cf. II Cor 5,6), tamquam exsulem se habet, ita ut quae sursum sunt quaerat et sapiat, ubi Christus est in dextera Dei sedens, ubi vita Ecclesiae abscondita est cum Christo in Deo, donec cum Sponso suo appareat in gloria. (cf. Col 3,1-4)

§ 7

[E] Dei Filius, in natura humana Sibi unita, morte et resurrectione sua mortem superando, hominem redemit et in novam creaturam transformavit. (cf. Gal 6,15; II Cor 5,17) Communicando enim Spiritum suum, fratres suos, ex omnibus gentibus convocatos, tamquam corpus suum mystice constituit.

§ 7b

[E] In corpore illo vita Christi in credentes diffunditur, qui Christo passo atque glorificato, per sacramenta arcano ac reali modo uniuntur.[6] Per baptismum enim Christo conformamur: «Etenim in uno Spiritu omnes nos in unum corpus baptizati sumus». (I Cor 12,13) Quo sacro ritu consociatio cum morte et resurrectione Christi repraesentatur et efficitur: «Consepulti enim sumus cum illo per baptismum in mortem»; si autem «complantati facti sumus similitudini mortis Eius, simul et resurrectionis erimus». (Rom 6,4-5) In fractione panis eucharistici de Corpore Domini realiter participantes, ad communionem cum Eo ac inter nos elevamur. «Quoniam unus panis, unum corpus multi sumus, omnes qui de uno pane participamus». (I Cor 10,17) Ita nos omnes membra illius Corporis efficimur (cf. I Cor 12,27), «singuli autem alter alterius membra». (Rom 12,5)

§ 7c

[E] Sicut vero omnia corporis humani membra, licet multa sint, unum tamen corpus efformant, ita fideles in Christo. (cf. I Cor 12,12) Etiam in aedificatione corporis Christi diversitas viget membrorum et officiorum. Unus est Spiritus, qui varia sua dona, secundum divitias suas atque ministeriorum necessitates, ad Ecclesiae utilitatem dispertit. (cf. I Cor 12,1-11) Inter quae dona praestat gratia Apostolorum, quorum auctoritati ipse Spiritus etiam charismaticos subdit. (cf. I Cor 14) Idem Spiritus per Se suaque virtute atque interna membrorum connexione corpus unificans, caritatem inter fideles producit et urget. Unde, si quid patitur unum membrum, compatiuntur omnia membra; sive si unum membrum honoratur, congaudent omnia membra. (cf. I Cor 12,26)

§ 7d

[E] Huius corporis Caput est Christus. Ipse est imago Dei invisibilis, in Eoque condita sunt universa. Ipse est ante omnes et omnia in Ipso constant. Ipse est caput corporis quod est Ecclesia. Ipse est principium, primogenitus ex mortuis, ut sit in omnibus primatum tenens. (cf. Col 1,15-18) Magnitudine virtutis suae caelestibus et terrestribus dominatur, et supereminenti perfectione et operatione sua totum corpus gloriae suae divitiis replet.[7] (cf. Eph 1,18-23)

§ 7e

[E] Omnia membra Ei conformari oportet, donec Christus formetur in eis. (cf. Gal 4,19) Quapropter in vitae Eius mysteria adsumimur, cum Eo configurati, commortui et conresuscitati, donec cum Eo conregnemus. (cf. Phil 3,21; II Tim 2,11; Eph 2,6; Col 2,12; etc.) In terris adhuc peregrinantes, Eiusque vestigia in tribulatione et persecutione prementes, Eius passionibus tamquam corpus Capiti consociamur, Ei compatientes, ut cum Eo conglorificemur. (cf. Rom 8,17)

§ 7f

[E] Ex Eo «totum corpus per nexus et coniunctiones subministratum et constructum crescit in augmentum Dei». (Col 2,19) Ipse in corpore suo, scilicet Ecclesia, dona ministrationum iugiter disponit, quibus Ipsius virtute nobis invicem ad salutem servitia praestamus, ut veritatem facientes in caritate, crescamus in illum per omnia, qui est Caput nostrum. (cf. Eph 4,11-16 gr.)

§ 7g

[E] Ut autem in Illo incessanter renovemur (cf. Eph 4,23), dedit nobis de Spiritu suo, qui unus et idem in Capite et in membris exsistens, totum corpus ita vivificat, unificat et movet, ut Eius officium a sanctis Patribus comparari potuerit cum munere, quod principium vitae seu anima in corpore humano adimplet.[8]

§ 7h

[E] Christus vero diligit Ecclesiam ut sponsam suam, exemplar factus viri diligentis uxorem suam ut corpus suum (cf. Eph 5,25-28); ipsa vero Ecclesia subiecta est Capiti suo. (ib. 5,23-24) «Quia in Ipso inhabitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis corporaliter» (Col 2,9), Ecclesiam, quae corpus et plenitudo Eius est, divinis suis donis replet (cf. Eph 1,22-23), ut ipsa protendat et perveniat ad omnem plenitudinem Dei. (cf. Eph 3,19)

§ 8

[E] Unicus Mediator Christus Ecclesiam suam sanctam, fidei, spei et caritatis communitatem his in terris ut compaginem visibilem constituit et indesinenter sustentat[9], qua veritatem et gratiam ad omnes diffundit. Societas autem organis hierarchicis instructa et mysticum Christi Corpus, coetus adspectabilis et communitas spiritualis, Ecclesia terrestris et Ecclesia coelestibus bonis ditata, non ut duae res considerandae sunt, sed unam realitatem complexam efformant, quae humano et divino coalescit elemento.[10] Ideo ob non mediocrem analogiam incarnati Verbi mysterio assimilatur. Sicut enim natura assumpta Verbo divino ut vivum organum salutis, Ei indissolubiliter unitum, inservit, non dissimili modo socialis compago Ecclesiae Spiritui Christi, eam vivificanti, ad augmentum corporis inservit.[11] (cf. Eph 4,16)

§ 8b

[E] Haec est unica Christi Ecclesia, quam in Symbolo unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam profitemur[12], quam Salvator noster, post resurrectionem suam Petro pascendam tradidit (cf. Io 21,17), eique ac ceteris Apostolis diffundendam et regendam commisit (cf. Mt 28,18ss.), et in perpetuum ut columnam et firmamentum veritatis erexit. (cf. I Tim 3,15) Haec Ecclesia, in hoc mundo ut societas constituta et ordinata, subsistit in Ecclesia catholica, a successore Petri et Episcopis in eius communione gubernata[13], licet extra eius compaginem elementa plura sanctificationis et veritatis inveniantur, quae ut dona Ecclesiae Christi propria, ad unitatem catholicam impellunt.

§ 8c

[E] Sicut autem Christus opus redemptionis in paupertate et persecutione perfecit, ita Ecclesia ad eandem viam ingrediendam vocatur, ut fructus salutis hominibus communicet. Christus Iesus, «cum in forma Dei esset, ... semet ipsum exinanivit formam servi accipiens» (Phil 2,6-7) et propter nos «egenus factus est, cum esset dives» (II Cor 8,9): ita Ecclesia, licet ad missionem suam exsequendam humanis opibus indigeat, non ad gloriam terrestrem quaerendam erigitur, sed ad humilitatem et abnegationem etiam exemplo suo divulgandas. Christus a Patre missus est «evangelizare pauperibus, ... sanare contritos corde» (Lc 4,18), «quaerere et salvum facere quod perierat» (Lc 19,10): similiter Ecclesia omnes infirmitate humana afflictos amore circumdat, imo in pauperibus et patientibus imaginem Fundatoris sui pauperis et patientis agnoscit, eorum inopiam sublevare satagit, et Christo in eis inservire intendit. Dum vero Christus, «sanctus, innocens, impollutus» (Hebr 7,26), peccatum non novit (cf. II Cor 5,21), sed sola delicta populi repropitiare venit (cf. Hebr 2,17), Ecclesia in proprio sinu peccatores complectens, sancta simul et semper purificanda, poenitentiam et renovationem continuo prosequitur.

§ 8d

[E] «Inter persecutiones mundi et consolationes Dei peregrinando procurrit»[14] ecclesia, crucem et mortem Domini annuntians, donec veniat. (cf. II Cor 11,26) Virtute autem Domini resuscitati roboratur, ut afflictiones et difficultates suas, internas pariter et extrinsecas, patientia et caritate devincat, et mysterium Eius, licet sub umbris, fideliter tamen in mundo revelet, donec in fine lumine pleno manifestabitur.

Caput II DE POPULO DEI

§ 9

[E] In omni quidem tempore et in omni gente Deo acceptus est quicumque timet Eum et operatur iustitiam. (cf. Act 10,35) Placuit tamen Deo homines non singulatim, quavis mutua connexione seclusa, sanctificare et salvare, sed eos in populum constituere, qui in veritate Ipsum agnosceret Ipsique sancte serviret. Plebem igitur israeliticam Sibi in populum elegit, quocum foedus instituit et quem gradatim instruxit, Sese atque propositum voluntatis suae in eius historia manifestando eumque Sibi sanctificando. Haec tamen omnia in praeparationem et figuram contigerunt foederis illius novi et perfecti, in Christo feriendi, et plenioris revelationis per Ipsum Dei Verbum carnem factum tradendae.

Ecce dies venient, dicit Dominus, et feriam domui Israel et domui Iuda foedus novum ... Dabo legem meam in visceribus eorum, et in corde eorum scribam eam, et ero eis in Deum, et ipsi erunt mihi in populum ... Omnes enim cognoscent me a minimo eorum usque ad maximum, ait Dominus. (Ier 31,31-34)
Quod foedus novum Christus instituit, novum scilicet testamentum in suo sanguine (cf. I Cor 11,25), ex Iudaeis ac gentibus plebem vocans, quae non secundum carnem sed in Spiritu ad unitatem coalesceret, essetque novus Populus Dei.[14a] Credentes enim in Christum, renati non ex semine corruptibili, sed incorruptibili per verbum Dei vivi (cf. I Pt 1,23), non ex carne sed ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto (cf. Io 3,5-6), constituuntur tandem «genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus acquisitionis ... qui aliquando non populus, nunc autem populus Dei». (I Pt 2,9-10)

§ 9b

[E] Populus ille messianicus habet pro capite Christum, «qui traditus est propter delicta nostra et resurrexit propter iustificationem nostram» (Rom 4,25), et nunc nomen quod est super omne nomen adeptus, gloriose regnat in coelis. Habet pro conditione dignitatem libertatemque filiorum Dei, in quorum cordibus Spiritus Sanctus sicut in templo inhabitat. Habet pro lege mandatum novum diligendi sicut ipse Christus dilexit nos. (cf. Io 13,34) Habet tandem pro fine Regnum Dei, ab ipso Deo in terris inchoatum, ulterius dilatandum, donec in fine saeculorum ab Ipso etiam consummetur, cum Christus apparuerit, vita nostra (cf. Col 3,4), et «ipsa creatura liberabitur a servitute corruptionis in libertatem gloriae filiorum Dei». (Rom 8,21) Itaque populus ille messianicus, quamvis universos homines actu non comprehendat, et non semel ut pusillus grex appareat, pro toto tamen genere humano firmissimum est germen unitatis, spei et salutis. A Christo in communionem vitae, caritatis et veritatis constitutus, ab Eo etiam ut instrumentum redemptionis omnium adsumitur, et tamquam lux mundi et sal terrae (cf. Mt 5,13-16), ad universum mundum emittitur.

§ 9c

[E] Sicut vero Israel secundum carnem, qui in deserto peregrinabatur, Dei Ecclesia iam appellatur (cf. Ne 13,1; Num 20,4; Deut 23,1ss.), ita novus Israel qui in praesenti saeculo incedens, futuram eamque manentem civitatem inquirit (cf. Hebr 13,14), etiam Ecclesia Christi nuncupatur (cf. Mt 16,18), quippe quam Ipse sanguine suo acquisivit (cf. Act 20,28), suo Spiritu replevit, aptisque mediis unionis visibilis et socialis instruxit. Deus congregationem eorum qui in Iesum, salutis auctorem et unitatis pacisque principium, credentes aspiciunt, convocavit et constituit Ecclesiam, ut sit universis et singulis sacramentum visibile huius salutiferae unitatis.[15] Ad universas regiones extendenda, in historiam hominum intrat, dum tamen simul tempora et fines populorum transcendit. Per tentationes vero et tribulationes procedens Ecclesia virtute gratiae Dei sibi a Domino promissae confortatur, ut in infirmitate carnis a perfecta fidelitate non deficiat, sed Domini sui digna sponsa remaneat, et sub actione Spiritus Sancti, seipsam renovare non desinat, donec per crucem perveniat ad lucem, quae nescit occasum.

§ 10

[E] Christus Dominus, Pontifex ex hominibus assumptus (cf. Hebr 5,1-5) novum populum «fecit ... regnum, et sacerdotes Deo et Patri suo». (Apoc 1,6; cf. 5,9-10) Baptizati enim, per regenerationem et Spiritus Sancti unctionem consecrantur in domum spiritualem et sacerdotium sanctum, ut per omnia opera hominis christiani spirituales offerant hostias, et virtutes annuntient Eius qui de tenebris eos vocavit in admirabile lumen suum. (cf. I Pt 2,4-10) Ideo universi discipuli Christi, in oratione perseverantes et collaudantes Deum (cf. Act 2,42-47), seipsos hostiam viventem, sanctam, Deo placentem exhibeant (cf. Rom 12,1), ubique terrarum de Christo testimonium perhibeant, atque poscentibus rationem reddant de ea, quae in eis est, spe vitae aeternae. (cf. I Pt 3,15)

§ 10b

[E] Sacerdotium autem commune fidelium et sacerdotium ministeriale seu hierarchicum, licet essentia et non gradu tantum differant, ad invicem tamen ordinantur; unum enim et alterum suo peculiari modo de uno Christi sacerdotio participant.[16] Sacerdos quidem ministerialis, potestate sacra qua gaudet, populum sacerdotalem efformat ac regit, sacrificium eucharisticum in persona Christi conficit illudque nomine totius populi Deo offert; fideles vero, vi regalis sui sacerdotii, in oblationem Eucharistiae concurrunt[17], illudque in sacramentis suscipiendis, in oratione et gratiarum actione, testimonio vitae sanctae, abnegatione et actuosa caritate exercent.

§ 11

[E] Indoles sacra et organice exstructa communitatis sacerdotalis et per sacramenta et per virtutes ad actum deducitur. Fideles per baptismum in Ecclesia incorporati, ad cultum religionis christianae charactere deputantur et, in filios Dei regenerati, fidem quam a Deo per Ecclesiam acceperunt coram hominibus profiteri tenentur.[18] Sacramento confirmationis perfectius Ecclesiae vinculantur, speciali Spiritus Sancti robore ditantur, sicque ad fidem tamquam veri testes Christi verbo et opere simul diffundendam et defendendam arctius obligantur.[19] Sacrificium eucharisticum, totius vitae christianae fontem et culmen, participantes, divinam Victimam Deo offerunt atque seipsos cum Ea[20]; [ea] tum oblatione tum sacra communione, non promiscue sed alii aliter, omnes in liturgica actione partem propriam agunt. Porro corpore Christi in sacra synaxi refecti, unitatem Populi Dei, quae hoc augustissimo sacramento apte significatur et mirabiliter efficitur, modo concreto exhibent.

§ 11b

[E] Qui vero ad sacramentum poenitentiae accedunt, veniam offensionis Deo illatae ab Eius misericordia obtinent et simul reconciliantur cum Ecclesia, quam peccando vulneraverunt, et quae eorum conversioni caritate, exemplo, precibus adlaborat. Sacra infirmorum unctione atque oratione presbyterorum Ecclesia tota aegrotantes Domino patienti et glorificato commendat, ut eos alleviet et salvet (cf. Iac 5,14-16), immo eos hortatur ut sese Christi passioni et morti libere sociantes (cf. Rom 8,17; Col 1,24; II Tim 2,11-12; I Pt 4,13), ad bonum Populi Dei conferant. Iterum, qui inter fideles sacro Ordine insigniuntur, ad Ecclesiam verbo et gratia Dei pascendam, Christi nomine instituuntur. Tandem coniuges christiani, virtute matrimonii sacramenti, quo mysterium unitatis et fecundi amoris inter Christum et Ecclesiam significant atque participant (cf. Eph 5,32), se invicem in vita coniugali necnon prolis susceptione et educatione ad sanctitatem adiuvant, adeoque in suo vitae statu et ordine proprium suum in Populo Dei donum habent.[21] (I Cor 7,7) Ex hoc enim connubio procedit familia, in qua nascuntur novi societatis humanae cives, qui per Spiritus Sancti gratiam, ad Populum Dei saeculorum decursu perpetuandum, baptismo in filios Dei constituuntur. In hac velut Ecclesia domestica parentes verbo et exemplo sint pro filiis suis primi fidei praecones, et vocationem unicuique propriam, sacram vero peculiari cura, foveant oportet.

Tot ac tantis salutaribus mediis muniti, christifideles omnes, cuiusvis conditionis ac status, ad perfectionem sanctitatis qua Pater ipse perfectus est, sua quisque via, a Domino vocantur.

§ 12

[E] Populus Dei sanctus[14a] de munere quoque prophetico Christi participat, vivum Eius testimonium maxime per vitam fidei ac caritatis diffundendo, et Deo hostiam laudis offerendo, fructum labiorum confitentium nomini Eius. (cf. Hebr 13,15) Universitas fidelium, qui unctionem habent a Sancto (cf. I Io 2,20 et 27), in credendo falli nequit, atque hanc suam peculiarem proprietatem mediante supernaturali sensu fidei totius populi manifestat, cum «ab Episcopis usque ad extremos laicos fideles»[22] universalem suum consensum de rebus fidei et morum exhibet. Illo enim sensu fidei, qui a Spiritu veritatis excitatur et sustentatur, Populus Dei sub ductu sacri magisterii, cui fideliter obsequens, iam non verbum hominum, sed vere accipit verbum Dei (cf. I Thess 2,13), «semel traditae sanctis fidei» (Iud 1,3), indefectibiliter adhaeret, recto iudicio in eam profundius penetrat eamque in vita plenius applicat.

§ 12b

[E] Idem praeterea Spiritus Sanctus non tantum per sacramenta et ministeria Populum Dei sanctificat et ducit eumque virtutibus ornat, sed dona sua «dividens singulis prout vult» (I Cor 12,11), inter omnis ordinis fideles distribuit gratias quoque speciales, quibus illos aptos et promptos reddit ad suscipienda varia opera vel officia, pro renovatione et ampliore aedificatione Ecclesiae proficua, secundum illud: «Unicuique ... datur manifestatio Spiritus ad utilitatem». (I Cor 12,7) Quae charismata, sive clarissima, sive etiam simpliciora et latius diffusa, cum sint necessitatibus Ecclesiae apprime accommodata et utilia, cum gratiarum actione ac consolatione accipienda sunt. Dona autem extraordinaria non sunt temere expetenda, neque praesumptuose ab eis sperandi sunt fructus operarum apostolicarum: sed iudicium de eorum genuinitate et ordinato exercitio ad eos pertinet, qui in Ecclesia praesunt, et quibus speciatim competit, non Spiritum exstinguere, sed omnia probare et quod bonum est tenere. (cf. I Thess 5,12 et 19-21)

§ 13

[E] Ad novum Populum Dei cuncti vocantur homines. Quapropter hic populus, unus et unicus manens, ad universum mundum et per omnia saecula est dilatandus, ut propositum adimpleatur voluntatis Dei, qui naturam humanam in initio condidit unam, filiosque suos, qui erant dispersi, in unum tandem congregare statuit. (cf. Io 11,52) Ad hoc enim misit Deus Filium suum, quem constituit heredem universorum (cf. Hebr 1,2), ut sit Magister, Rex et Sacerdos omnium, Caput novi et universalis populi filiorum Dei. Ad hoc tandem misit Deus Spiritum Filii sui, Dominum et Vivificantem, qui pro tota Ecclesia et singulis universisque credentibus principium est congregationis et unitatis in doctrina Apostolorum et communione, fractione panis et orationibus. (cf. Act 2,42, gr.)

[E] Omnibus itaque gentibus terrae inest unus Populus Dei, cum ex omnibus gentibus mutuetur suos cives, Regni quidem indolis non terrestris, sed coelestis. Cuncti enim per orbem sparsi fideles cum ceteris in Spiritu Sancto communicant, et sic «qui Romae sedet, Indos scit membrum suum esse»[23].

§ 13b

[E] Cum autem Regnum Christi de hoc mundo non sit (cf. Io 18,36), ideo Ecclesia seu Populus Dei, hoc Regnum inducens, nihil bono temporali cuiusvis populi subtrahit, sed e contra facultates et copias moresque populorum, quantum bona sunt, fovet et assumit, assumendo vero purificat, roborat et elevat. Memor est enim se cum illo Rege colligere debere, Cui gentes in hereditatem datae sunt (cf. Ps 2,8), et in Cuius civitatem dona et munera adducunt. (cf. Ps 71[72],10; Is 60,4-7; Apoc 21,24) Hic universalitatis character, qui Populum Dei condecorat, ipsius Domini donum est, quo catholica Ecclesia efficaciter et perpetuo tendit ad recapitulandam totam humanitatem cum omnibus bonis eius, sub Capite Christo, in unitate Spiritus Eius.[24]

§ 13c

[E] Vi huius catholicitatis, singulae partes propria dona ceteris partibus et toti Ecclesiae afferunt, ita ut totum et singulae partes augeantur ex omnibus invicem communicantibus et ad plenitudinem in unitate conspirantibus. Inde fit ut Populus Dei non tantum ex diversis populis congregetur, sed etiam in seipso ex variis ordinibus confletur. Adest enim inter membra eius diversitas, sive secundum officia, dum aliqui sacro ministerio in bonum fratrum suorum funguntur, sive secundum condicionem et vitae ordinationem, dum plures in statu religioso, arctiore via ad sanctitatem tendentes, fratres exemplo suo stimulant. Inde etiam in ecclesiastica communione legitime adsunt Ecclesiae particulares, propriis traditionibus fruentes, integro manente primatu Petri Cathedrae, quae universo caritatis coetui praesidet[25], legitimas varietates tuetur et simul invigilat ut particularia, nedum unitati noceant, ei potius inserviant. Inde denique inter diversas Ecclesiae partes vincula intimae communionis quoad divitias spirituales, operarios apostolicos et temporalia subsidia. Ad communicandum enim bona vocantur membra Populi Dei, et de singulis etiam Ecclesiis valent verba Apostoli: «Unusquisque sicut accepit gratiam, in alterutrum illam administrantes, sicut boni dispensatores multiformis gratiae Dei». (I Pt 4,10)

[E] Ad hanc igitur catholicam Populi Dei unitatem, quae pacem universalem praesignat et promovet, omnes vocantur homines, ad eamque variis modis pertinent vel ordinantur sive fideles catholici, sive alii credentes in Christo, sive denique omnes universaliter homines, gratia Dei ad salutem vocati.

§ 14

[E] Ad fideles ergo catholicos imprimis Sancta Synodus animum vertit. Docet autem, Sacra Scriptura et Traditione innixa, Ecclesiam hanc peregrinantem necessariam esse ad salutem. Unus enim Christus est Mediator ac via salutis, qui in Corpore suo, quod est Ecclesia, praesens nobis fit; Ipse autem necessitatem fidei et baptismi expressis verbis inculcando (cf. Mc 16,16; Io 3,5), necessitatem Ecclesiae, in quam homines per baptismum tamquam per ianuam intrant, simul confirmavit. Quare illi homines salvari non possent, qui Ecclesiam Catholicam a Deo per Iesum Christum ut necessariam esse conditam non ignorantes, tamen vel in eam intrare, vel in eadem perseverare noluerint.

§ 14b

[E] Illi plene Ecclesiae societati incorporantur, qui Spiritum Christi habentes, integram eius ordinationem omniaque media salutis in ea instituta accipiunt, et in eiusdem compage visibili cum Christo, eam per Summum Pontificem atque Episcopos regente, iunguntur, vinculis nempe professionis fidei, sacramentorum et ecclesiastici regiminis ac communionis. Non salvatur tamen, licet Ecclesiae incorporetur, qui in caritate non perseverans, in Ecclesiae sinu «corpore» quidem, sed non «corde» remanet.[26] Memores autem sint omnes Ecclesiae filii condicionem suam eximiam non propriis meritis, sed peculiari gratiae Christi esse adscribendam; cui si cogitatione, verbo et opere non respondent, nedum salventur, severius iudicabuntur.[27]

Catechumeni qui, Spiritu Sancto movente, explicita voluntate ut Ecclesiae incorporentur expetunt, hoc ipso voto cum ea coniunguntur; quos iam ut suos dilectione curaque complectitur Mater Ecclesia.

§ 15

[E] Cum illis qui, baptizati, christiano nomine decorantur, integram autem fidem non profitentur vel unitatem communionis sub Successore Petri non servant, Ecclesia semetipsam novit plures ob rationes coniunctam.[28] Sunt enim multi, qui sacram Scripturam ut normam credendi et vivendi in honore habent sincerumque zelum religiosum ostendunt, amanter credunt in Deum Patrem omnipotentem et in Christum, Filium Dei Salvatorem[29], baptismo signantur, quo Christo coniunguntur, imo et alia sacramenta in propriis Ecclesiis vel communitatibus ecclesiasticis agnoscunt et recipiunt. Plures inter illos et episcopatu gaudent, Sacram Eucharistiam celebrant necnon pietatem erga Deiparam Virginem fovent.[30] Accedit orationum aliorumque beneficiorum spiritualium communio; imo vera quaedam in Spiritu Sancto coniunctio, quippe qui donis et gratiis etiam in illis sua virtute sanctificante operatur, et quosdam illorum usque ad sanguinis effusionem roboravit. Ita Spiritus in cunctis Christi discipulis desiderium actionemque suscitat, ut omnes, modo a Christo statuto, in uno grege sub uno Pastore pacifice uniantur.[31] Quod ut obtineat, Ecclesia Mater precari, sperare et agere non desinit, filiosque ad purificationem et renovationem exhortatur, ut signum Christi super faciem Ecclesiae clarius effulgeat.

§ 16

[E] Ii tandem qui Evangelium nondum acceperunt, ad Populum Dei diversis rationibus ordinantur.[32] In primis quidem populus ille cui data fuerunt testamenta et promissa et ex quo Christus ortus est secundum carnem (cf. Rom 9,4-5), populus secundum electionem carissimus propter patres: sine poenitentia enim sunt dona et vocatio Dei. (cf. Rom 11,28-29) Sed propositum salutis et eos amplectitur, qui Creatorem agnoscunt, inter quos imprimis Musulmanos, qui fidem Abrahae se tenere profitentes, nobiscum Deum adorant unicum, misericordem, homines die novissimo iudicaturum. Neque ab aliis, qui in umbris et imaginibus Deum ignotum quaerunt, ab huiusmodi Deus ipse longe est, cum det omnibus vitam et inspirationem et omnia (cf. Act 17,25-28), et Salvator velit omnes homines salvos fieri. (cf. I Tim 2,4) Qui enim Evangelium Christi Eiusque Ecclesiam sine culpa ignorantes, Deum tamen sincero corde quaerunt, Eiusque voluntatem per conscientiae dictamen agnitam, operibus adimplere, sub gratiae influxu, conantur, aeternam salutem consequi possunt.[33] Nec divina Providentia auxilia ad salutem necessaria denegat his qui sine culpa ad expressam agnitionem Dei nondum pervenerunt et rectam vitam non sine divina gratia assequi nituntur. Quidquid enim boni et veri apud illos invenitur, ab Ecclesia tamquam praeparatio evangelica aestimatur[34] et ab Illo datum qui illuminat omnem hominem, ut tandem vitam habeat. At saepius homines, a Maligno decepti, evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et commutaverunt veritatem Dei in mendacium, servientes creaturae magis quam Creatori (cf. Rom 1,21 et 25) vel sine Deo viventes ac morientes in hoc mundo, extremae desperationi exponuntur. Qua propter ad gloriam Dei et salutem istorum omnium promovendam, Ecclesia, memor mandati Domini dicentis: «Praedicate evangelium omni creaturae» (Mc 16,15), missiones fovere sedulo curat.

§ 17

[E] Sicut enim Filius missus est a Patre, et Ipse Apostolos misit (cf. Io 20,21), dicens:

Euntes ergo docete omnes gentes baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, docentes eos servare omnia quaecumque mandavi vobis. Et ecce Ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi. (Mt 28,19-20)
Quod solemne Christi mandatum annuntiandi veritatem salutarem Ecclesia ab Apostolis recepit adimplendum usque ad ultimum terrae. (cf. Act 1,8) Unde sua facit verba Apostoli: «Vae ... mihi est, si non evangelizavero!» (I Cor 9,16), ideoque in mittendis praeconibus indesinenter pergit, usquedum novellae Ecclesiae plene constituantur atque opus evangelizandi et ipsae continuent. A Spiritu Sancto enim ad cooperandum compellitur, ut propositum Dei, qui Christum principium salutis pro universo mundo constituit, effectu compleatur. Praedicando Evangelium, Ecclesia audientes ad fidem confessionemque fidei allicit, ad baptismum disponit, a servitute erroris eripit, eosque Christo incorporat, ut per caritatem in Illum usque ad plenitudinem crescant. Opera autem sua efficit ut quidquid boni in corde menteque hominum vel in propriis ritibus et culturis populorum seminatum invenitur, non tantum non pereat, sed sanetur, elevetur et consummetur ad gloriam Dei, confusionem daemonis et beatitudinem hominis. Cuilibet discipulo Christi onus fidei disseminandae pro parte sua incumbit.[35] Sed si quilibet credentes baptizare potest, sacerdotis tamen est aedificationem Corporis sacrificio eucharistico perficere, adimplendo verba Dei per prophetam:
Ab ortu ... solis usque ad occasum magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, et in omni loco sacrificatur et offertur nomini meo oblatio munda.[36] (Mal 1,11)
Ita autem simul orat et laborat Ecclesia, ut in Populum Dei, Corpus Domini et Templum Spiritus Sancti, totius mundi transeat plenitudo, et in Christo, omnium Capite, reddatur universorum Creatori ac Patri omnis honor et gloria.

Caput III DE CONSTITUTIONE HIERARCHICA ECCLESIAE ET IN SPECIE DE EPISCOPATU

§ 18

[E] [N] Christus Dominus, ad Populum Dei pascendum semperque augendum, in Ecclesia sua varia ministeria instituit, quae ad bonum totius Corporis tendunt. Ministri enim, qui sacra potestate pollent, fratribus suis inserviunt, ut omnes qui de Populo Dei sunt, ideoque vera dignitate christiana gaudent, ad eumdem finem libere et ordinatim conspirantes, ad salutem perveniant.

Haec Sacrosancta Synodus, Concilii Vaticani primi vestigia premens, cum eo docet et declarat Iesum Christum Pastorem aeternum sanctam aedificasse Ecclesiam, missis Apostolis sicut Ipse missus erat a Patre (cf. Io 20,21); quorum successores, videlicet Episcopos, in Ecclesia sua usque ad consummationem saeculi pastores esse voluit. Ut vero Episcopatus ipse unus et indivisus esset, beatum Petrum ceteris Apostolis praeposuit in ipsoque instituit perpetuum ac visibile unitatis fidei et communionis principium et fundamentum.[37] Quam doctrinam de institutione, perpetuitate, vi ac ratione sacri Primatus Romani Pontificis deque eius infallibili Magisterio, Sacra Synodus cunctis fidelibus firmiter credendam rursus proponit, et in eodem incepto pergens, doctrinam de Episcopis, successoribus Apostolorum, qui cum successore Petri, Christi Vicario[38] ac totius Ecclesiae visibili Capite, domum Dei viventis regunt, coram omnibus profiteri et declarare constituit.

§ 19

[E] Dominus Iesus, precibus ad Patrem fusis, vocans ad Se quos voluit Ipse, duodecim constituit ut essent cum Illo et ut mitteret eos praedicare Regnum Dei (cf. Mc 3,13-19; Mt 10,1-42); quos Apostolos (cf. Lc 6,13) ad modum collegii seu coetus stabilis instituit, cui ex iisdem electum Petrum praefecit. (cf. Io 21,15-17) Eos ad filios Israel primum et ad omnes gentes misit (cf. Rom 1,16), ut suae participes potestatis, omnes populos discipulos Ipsius facerent, eosque sanctificarent et gubernarent (cf. Mt 28,16-20; Mc 16,15; Lc 24,45-48; Io 20,21-23), sicque Ecclesiam propagarent, eamque sub ductu Domini ministrando pascerent, omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi. (cf. Mt 28,20) In qua missione die Pentecostes plene confirmati sunt (cf. Act 2,1-36) secundum promissum Domini:

Accipietis virtutem supervenientis Spiritus Sancti in vos, et eritis mihi testes in Hierusalem et in omni Iudaea et Samaria, et usque ad ultimum terrae. (Act 1,8)
Apostoli autem praedicando ubique Evangelium (cf. Mc 16,20), ab audientibus Spiritu Sancto operante acceptum, Ecclesiam congregant universalem, quam Dominus in Apostolis condidit et supra beatum Petrum, eorum principem, aedificavit, ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Iesu.[39] (cf. Apoc 21,14; Mt 16,18; Eph 2,20)

§ 20

[E] Missio illa divina, a Christo Apostolis concredita, ad finem saeculi erit duratura (cf. Mt 28,20), cum Evangelium, ab eis tradendum, sit in omne tempus pro Ecclesia totius vitae principium. Quapropter Apostoli, in hac societate hierarchice ordinata, de instituendis successoribus curam egerunt.

Non solum enim varios adiutores in ministerio habuerunt[40], sed ut missio ipsis concredita post eorum mortem continuaretur, cooperatoribus suis immediatis, quasi per modum testamenti, demandaverunt munus perficiendi et confirmandi opus ab ipsis inceptum[41], commendantes illis ut attenderent universo gregi, in quo Spiritus Sanctus eos posuit pascere Ecclesiam Dei. (cf. Act 20,28) Constituerunt itaque huius modi viros ac deinceps ordinationem dederunt, ut cum decessissent, ministerium eorum alii viri probati exciperent.[42] Inter varia illa ministeria quae inde a primis temporibus in Ecclesia exercentur, teste traditione, praecipuum locum tenet munus illorum qui, in episcopatum constituti, per successionem ab initio decurrentem[43], apostolici seminis traduces habent.[44] Ita, ut testatur S. Irenaeus, per eos qui ab Apostolis instituti sunt Episcopi et successores eorum usque ad nos, traditio apostolica in toto mundo manifestatur[45] et custoditur.[46]

§ 20b

[E] Episcopi igitur communitatis ministerium cum adiutoribus presbyteris et diaconis susceperunt[47], loco Dei praesidentes gregi[48], cuius sunt pastores, ut doctrinae magistri, sacri cultus sacerdotes, gubernationis ministri.[49] Sicut autem permanet munus a Domino singulariter Petro, primo Apostolorum, concessum et successoribus eius transmittendum, ita permanet munus Apostolorum pascendi Ecclesiam, ab ordine sacrato Episcoporum iugiter exercendum.[50] Proinde docet Sacra Synodus Episcopos ex divina institutione in locum Apostolorum successisse[51], tamquam Ecclesiae pastores, quos qui audit, Christum audit, qui vero spernit, Christum spernit et Eum qui Christum misit.[52] (cf. Lc 10,16)

§ 21

[E] In Episcopis igitur, quibus presbyteri assistunt, adest in medio credentium Dominus Iesus Christus, Pontifex Summus. Sedens enim ad dexteram Dei Patris, non deest a suorum congregatione pontificum[53], sed imprimis per eorum eximium servitium verbum Dei omnibus gentibus praedicat et credentibus sacramenta fidei continuo administrat, eorum paterno munere (cf. I Cor 4,15) nova membra Corpori suo regeneratione superna incorporat, eorum denique sapientia et prudentia Populum Novi Testamenti in sua ad aeternam beatitudinem peregrinatione dirigit et ordinat. Hi pastores ad pascendum dominicum gregem electi, ministri Christi sunt et dispensatores mysteriorum Dei (cf. I Cor 4,1), quibus concredita est testificatio Evangelii gratiae Dei (cf. Rom 15,16; Act 20,24), atque ministratio Spiritus et iustitiae in gloria. (cf. II Cor 3,8-9)

§ 21b

[E] Ad tanta munera explenda, Apostoli speciali effusione supervenientis Spiritus Sancti a Christo ditati sunt (cf. Act 1,8; 2,4; Io 20,22-23), et ipsi adiutoribus suis per impositionem manuum donum spirituale tradiderunt (cf. I Tim 4,14; II Tim 1,6-7), quod usque ad nos in episcopali consecratione transmissum est.[54] Docet autem Sancta Synodus episcopali consecratione plenitudinem conferri sacramenti Ordinis, quae nimirum et liturgica Ecclesiae consuetudine et voce Sanctorum Patrum summum sacerdotium, sacri ministerii summa nuncupatur.[55] Episcopalis autem consecratio, cum munere sanctificandi, munera quoque confert docendi et regendi, quae tamen natura sua nonnisi in hierarchica communione cum Collegii Capite et membris exerceri possunt. Ex traditione enim, quae praesertim liturgicis ritibus et Ecclesiae tum Orientis tum Occidentis usu declaratur, perspicuum est manuum impositione et verbis consecrationis gratiam Spiritus Sancti ita conferri[56] et sacrum characterem ita imprimi[57], ut Episcopi, eminenti ac adspectabili modo, ipsius Christi Magistri, Pastoris et Pontificis partes sustineant et in Eius persona agant.[58] Episcoporum est per Sacramentum Ordinis novos electos in corpus episcopale assumere.

§ 22

[E] Sicut, statuente Domino, sanctus Petrus et ceteri Apostoli unum Collegium apostolicum constituunt, pari ratione Romanus Pontifex, successor Petri, et Episcopi, successores Apostolorum, inter se coniunguntur. Iam perantiqua disciplina, qua Episcopi in universo orbe constituti ad invicem et cum Romano Episcopo communicabant in vinculo unitatis, caritatis et pacis[59], itemque concilia coadunata[60], per quae et altiora quaeque in commune statuerentur[61], sententia multorum consilio ponderata[62], ordinis episcopalis indolem et rationem collegialem significant; quam manifeste comprobant Concilia Oecumenica decursu saeculorum celebrata. Eandem vero iam innuit ipse usus, antiquitus inductus, plures advocandi Episcopos qui in novo electo ad summi sacerdotii ministerium elevando partem haberent. Membrum Corporis episcopalis aliquis constituitur vi sacramentalis consecrationis et hierarchica communione cum Collegii Capite atque membris.

§ 22b

[E] Collegium autem seu corpus Episcoporum auctoritatem non habet, nisi simul cum Pontifice Romano, successore Petri, ut capite eius intellegatur, huiusque integre manente potestate Primatus in omnes sive Pastores sive fideles. Romanus enim Pontifex habet in Ecclesiam, vi muneris sui, Vicarii scilicet Christi et totius Ecclesiae Pastoris, plenam, supremam et universalem potestatem, quam semper libere exercere valet. Ordo autem Episcoporum, qui collegio Apostolorum in magisterio et regimine pastorali succedit, immo in quo corpus apostolicum continuo perseverat, una cum Capite suo Romano Pontifice, et numquam sine hoc Capite, subiectum quoque supremae ac plenae potestatis in universam Ecclesiam exsistit[63], quae quidem potestas nonnisi consentiente Romano Pontifice exerceri potest. Dominus unum Simonem ut petram et clavigerum Ecclesiae posuit (cf. Mt 16,18-19), eumque Pastorem totius sui gregis constituit (cf. Io 21,15ss.); illud autem ligandi ac solvendi munus, quod Petro datum est (cf. Mt 16,19), collegio quoque Apostolorum, suo Capiti coniuncto, tributum esse constat.[64] (cf. Mt 18,18; 28,16-20) Collegium hoc quatenus ex multis compositum, varietatem et universalitatem Populi Dei, quatenus vero sub uno capite collectum unitatem gregis Christi exprimit. In ipso, Episcopi, primatum et principatum Capitis sui fideliter servantes, propria potestate in bonum fidelium suorum, immo totius Ecclesiae funguntur, Spiritu Sancto organicam structuram eiusque concordiam continenter roborante. Suprema in universam Ecclesiam potestas, qua istud Collegium pollet, sollemni modo in Concilio Oecumenico exercetur. Concilium Oecumenicum numquam datur, quod a Successore Petri non sit ut tale confirmatum vel saltem receptum; et Romani Pontificis praerogativa est haec Concilia convocare, iisdem praesidere et eadem confirmare.[65] Eadem potestas collegialis una cum Papa exerceri potest ab Episcopis in orbe terrarum degentibus, dummodo Caput Collegii eos ad actionem collegialem vocet, vel saltem Episcoporum dispersorum unitam actionem approbet vel libere recipiat, ita ut verus actus collegialis efficiatur.

§ 23

[E] Collegialis unio etiam in mutuis relationibus singulorum Episcoporum cum particularibus Ecclesiis Ecclesiaque universali apparet. Romanus Pontifex, ut successor Petri, est unitatis, tum Episcoporum tum fidelium multitudinis, perpetuum ac visibile principium et fundamentum.[66] Episcopi autem singuli visibile principium et fundamentum sunt unitatis in suis Ecclesiis particularibus[67], ad imaginem Ecclesiae universalis formatis in quibus et ex quibus una et unica Ecclesia catholica exsistit.[68] Qua de causa singuli Episcopi suam Ecclesiam, omnes autem simul cum Papa totam Ecclesiam repraesentant in vinculo pacis, amoris et unitatis.

§ 23b

[E] Singuli Episcopi, qui particularibus Ecclesiis praeficiuntur, regimen suum pastorale super portionem Populi Dei sibi commissam, non super alias Ecclesias neque super Ecclesiam universalem exercent. Sed qua membra Collegii episcopalis et legitimi Apostolorum successores singuli ea sollicitudine pro universa Ecclesia ex Christi institutione et praecepto tenentur[69], quae, etiamsi per actum iurisdictionis non exerceatur, summopere tamen confert ad Ecclesiae universalis emolumentum. Debent enim omnes Episcopi promovere et tueri unitatem fidei et disciplinam cunctae Ecclesiae communem, fideles edocere ad amorem totius Corporis mystici Christi, praesertim membrorum pauperum, dolentium et eorum qui persecutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam (cf. Mt 5,10), tandem promovere omnem actuositatem quae toti Ecclesiae communis est, praesertim ut fides incrementum capiat et lux plenae veritatis omnibus hominibus oriatur. Ceterum hoc sanctum est quod, bene regendo propriam Ecclesiam ut portionem Ecclesiae universalis, ipsi efficaciter conferunt ad bonum totius mystici Corporis, quod est etiam corpus Ecclesiarum.[70]

§ 23c

[E] Cura Evangelium ubique terrarum annuntiandi ad corpus Pastorum pertinet, quibus omnibus in commune Christus mandatum dedit imponendo commune officium, ut iam Papa Coelestinus Patribus Ephesini Concilii commendavit.[71] Unde singuli Episcopi, quantum propria eorum perfunctio muneris sinit, in laborum societatem venire tenentur inter se et cum successore Petri, cui grande munus christiani nominis propagandi singulari modo demandatum est.[72] Quare missionibus tum messis operarios, tum etiam auxilia spiritualia et materialia, tam per se directe, quam suscitando fidelium ardentem cooperationem, suppeditare omnibus viribus debent. Episcopi denique, in universali caritatis societate, fraternum adiutorium aliis Ecclesiis, praesertim finitimis et egentioribus, secundum venerandum antiquitatis exemplum, libenter praebeant.

§ 23d

[E] Divina autem Providentia factum est ut variae variis in locis ab Apostolis eorumque successoribus institutae Ecclesiae decursu temporum in plures coaluerint coetus, organice coniunctos, qui, salva fidei unitate et unica divina constitutione universalis Ecclesiae, gaudent propria disciplina, proprio liturgico usu, theologico spiritualique patrimonio. Inter quas aliquae, notatim antiquae Patriarchales Ecclesiae, veluti matrices fidei, alias pepererunt quasi filias, quibuscum arctiore vinculo caritatis in vita sacramentali atque in mutua iurium et officiorum reverentia ad nostra usque tempora connectuntur.[73] Quae Ecclesiarum localium in unum conspirans varietas indivisae Ecclesiae catholicitatem luculentius demonstrat. Simili ratione Coetus Episcopales hodie multiplicem atque fecundam opem conferre possunt, ut collegialis affectus ad concretam applicationem perducatur.

§ 24

[E] Episcopi, utpote Apostolorum successores, a Domino, cui omnis potestas in coelo et in terra data est, missionem accipiunt docendi omnes gentes et praedicandi Evangelium omni creaturae, ut homines universi, per fidem, baptismum et adimpletionem mandatorum salutem consequantur. (cf. Mt 28,18-20; Mc 16,15-16; Act 26,17s.) Ad hanc missionem implendam, Christus Dominus Spiritum Sanctum promisit Apostolis et die Pentecostes e coelo misit, cuius virtute testes Eidem essent usque ad ultimum terrae, coram gentibus et populis et regibus. (cf. Act 1,8-2,1ss.; 9,15) Munus autem illud quod Dominus pastoribus populi sui commisit, verum est servitium quod in sacris Litteris «diaconia» seu ministerium significanter nuncupatur. (cf. Act 1,17 et 25; 21,19; Rom 11,13; I Tim 1,12)

[E] Episcoporum autem missio canonica fieri potest per legitimas consuetudines, a suprema et universali potestate Ecclesiae non revocatas, vel per leges ab eadem auctoritate latas aut agnitas, vel directe per ipsum Successorem Petri; quo renuente seu communionem Apostolicam denegante, Episcopi in officium assumi nequeunt.[74]

§ 25

[E] Inter praecipua Episcoporum munera eminet praedicatio Evangelii.[75] Episcopi enim sunt fidei praecones, qui novos discipulos ad Christum adducunt, et doctores authentici seu auctoritate Christi praediti, qui populo sibi commisso fidem credendam et moribus applicandam praedicant, et sub lumine Sancti Spiritus illustrant, ex thesauro Revelationis nova et vetera proferentes (cf. Mt 13,52), eam fructificare faciunt erroresque gregi suo, impendentes vigilanter arcent. (cf. II Tim 4,1-4) Episcopi in communione cum Romano Pontifice docentes ab omnibus tamquam divinae et catholicae veritatis testes venerandi sunt; fideles autem in sui Episcopi sententiam de fide et moribus nomine Christi prolatam concurrere, eique religioso animi obsequio adhaerere debent. Hoc vero religiosum voluntatis et intellectus obsequium singulari ratione praestandum est Romani Pontificis authentico magisterio etiam cum non ex cathedra loquitur; ita nempe ut magisterium eius supremum reverenter agnoscatur, et sententiis ab eo prolatis sincere adhaereatur, iuxta mentem et voluntatem manifestatam ipsius, quae se prodit praecipue sive indole documentorum, sive ex frequenti propositione eiusdem doctrinae, sive ex dicendi ratione.

§ 25b

[E] Licet singuli praesules infallibilitatis praerogativa non polleant, quando tamen, etiam per orbem dispersi, sed communionis nexum inter se et cum Successore Petri servantes, authentice res fidei et morum docentes in unam sententiam tamquam definitive tenendam conveniunt, doctrinam Christi infallibiliter enuntiant.[76] Quod adhuc manifestius habetur quando, in Concilio Oecumenico coadunati, pro universa Ecclesia fidei et morum doctores et iudices sunt, quorum definitionibus fidei obsequio est adhaerendum.[77]

§ 25c

[E] Haec autem infallibilitas, qua Divinus Redemptor Ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit, tantum patet quantum divinae Revelationis patet depositum, sancte custodiendum et fideliter exponendum. Qua quidem infallibilitate Romanus Pontifex, Collegii Episcoporum Caput, vi muneris sui gaudet, quando, ut supremus omnium christifidelium pastor et doctor, qui fratres suos in fide confirmat (cf. Lc 22,32), doctrinam de fide vel moribus definitivo actu proclamat.[78] Quare definitiones eius ex sese, et non ex consensu Ecclesiae, irreformabiles merito dicuntur, quippe quae sub assistentia Spiritus Sancti, ipsi in beato Petro promissa, prolatae sint, ideoque nulla indigeant aliorum approbatione, nec ullam ad aliud iudicium appellationem patiantur. Tunc enim Romanus Pontifex non ut persona privata sententiam profert, sed ut universalis Ecclesiae magister supremus, in quo charisma infallibilitatis ipsius Ecclesiae singulariter inest, doctrinam fidei catholicae exponit vel tuetur.[79] Infallibilitas Ecclesiae promissa in corpore Episcoporum quoque inest, quando supremum magisterium cum Petri Successore exercet. Istis autem definitionibus assensus Ecclesiae numquam deesse potest propter actionem eiusdem Spiritus Sancti, qua universus Christi grex in unitate fidei servatur et proficit.[80]

§ 25d

[E] Cum autem sive Romanus Pontifex sive Corpus Episcoporum cum eo sententiam definiunt, eam proferunt secundum ipsam Revelationem, cui omnes stare et conformari tenentur et quae scripta vel tradita per legitimam Episcoporum successionem et imprimis ipsius Romani Pontificis cura integre transmittitur, atque praelucente Spiritu veritatis in Ecclesia sancte servatur et fideliter exponitur.[81] Ad quam rite indagandam et apte enuntiandam, Romanus Pontifex et Episcopi, pro officio suo et rei gravitate, per media apta, sedulo operam navant[82]; novam vero revelationem publicam tamquam ad divinum fidei depositum pertinentem non accipiunt.[83]

§ 26

[E] Episcopus, plenitudine sacramenti Ordinis insignitus, est «oeconomus gratiae supremi sacerdotii»[84], praesertim in Eucharistia, quam ipse offert vel offerri curat[85], et qua continuo vivit et crescit Ecclesia. Haec Christi Ecclesia vere adest in omnibus legitimis fidelium congregationibus localibus, quae, pastoribus suis adhaerentes, et ipsae in Novo Testamento ecclesiae vocantur.[86] Hae sunt enim loco suo Populus novus a Deo vocatus, in Spiritu Sancto et in plenitudine multa. (cf. I Thess 1,5) In eis praedicatione Evangelii Christi congregantur fideles et celebratur mysterium Coenae Domini, «ut per escam et sanguinem Domini corporis fraternitas cuncta copuletur»[87] In quavis altaris communitate, sub Episcopi sacro ministerio[88], exhibetur symbolum illius caritatis et «unitatis Corporis mystici, sine qua non potest esse salus»[89]. In his communitatibus, licet saepe exiguis et pauperibus, vel in dispersione degentibus, praesens est Christus, cuius virtute consociatur una, sancta, catholica et apostolica Ecclesia.[90] Etenim «non aliud agit participatio corporis et sanguinis Christi, quam ut in id quod sumimus transeamus»[91].

Omnis autem legitima Eucharistiae celebratio dirigitur ab Episcopo, cui officium commissum est cultum christianae religionis Divinae Maiestati deferendi atque administrandi secundum praecepta Domini et Ecclesiae leges, eius particulari iudicio ulterius pro dioecesi determinatas.

§ 26b

[E] Ita Episcopi, orando pro populo et laborando, de plenitudine sanctitatis Christi multiformiter et abundanter effundunt. Per ministerium verbi virtutem Dei credentibus in salutem communicant (cf. Rom 1,16), et per sacramenta, quorum regularem et fructuosam distributionem auctoritate sua ordinant[92], fideles sanctificant. Ipsi regunt collationem baptismi, quo regalis sacerdotii Christi participatio conceditur. Ipsi sunt ministri originarii confirmationis, dispensatores sacrorum ordinum et moderatores disciplinae poenitentialis, atque populos suos, ut in liturgia et praesertim in sacro Missae sacrificio partes suas fide et reverentia impleant, sollicite exhortantur et instruunt. Eis denique quibus praesunt exemplo conversationis suae proficere debent, mores suos ab omni malo temperantes et quantum poterint, Domino adiuvante, ad bonum commutando, ut ad vitam, una cum grege sibi credito, perveniant sempiternam.[93]

§ 27

[E] Episcopi Ecclesias particulares sibi commissas ut vicarii et legati Christi regunt[94], consiliis, suasionibus, exemplis, verum etiam auctoritate et sacra potestate, qua quidem nonnisi ad gregem suum in veritate et sanctitate aedificandum utuntur, memores quod qui maior est fiat sicut minor et qui praecessor est sicut ministrator. (cf. Lc 22,26-27) Haec potestas qua, nomine Christi personaliter funguntur, est propria, ordinaria et immediata, licet a suprema Ecclesiae auctoritate exercitium eiusdem ultimatim regatur et certis limitibus, intuitu utilitatis Ecclesiae vel fidelium, circumscribi possit. Vi huius potestatis Episcopi sacrum ius et coram Domino officium habent in suos subditos leges ferendi, iudicium faciendi, atque omnia, quae ad cultus apostolatusque ordinem pertinent, moderandi.

§ 27b

[E] Ipsis munus pastorale seu habitualis et cotidiana cura ovium suarum plene committitur, neque vicarii Romanorum Pontificum putandi sunt, quia potestatem gerunt sibi propriam verissimeque populorum quos regunt, Antistites dicuntur.[95] Eorum itaque potestas a suprema et universali potestate non eliditur, sed e contra asseritur, roboratur et vindicatur[96], Spiritu Sancto constitutam a Christo Domino in sua Ecclesia regiminis formam indefectibiliter servante.

§ 27c

[E] Episcopus, missus a Patrefamilias ad gubernandam familiam suam, ante oculos teneat exemplum Boni Pastoris, qui venit non ministrari sed ministrare (cf. Mt 20,28; Mc 10,45) et animam suam pro ovibus ponere. (cf. Io 10,11) Assumptus ex hominibus et circumdatus infirmitate, condolere potest iis qui ignorant et errant. (cf. Hebr 5,1-2) Subditos, quos ut veros filios suos fovet et ad alacriter secum cooperandum exhortatur, audire ne renuat. Pro animabus eorum rationem redditurus Deo (cf. Hebr 13,17) oratione, praedicatione omnibusque operibus caritatis curam habeat tum eorumdem, tum etiam illorum qui de uno grege nondum sunt, quos in Domino commendatos sibi habeat. Ipse, cum sicut Paulus Apostolus cunctis debitor sit, promptus sit omnibus evangelizare (cf. Rom 1,14-15), fidelesque suos ad operositatem apostolicam et missionalem exhortari. Fideles autem Episcopo adhaerere debent sicut Ecclesia Iesu Christo, et sicut Iesus Christus Patri, ut omnia per unitatem consentiant[97], et abundent in gloriam Dei. (cf. II Cor 4,15)

§ 28

[E] Christus, quem Pater sanctificavit et misit in mundum (cf. Io 10,36), consecrationis missionisque suae per Apostolos suos, eorum successores, videlicet Episcopos participes effecit[98], qui munus ministerii sui, vario gradu, variis subiectis in Ecclesia legitime tradiderunt. Sic ministerium ecclesiasticum divinitus institutum diversis ordinibus exercetur ab illis qui iam ab antiquo Episcopi, Presbyteri, Diaconi vocantur.[99] Presbyteri, quamvis pontificatus apicem non habeant et in exercenda sua potestate ab Episcopis pendeant, cum eis tamen sacerdotali honore coniuncti sunt[100] et vi sacramenti Ordinis[101], ad imaginem Christi, summi atque aeterni Sacerdotis (cf. Hebr 5,1-10; 7,24; 9,11-28), ad Evangelium praedicandum fidelesque pascendos et ad divinum cultum celebrandum consecrantur, ut veri sacerdotes Novi Testamenti[102]. Muneris unici Mediatoris Christi (cf. I Tim 2,5) participes in suo gradu ministerii, omnibus verbum divinum annuntiant. Suum vero munus sacrum maxime exercent in eucharistico cultu vel synaxi, qua in persona Christi agentes[103] Eiusque mysterium proclamantes, vota fidelium sacrificio Capitis ipsorum coniungunt, et unicum sacrificium Novi Testamenti, Christi scilicet Sese Patri immaculatam hostiam semel offerentis (cf. Hebr 9,11-28), in sacrificio Missae usque ad adventum Domini (cf. I Cor 11,26) repraesentant et applicant.[104] Pro fidelibus autem poenitentibus vel aegrotantibus ministerio reconciliationis et alleviationis summe funguntur, et necessitates ac preces fidelium ad Deum Patrem afferunt. (cf. Hebr 5,1-3) Munus Christi Pastoris et Capitis pro sua parte auctoritatis exercentes[105], familiam Dei, ut fraternitatem in unum animatam[106], colligunt et per Christum in Spiritu ad Deum Patrem adducunt. In medio gregis Eum in spiritu et veritate adorant. (cf. Io 4,24) In verbo demum et doctrina laborant (cf. I Tim 5,17), credentes quod in lege Domini meditantes legerint, docentes quod crediderint, imitantes quod docuerint.[107]

§ 28b

[E] Presbyteri, ordinis Episcopalis providi cooperatores[108] eiusque adiutorium et organum, ad Populo Dei inserviendum vocati, unum presbyterium[109] cum suo Episcopo constituunt, diversis quidem officiis mancipatum. In singulis localibus fidelium congregationibus Episcopum, quocum fidenti et magno animo consociantur, quodammodo praesentem reddunt eiusque munera et sollicitudinem pro parte suscipiunt et cura cotidiana exercent. Qui sub auctoritate Episcopi portionem gregis dominici sibi addictam sanctificant et regunt, Ecclesiam universalem in suo loco visibilem faciunt et in aedificando toto corpore Christi (cf. Eph 4,12) validam opem afferunt. Ad bonum autem filiorum Dei semper intenti operam suam ad opus pastorale totius dioeceseos, immo totius Ecclesiae conferre studeant. Propter hanc in sacerdotio et missione participationem Presbyteri Episcopum vere ut patrem suum agnoscant eique reverenter oboediant. Episcopus vero Sacerdotes cooperatores suos ut filios et amicos consideret, sicut Christus discipulos suos iam non servos, sed amicos vocat. (cf. Io 15,15) Corpori igitur Episcoporum, ratione Ordinis et ministerii, omnes Sacerdotes, tum dioecesani tum religiosi coaptantur et bono totius Ecclesiae pro sua vocatione et gratia inserviunt.

Vi communis sacrae ordinationis et missionis Presbyteri omnes inter se intima fraternitate nectuntur, quae sponte ac libenter sese manifestet in mutuo auxilio, tam spirituali quam materiali, tam pastorali quam personali, in conventibus et communione vitae, laboris et caritatis.

§ 28c

[E] Fidelium vero, quos spiritualiter baptismate et doctrina genuerunt (cf. I Cor 4,15; I Pt 1,23), curam tamquam patres in Christo agant. Forma facti gregis ex animo (cf. I Pt 5,3) suae communitati locali ita praesint et inserviant, ut ista digne vocari possit illo nomine, quo unus et totus Populus Dei insignitur, Ecclesiae scilicet Dei. (cf. I Cor 1,2; II Cor 1,1; et passim) Memores sint se sua cotidiana conversatione et sollicitudine fidelibus et infidelibus, catholicis et non catholicis, faciem ministerii vere sacerdotalis et pastoralis exhibere, omnibusque testimonium veritatis et vitae reddere debere, et ut boni pastores illos quoque quaerere (cf. Lc 15,4-7), qui baptizati quidem in Ecclesia catholica a praxi sacramentorum, vel imo a fide defecerunt.

[E] Quia genus humanum hodie magis magisque in unitatem civilem, oeconomicam et socialem coalescit, eo magis oportet ut Sacerdotes, coniuncta cura et ope sub ductu Episcoporum et Summi Pontificis, omnem rationem dispersionis elidant, ut in unitatem familiae Dei totum genus humanum adducatur.

§ 29

[E] In gradu inferiori hierarchiae sistunt Diaconi, quibus «non ad sacerdotium, sed ad ministerium» manus imponuntur.[110] Gratia etenim sacramentali roborati, in diaconia liturgiae, verbi et caritatis Populo Dei, in communione cum Episcopo eiusque presbyterio, inserviunt. Diaconi est, prout ei a competenti auctoritate assignatum fuerit, solemniter baptismum administrare, Eucharistiam servare et distribuere, matrimonio Ecclesiae nomine adsistere et benedicere, Viaticum moribundis deferre, fidelibus sacram legere Scripturam, populum instruere et exhortari, fidelium cultui et orationi praesidere, sacramentalia ministrare, ritui funeris ac sepulturae praeesse. Caritatis et administrationis officiis dediti, meminerint Diaconi moniti Beati Polycarpi: «Misericordes, seduli, incedentes iuxta veritatem Domini, qui omnium minister factus est»[111].

§ 29b

[E] Cum vero haec munera, ad vitam Ecclesiae summopere necessaria, in disciplina Ecclesiae latinae hodie vigenti in pluribus regionibus adimpleri difficulter possint, Diaconatus in futurum tamquam proprius ac permanens gradus hierarchiae restitui poterit. Ad competentes autem varii generis territoriales Episcoporum coetus, approbante ipso Summo Pontifice, spectat decernere, utrum et ubinam pro cura animarum huiusmodi diaconos institui opportunum sit. De consensu Romani Pontificis hic diaconatus viris maturioris aetatis etiam in matrimonio viventibus conferri poterit, necnon iuvenibus idoneis, pro quibus tamen lex coelibatus firma remanere debet.

[Nota explicativa praevia :re Caput III]

Caput IV DE LAICIS

§ 30

[E] Sancta Synodus, muneribus Hierarchiae declaratis, libenter animum advertit statui illorum christifidelium qui laici nuncupantur. Quodsi omnia quae de Populo Dei dicta sunt, ad laicos, religiosos et clericos aequaliter diriguntur, laicis tamen, viris et mulieribus, ratione condicionis et missionis, quaedam particulariter pertinent, quorum fundamenta ob specialia rerum adiuncta nostri temporis magis expendenda sunt. Pastores enim sacri probe norunt quantum laici ad bonum totius Ecclesiae conferant. Sciunt enim Pastores se a Christo non esse institutos, ut totam missionem salvificam Ecclesiae versus mundum in se solos suscipiant, sed praeclarum munus suum esse ita pascere fideles eorumque ministrationes et charismata ita recognoscere, ut cuncti suo modo ad commune opus unanimiter cooperentur. Oportet enim, ut omnes

veritatem ... facientes in caritate crescamus in illo per omnia, qui est caput Christus, ex quo totum corpus compactum et connexum per omnem iuncturam subministrationis, secundum operationem in mensuram uniuscuiusque membri, augmentum corporis facit in aedificationem sui in caritate. (Eph 4,15-16)

§ 31

[E] Nomine laicorum hic intelleguntur omnes christifideles praeter membra ordinis sacri et status religiosi in Ecclesia sanciti, christifideles scilicet qui, utpote baptismate Christo concorporati, in Populum Dei constituti, et de munere Christi sacerdotali, prophetico et regali suo modo participes facti, pro parte sua missionem totius populi christiani in Ecclesia et in mundo exercent.

[E] Laicis indoles saecularis propria et peculiaris est. Membra enim ordinis sacri, quamquam aliquando in saecularibus versari possunt, etiam saecularem professionem exercendo, ratione suae particularis vocationis praecipue et ex professo ad sacrum ministerium ordinantur, dum religiosi suo statu praeclarum et eximium testimonium reddunt, mundum transfigurari Deoque offerri non posse sine spiritu beatitudinum. Laicorum est, ex vocatione propria, res temporales gerendo et secundum Deum ordinando, regnum Dei quaerere. In saeculo vivunt, scilicet in omnibus et singulis mundi officiis et operibus et in ordinariis vitae familiaris et socialis condicionibus, quibus eorum existentia quasi contexitur. Ibi a Deo vocantur, ut suum proprium munus exercendo, spiritu evangelico ducti, fermenti instar ad mundi sanctificationem velut ab intra conferant, sicque praeprimis testimonio vitae suae, fide, spe et caritate fulgentes, Christum aliis manifestent. Ad illos ergo peculiari modo spectat res temporales omnes, quibus arcte coniunguntur, ita illuminare et ordinare, ut secundum Christum iugiter fiant et crescant et sint in laudem Creatoris et Redemptoris.

§ 32

[E] Ecclesia sancta, ex divina institutione, mira varietate ordinatur et regitur.

Sicut enim in uno corpore multa membra habemus, omnia autem membra non eundem actum habent, ita multi unum corpus sumus in Christo, singuli autem alter alterius membra. (Rom 12,4-5)

Unus est ergo Populus Dei electus: «unus Dominus, una fides, unum baptisma» (Eph 4,5); communis dignitas membrorum ex eorum in Christo regeneratione, communis filiorum gratia, communis ad perfectionem vocatio, una salus, una spes indivisaque caritas. Nulla igitur in Christo et in Ecclesia inaequalitas, spectata stirpe vel natione, condicione sociali vel sexu, quia

non est Iudaeus neque Graecus, non est servus neque liber, non est masculus neque femina. Omnes enim vos unus estis in Christo Iesu. (Gal 3,28 gr.; cf. Col 3,11)

§ 32b

[E] Si igitur in Ecclesia non omnes eadem via incedunt, omnes tamen ad sanctitatem vocantur et coaequalem sortiti sunt fidem in iustitia Dei. (cf. II Pt 1,1) Etsi quidam ex voluntate Christi ut doctores, mysteriorum dispensatores et pastores pro aliis constituuntur, vera tamen inter omnes viget aequalitas quoad dignitatem et actionem cunctis fidelibus communem circa aedificationem Corporis Christi. Distinctio enim quam Dominus posuit inter sacros ministros et reliquum Populum Dei, secumfert coniunctionem, cum Pastores et alii fideles inter se communi necessitudine devinciantur; Ecclesiae Pastores, exemplum Domini secuti, sibi invicem aliisque fidelibus ministrent, hi autem alacriter Pastoribus et doctoribus sociam operam praestent. Sic in varietate omnes testimonium perhibent de mirabili unitate in Corpore Christi: ipsa enim diversitas gratiarum, ministrationum et operationum filios Dei in unum colligit, quia «haec ... omnia operatur unus atque idem Spiritus». (I Cor 12,11)

[E] Laici igitur sicut ex divina dignatione fratrem habent Christum, qui cum sit Dominus omnium, venit tamen non ministrari sed ministrare (cf. Mt 20,28), ita etiam fratres habent eos, qui in sacro ministerio positi, auctoritate Christi docendo et sanctificando et regendo familiam Dei ita pascunt, ut mandatum novum caritatis ab omnibus impleatur. Quocirca pulcherrime dicit S. Augustinus:

Ubi me terret quod vobis sum, ibi me consolatur quod vobiscum sum. Vobis enim sum episcopus, vobiscum sum christianus. Illud est nomen officii, hoc gratiae; illud periculi est, hoc salutis.[112]

§ 33

[E] Laici in Populo Dei congregati et in uno Corpore Christi sub uno capite constituti, quicumque sunt, vocantur, ut tamquam viva membra ad Ecclesiae incrementum eiusque iugem sanctificationem vires suas omnes, beneficio Creatoris et gratia Redemptoris acceptas, conferant.

Apostolatus autem laicorum est participatio ipsius salvificae missionis Ecclesiae, ad quem apostolatum omnes ab ipso Domino per baptismum et confirmationem depuntantur. Sacramentis autem, praesertim sacra Eucharistia, communicatur et alitur illa caritas erga Deum et homines, quae anima est totius apostolatus. Laici autem speciatim ad hoc vocantur, ut praesentem et actuosam reddant Ecclesiam in eis locis et rerum adiunctis, ubi ipsa nonnisi per eos sal terrae evadere potest.[113] Sic omnis laicus, ex ipsis donis sibi collatis, testis simul et vivum instrumentum missionis ipsius Ecclesiae exsistit «secundum mensuram donationis Christi». (Eph 4,7)

§ 33b

[E] Praeter hunc apostolatum, qui ad omnes omnino christifideles spectat, laici insuper diversis modis ad cooperationem magis immediatam cum apostolatu Hierarchiae vocari possunt[114], ad modum illorum virorum ac mulierum, qui Paulum apostolum in Evangelio adiuvabant, multum in Domino laborantes. (cf. Phil 4,3; Rom 16,3ss.) Praeterea aptitudine gaudent, ut ad quaedam munera ecclesiastica, ad finem spiritualem exercenda, ab Hierarchia adsumantur.

Omnibus igitur laicis onus praeclarum incumbit adlaborandi, ut divinum salutis propositum ad universos homines omnium temporum et ubique terrarum magis magisque pertingat. Via proinde eisdem undequaque pateat, ut pro suis viribus temporumque necessitatibus opus salutare Ecclesiae naviter et ipsi participent.

§ 34

[E] Supremus et aeternus Sacerdos Christus Iesus, cum etiam per laicos suum testimonium suumque servitium continuare velit, eos suo Spiritu vivificat indesinenterque impellit ad omne opus bonum et perfectum.

Illis enim, quos vitae et missioni suae intime coniungit, etiam sui muneris sacerdotalis partem tribuit ad cultum spiritualem exercendum, ut glorificetur Deus et salventur homines. Qua de causa laici, utpote Christo dicati et Spiritu Sancto uncti, mirabiliter vocantur et instruuntur, ut uberiores semper fructus Spiritus in ipsis producantur. Omnia enim eorum opera, preces et incepta apostolica, conversatio coniugalis et familiaris, labor quotidianus, animi corporisque relaxatio, si in Spiritu peragantur, imo molestiae vitae si patienter sustineantur, fiunt «spirituales hostiae, acceptabiles Deo per Iesum Christum» (cf. I Pt 2,5), quae in Eucharistiae celebratione, cum dominici Corporis oblatione, Patri piissime offeruntur. Sic et laici, qua adoratores ubique sancte agentes, ipsum mundum Deo consecrant.

§ 35

[E] Christus, Propheta magnus, qui et testimonio vitae et verbi virtute Regnum proclamavit Patris, usque ad plenam manifestationem gloriae suum munus propheticum adimplet, non solum per Hierarchiam, quae nomine et potestate Eius docet, sed etiam per laicos, quos ideo et testes constituit et sensu fidei et gratia verbi instruit (cf. Act 2,17-18; Apoc 19,10), ut virtus Evangelii in vita quotidiana, familiari et sociali eluceat. Ipsi se praebent ut filios repromissionis, si fortes in fide et spe praesens momentum redimunt (cf. Eph 5,16; Col 4,5) et futuram gloriam per patientiam exspectant. (cf. Rom 8,25) Hanc autem spem non in animi interioritate abscondant sed conversione continua et colluctatione «adversus mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, contra spiritualia nequitiae» (Eph 6,12) etiam per vitae saecularis structuras exprimant.

Sicut sacramenta Novae Legis, quibus vita et apostolatus fidelium alitur, coelum novum et terram novam (cf. Apoc 21,1) praefigurant, ita laici evadunt validi praecones fidei sperandarum rerum (cf. Hebr 11,1), si cum vita ex fide professionem fidei inhaesitanter coniungunt. Haec evangelizatio, nuntium Christi scilicet et testimonio vitae et verbo prolatum, notam quamdam specificam et peculiarem efficacitatem acquirit ex hoc, quod in communibus condicionibus saeculi completur.

§ 35b

[E] Quo in munere magni pretii apparet ille status vitae, qui speciali sacramento sanctificatur, scilicet vita matrimonialis et familiaris. Ibi exercitium et schola praeclara apostolatus laicorum habetur, ubi religio christiana totam vitae institutionem pervadit et in dies magis transformat. Ibi coniuges propriam habent vocationem, ut sibi invicem et filiis sint testes fidei et amoris Christi. Familia christiana tum praesentes virtutes Regni Dei tum spem vitae beatae alta voce proclamat. Ita exemplo et testimonio suo arguit mundum de peccato et eos qui veritatem quaerunt illuminat.

Proinde laici, etiam quando curis temporalibus occupantur, pretiosam actionem ad evangelizandum mundum exercere possunt et debent. Quodsi quidam eorum, deficientibus sacris ministris, vel iisdem in regimine persecutionis impeditis, quaedam officia sacra pro facultate supplent; et si plures quidem ex eis totas vires suas in opere apostolico impendunt: universos tamen oportet ad dilatationem et incrementum Regni Christi in mundo cooperari. Quapropter laici sollerter in profundiorem cognitionem veritatis revelatae incumbant, et instanter a Deo sapientiae donum impetrent.

§ 36

[E] Christus, factus oboediens usque ad mortem et propter hoc a Patre exaltatus (cf. Phil 2,8-9), in gloriam regni sui intravit. Cui omnia subiiciuntur, donec Ipse se cunctaque creata Patri subiiciat, ut sit Deus omnia in omnibus. (cf. I Cor 15,27-28) Quam potestatem discipulis communicavit, ut et illi in regali libertate constituantur et sui abnegatione vitaque sancta regnum peccati in seipsis devincant (cf. Rom 6,12), immo ut Christo etiam in aliis servientes, fratres suos ad Regem, cui servire regnare est, humilitate et patientia perducant. Dominus enim regnum suum etiam per laicos fideles dilatare cupit, regnum scilicet «veritatis et vitae, regnum sanctitatis et gratiae, regnum iustitiae, amoris et pacis»[115]; in quo regno ipsa creatura liberabitur a servitute corruptionis in libertatem gloriae filiorum Dei. (cf. Rom 8,21) Magna sane promissio, magnumque mandatum discipulis datur: «Omnia enim vestra sunt, vos autem Christi, Christus autem Dei». (I Cor 3,23)

§ 36b

[E] Fideles igitur totius creaturae intimam naturam, valorem et ordinationem in laudem Dei agnoscere, et per opera etiam saecularia se invicem ad sanctiorem vitam adiuvare debent, ita ut mundus spiritu Christi imbuatur atque in iustitia, caritate et pace finem suum efficacius attingat. In quo officio universaliter adimplendo laici praecipuum locum obtinent. Sua igitur in profanis disciplinis competentia suaque activitate, gratia Christi intrinsecus elevata, valide conferant operam, ut bona creata secundum Creatoris ordinationem Eiusque Verbi illuminationem humano labore, arte technica, civilique cultura ad utilitatem omnium prorsus hominum excolantur, aptiusque inter illos distribuantur, et suo modo ad universalem progressum in humana et christiana libertate conducant. Ita Christus per Ecclesiae membra totam societatem humanam suo salutari lumine magis magisque illuminabit.

§ 36c

[E] Laici praeterea, collatis quoque viribus, instituta et condiciones mundi, si qua mores ad peccatum incitant, ita sanent, ut haec omnia ad iustitiae normas conformentur et virtutum exercitio potius faveant quam obsint. Ita agendo culturam operaque humana valore morali imbuent. Hoc modo simul ager mundi melius pro semine verbi divini paratur, et Ecclesiae latius patent portae, quibus praeconium pacis in mundum introeat.

Propter ipsam oeconomiam salutis, fideles discant sedulo distinguere inter iura et officia quae eis incumbunt, quatenus Ecclesiae aggregantur, et ea quae eis competunt, ut sunt humanae societatis membra. Utraque inter se harmonice consociare satagent, memores se, in quavis re temporali, christiana conscientia duci debere, cum nulla humana activitas, ne in rebus temporalibus quidem, Dei imperio subtrahi possit. Nostro autem tempore maxime oportet ut distinctio haec simul et harmonia quam clarissime in modo agendi fidelium elucescant, ut missio Ecclesiae particularibus mundi hodierni condicionibus plenius respondere valeat. Sicut enim agnoscendum est terrenam civitatem, saecularibus curis iure addictam propriis regi principiis, ita infausta doctrina, quae societatem, nulla habita religionis ratione, exstruere contendit et libertatem religiosam civium impugnat et eruit, merito reiicitur.[116]

§ 37

[E] Laici, sicut omnes christifideles, ius habent ex spiritualibus Ecclesiae bonis, verbi Dei praesertim et sacramentorum adiumenta a sacris Pastoribus abundanter accipiendi[117], hisque necessitates et optata sua ea libertate et fiducia, quae filios Dei et fratres in Christo decet, patefaciant. Pro scientia, competentia et praestantia quibus pollent, facultatem, immo aliquando et officium, habent suam sententiam de iis quae bonum Ecclesiae respiciunt declarandi.[118] Hoc fiat, si casus ferat, per instituta ad hoc ab Ecclesia stabilita, et semper in veracitate, fortitudine et prudentia, cum reverentia et caritate erga illos, qui ratione sacri sui muneris personam Christi gerunt.

Laici, sicut omnes christifideles, illa quae sacri Pastores, utpote Christum repraesentantes, tamquam magistri et rectores in Ecclesia statuunt, christiana oboedientia prompte amplectantur, Christi exemplum secuti, qui, sua oboedientia usque ad mortem, beatam libertatis filiorum Dei viam omnibus hominibus aperuit. Neque omittant precibus suis Praepositos suos Deo commendare, quippe qui pervigilant quasi rationem pro animabus nostris reddituri, ut cum gaudio hoc faciant et non gementes. (cf. Hebr 13,17)

§ 37b

[E] Sacri vero Pastores laicorum dignitatem et responsabilitatem in Ecclesia agnoscant et promoveant; libenter eorum prudenti consilio utantur, cum confidentia eis in servitium Ecclesiae officia committant et eis agendi libertatem et spatium relinquant, immo animum eis addant, ut etiam sua sponte opera aggrediantur. Paterno cum amore coepta, vota et desideria a laicis proposita attente in Christo considerent.[119] Iustam autem libertatem, quae omnibus in civitate terrestri competit, Pastores observanter agnoscent.

Ex hoc familiari commercio inter Laicos et Pastores permulta bona Ecclesiae exspectanda sunt: ita enim in laicis roboratur propriae responsabilitatis sensus, fovetur alacritas, et facilius laicorum vires Pastorum operi associantur. Hi vero, laicorum experientia adiuti, tam in rebus spiritualibus quam in temporalibus, distinctius et aptius iudicare valent, ita ut tota Ecclesia, ab omnibus membris suis roborata, suam pro mundi vita missionem efficacius compleat.

§ 38

[E] Unusquisque laicus debet esse coram saeculo testis resurrectionis et vitae Domini Iesu atque signum Dei vivi. Omnes insimul et unusquisque pro sua parte mundum fructibus spiritualibus alere debent (cf. Gal 5,22), in eumque spiritum diffundere, quo animantur illi pauperes, mites et pacifici, quos Dominus in Evangelio beatos proclamavit. (cf. Mt 5,3-9) Uno verbo, «quod anima est in corpore, hoc sint in mundo christiani».[120]

Caput V DE UNIVERSALI VOCATIONE AD SANCTITATEM IN ECCLESIA

§ 39

[E] Ecclesia, cuius mysterium a Sacra Synodo proponitur, indefectibiliter sancta creditur. Christus enim, Dei Filius, qui cum Patre et Spiritu «solus Sanctus» celebratur[121], Ecclesiam tamquam sponsam suam dilexit, Seipsum tradens pro ea, ut illam sanctificaret (cf. Eph 5,25-26), eamque Sibi ut corpus suum coniunxit atque Spiritus Sancti dono cumulavit, ad gloriam Dei. Ideo in Ecclesia omnes, sive ad Hierarchiam pertinent sive ab ea pascuntur, ad sanctitatem vocantur, iuxta illud Apostoli: «Haec est enim voluntas Dei, sanctificatio vestra». (I Thess 4,3; cf. Eph 1,4) Haec autem Ecclesiae sanctitas in gratiae fructibus quos Spiritus in fidelibus producit, incessanter manifestatur et manifestari debet; multiformiter exprimitur apud singulos, qui in suo vitae ordine ad perfectionem caritatis, aedificantes alios, tendunt; proprio quodam modo apparet in praxi consiliorum, quae evangelica appellari consueverunt. Quae consiliorum praxis, Spiritu Sancto impellente, a multis christianis assumpta, sive privatim sive in conditione vel statu in Ecclesia sanctis, praeclarum in mundo fert, et ferre oportet, eiusdem sanctitatis testimonium et exemplum.

§ 40

[E] Omnis perfectionis divinus Magister et Exemplar, Dominus Iesus, sanctitatem vitae, cuius Ipse et auctor et consummator exstat, omnibus et singulis discipulis suis cuiuscumque conditionis praedicavit: «Estote ergo vos perfecti, sicut et Pater vester coelestis perfectus est».[122] (Mt 5,48) In omnes enim Spiritum Sanctum misit, qui eos intus moveat, ut Deum diligant ex toto corde, ex tota anima, ex tota mente et ex tota virtute sua (cf. Mc 12,30), et ut invicem se diligant sicut Christus eos dilexit. (cf. Io 13,34; 15,12) Christi asseclae a Deo non secundum opera sua, sed secundum propositum et gratiam Eius vocati atque in Iesu Domino iustificati, in fidei baptismate vere filii Dei et consortes divinae naturae, ideoque reapse sancti effecti sunt. Eos proinde oportet sanctificationem quam acceperunt, Deo dante, vivendo tenere atque perficere. Ab Apostolo monentur, ut vivant «sicut decet sanctos» (Eph 5,3), et induant «sicut electi Dei, sancti et dilecti, viscera misericordiae, benignitatem, humilitatem, modestiam, patientiam» (Col 3,12), fructusque Spiritus habeant in sanctificationem. (cf. Gal 5,22; Rom 6,22) Cum vero in multis offendimus omnes (cf. Iac 3,2), misericordiae Dei iugiter egemus atque orare quotidie debemus: «Et dimitte nobis debita nostra».[123] (Mt 6,12)

§ 40b

[E] Cunctis proinde perspicuum est, omnes christifideles cuiuscumque status vel ordinis ad vitae christianae plenitudinem et caritatis perfectionem vocari[124], qua sanctitate, in societate quoque terrena, humanior vivendi modus promovetur. Ad quam perfectionem adipiscendam fideles vires secundum mensuram donationis Christi acceptas adhibeant, ut Eius vestigia sequentes Eiusque imagini conformes effecti, voluntatem Patris in omnibus obsequentes, gloriae Dei et servitio proximi toto animo sese devoveant. Ita sanctitas Populi Dei in abundantes fructus excrescet, sicut in Ecclesiae historia per tot Sanctorum vitam luculenter commonstratur.

§ 41

[E] In variis vitae generibus et officiis una sanctitas excolitur ab omnibus, qui a Spiritu Dei aguntur, atque voci Patris oboedientes Deumque Patrem in spiritu et veritate adorantes, Christum pauperem, humilem, et crucem baiulantem sequuntur, ut gloriae Eius mereantur esse consortes. Unusquisque vero secundum propria dona et munera per viam fidei vivae, quae spem excitat et per caritatem operatur, incunctanter incedere debet.

§ 41b

[E] Gregis Christi Pastores imprimis oportet, ut ad imaginem summi et aeterni Sacerdotis, Pastoris et Episcopi animarum nostrarum, sancte et alacriter, humiliter et fortiter exsequantur ministerium suum, quod ita adimpletum, etiam pro eis erit praecelsum sanctificationis medium. Ad plenitudinem sacerdotii electi, sacramentali gratia donantur, ut orando, sacrificando et praedicando, per omnem formam episcopalis curae et servitii, perfectum pastoralis caritatis munus exerceant[125], animam suam pro ovibus ponere ne timeant et forma facti gregis (cf. I Pt 5,3), Ecclesiam etiam exemplo suo ad maiorem in dies sanctitatem promoveant.

§ 41c

[E] Presbyteri in similitudinem ordinis Episcoporum, quorum spiritualem coronam efformant[126], de eorum muneris gratia participantes per Christum, aeternum et unicum Mediatorem, quotidiano officii sui exercitio in Dei proximique amore crescant, communionis sacerdotalis vinculum servent, in omni bono spirituali abundent atque vivum Dei testimonium omnibus praestent[127], aemuli eorum sacerdotum, qui saeculorum decursu, in humili saepe et abscondito servitio praeclarum sanctitatis specimen reliquerunt. Quorum laus est in Ecclesia Dei. Pro plebe sua et toto Populo Dei ex officio precantes et sacrificium offerentes, agnoscendo quod agunt et imitando quod tractant[128], nedum apostolicis curis, periculis et aerumnis impediantur, per ea potius ad altiorem sanctitatem ascendant, ex abundantia contemplationis actionem suam nutriendo et fovendo, in oblectamentum totius Ecclesiae Dei. Omnes presbyteri et speciatim illi qui peculiari suae ordinationis titulo sacerdotes dioecesani vocantur, meminerint quantum ad suam sanctificationem conferant cum suo Episcopo fidelis coniunctio atque generosa cooperatio.

§ 41d

[E] Missionis autem et gratiae supremi Sacerdotis peculiari modo participes sunt inferioris quoque ordinis ministri, imprimis Diaconi, qui mysteriis Christi et Ecclesiae servientes[129], ab omni vitio puros se custodire atque Deo placere et omne bonum coram hominibus providere debent. (cf. I Tim 3,8-10 et 12-13) Clerici, qui a Domino vocati et in partem Eius sepositi, sub vigilantia Pastorum ad officia ministrorum se praeparant, mentes et corda sua tam praeclarae electioni conformare tenentur, in oratione assidui, amore ferventes, quaecumque sunt vera, iusta et bonae famae cogitantes, omnia in gloriam et honorem Dei perficientes. Quibus accedunt illi a Deo electi laici, qui, ut plene se dedant apostolicis operibus, ab Episcopo vocantur et in agro Domini cum multo fructu laborant.[130]

§ 41e

[E] Coniuges autem parentesque christiani oportet ut propriam viam sequentes, amore fideli, totius vitae decursu se invicem in gratia sustineant, et prolem amanter a Deo acceptam christianis doctrinis et evangelicis virtutibus imbuant. Ita enim exemplum indefessi et generosi amoris omnibus praebent, fraternitatem caritatis aedificant, et foecunditatis Matris Ecclesiae testes et cooperatores exsistunt, in signum et participationem illius dilectionis, qua Christus Sponsam suam dilexit Seque pro ea tradidit.[131] Simile exemplum alio modo praebetur a viduis et innuptis, qui ad sanctitatem et operositatem in Ecclesia, et ipsi haud parum conferre possunt. Ii vero, qui laboribus saepe duris incumbunt, oportet ut humanis operibus seipsos perficiant, concives adiuvent, totamque societatem et creationem ad meliorem statum promoveant, verum etiam ut Christum, cuius manus fabrilibus se exercuerunt et qui semper cum Patre ad salutem omnium operatur, in actuosa caritate imitentur, spe gaudentes, alter alterius onera portantes, atque ipso suo quotidiano labore ad altiorem ascendant sanctitatem etiam apostolicam.

§ 41f

[E] Specialiter etiam Christo pro salute mundi patienti se uniri sciant ii, qui paupertate, infirmitate, morbo, variisque aerumnis opprimuntur, vel persecutionem propter iustitiam patiuntur, quos Dominus in Evangelio beatos praedicavit et quos

Deus ... omnis gratiae, qui vocavit nos in aeternam suam gloriam in Christo Iesu, modicum passos, ipse perficiet, confirmabit solidabitque. (I Pt 5,10)

Omnes igitur christifideles in vitae suae conditionibus, officiis vel circumstantiis, et per illa omnia, in dies magis sanctificabuntur, si cuncta e manu Patris coelestis cum fide suscipiunt et voluntati divinae cooperantur, caritatem qua Deus dilexit mundum in ipso temporali servitio omnibus manifestando.

§ 42

[E] «Deus caritas est, et qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo». (I Io 4,16) Deus autem caritatem suam in cordibus nostris diffudit per Spiritum Sanctum qui datus est nobis (cf. Rom 5,5); ideoque donum primum et maxime necessarium est caritas, qua Deum super omnia et proximum propter Illum diligimus. Ut vero caritas tamquam bonum semen in anima increscat et fructificet, unusquisque fidelis debet verbum Dei libenter audire Eiusque voluntatem, opitulante Eius gratia, opere complere, sacramentis, praesertim Eucharistiae, et sacris actionibus frequenter participare, seseque orationi, sui ipsius abnegationi, fraterno actuoso servitio et omnium virtutum exercitationi constanter applicare. Caritas enim, ut vinculum perfectionis et plenitudo legis (cf. Col 3,14; Rom 13,10), omnia sanctificationis media regit, informat ad finemque perducit.[132] Unde caritate tum in Deum tum in proximum signatur verus Christi discipulus.

§ 42b

[E] Cum Iesus, Dei Filius, caritatem suam manifestaverit, animam suam pro nobis ponendo, nemo maiorem habet dilectionem, quam qui animam suam pro Eo et fratribus suis ponit. (cf. I Io 3,16; Io 15,13) Ad hoc ergo maximum amoris testimonium reddendum coram omnibus, praesertim persecutoribus, aliqui christiani iam a primo tempore vocati sunt et semper vocabuntur. Martyrium igitur, quo discipulus Magistro pro mundi salute mortem libere accipienti assimilatur, Eique in effusione sanguinis conformatur, ab Ecclesia eximium donum supremaque probatio caritatis aestimatur. Quod si paucis datur, omnes tamen parati sint oportet, Christum coram hominibus confiteri, Eumque inter persecutiones, quae Ecclesiae numquam desunt, in via crucis subsequi.

§ 42c

[E] Sanctitas Ecclesiae item speciali modo fovetur multiplicibus consiliis, quae Dominus in Evangelio discipulis suis observanda proponit.[133] Inter quae eminet pretiosum gratiae divinae donum, quod a Patre quibusdam datur (cf. Mt 19,11; I Cor 7,7), ut in virginitate vel coelibatu facilius indiviso corde (cf. I Cor 7,32-34) Deo soli se devoveant.[134] Haec perfecta propter Regnum coelorum continentia semper in honore praecipuo ab Ecclesia habita est, tamquam signum et stimulus caritatis, ac quidam peculiaris fons spiritualis foecunditatis in mundo.

§ 42d

[E] Ecclesia etiam Apostoli monitionem recogitat, qui fideles ad caritatem provocans, eos exhortatur, ut hoc in se sentiant quod et in Christo Iesu, qui «semet ipsum exinanivit formam servi accipiens, ... factus oboediens usque ad mortem» (Phil 2,7-8) et propter nos «egenus factus est, cum esset dives». (II Cor 8,9) Huius caritatis et humilitatis Christi imitationem et testimonium cum a discipulis semper praeberi necesse sit, gaudet Mater Ecclesia plures in sinu suo inveniri viros ac mulieres, qui exinanitionem Salvatoris pressius sequuntur et clarius demonstrant, paupertatem in filiorum Dei libertate suscipientes et propriis voluntatibus abrenuntiantes: illi scilicet sese homini propter Deum in re perfectionis ultra mensuram praecepti subiiciunt, ut Christo oboedienti sese plenius conforment.[135]

§ 42e

[E] Omnes igitur christifideles ad sanctitatem et proprii status perfectionem prosequendam invitantur et tenentur. Attendant igitur omnes, ut affectus suos recte dirigant, ne usu rerum mundanarum et adhaesione ad divitias contra spiritum paupertatis evangelicae a caritate perfecta prosequenda impediantur, monente Apostolo: Qui utuntur hoc mundo, in eo ne sistant: praeterit enim figura huius mundi.[136] (cf. I Cor 7,31 gr.)

Caput VI DE RELIGIOSIS

§ 43

[E] Consilia evangelica castitatis Deo dicatae, paupertatis et oboedientiae, utpote in verbis et exemplis Domini fundata et ab Apostolis et Patribus Ecclesiaeque doctoribus et pastoribus commendata, sunt donum divinum, quod Ecclesia a Domino suo accepit et gratia Eius semper conservat. Ipsa autem auctoritas Ecclesiae, duce Spiritu Sancto, ea interpretari, eorum praxim moderari et etiam stabiles inde vivendi formas constituere curavit. Quo factum est ut, quasi in arbore ex germine divinitus dato mirabiliter et multipliciter in agro Domini ramificata, variae formae vitae solitariae vel communis, variaeque familiae creverint, quae tum ad profectum sodalium, tum ad bonum totius Corporis Christi opes augent.[137] Illae enim familiae sodalibus suis adminicula conferunt stabilitatis in modo vivendi firmioris, doctrinae ad perfectionem prosequendam probatae, communionis in militia Christi fraternae, libertatis per oboedientiam roboratae, ita ut suam religiosam professionem secure implere et fideliter custodire valeant, atque in caritatis via spiritu gaudentes progrediantur.[138]

[E] Status huiusmodi, ratione habita divinae et hierarchicae Ecclesiae constitutionis, non est intermedius inter clericalem et laicalem conditionem, sed ex utraque parte quidam christifideles a Deo vocantur, ut in vita Ecclesiae peculiari dono fruantur et, suo quisque modo, eiusdem missioni salvificae prosint.[139]

§ 44

[E] Per vota aut alia sacra ligamina, votis propria sua ratione assimilata, quibus christifidelis ad tria praedicta consilia evangelica se obligat, Deo summe dilecto totaliter mancipatur, ita ut ipse ad Dei servitium Eiusque honorem novo et peculiari titulo referatur. Per baptismum quidem mortuus est peccato, et Deo sacratus; ut autem gratiae baptismalis uberiorem fructum percipere queat, consiliorum evangelicorum professione in Ecclesia liberari intendit ab impedimentis, quae ipsum a caritatis fervore et divini cultus perfectione retrahere possent, et divino obsequio intimius consecratur.[140] Tanto autem perfectior erit consecratio, quo per firmiora et stabiliora vincula magis repraesentatur Christus cum sponsa Ecclesia indissolubili vinculo coniunctus.

[E] Cum vero evangelica consilia suos asseclas, per caritatem ad quam ducunt[141], Ecclesiae eiusque mysterio speciali modo coniungant, spiritualis horum vita bono quoque totius Ecclesiae devoveatur oportet. Inde oritur officium pro viribus et secundum formam propriae vocationis, sive oratione, sive actuosa quoque opera, laborandi ad Regnum Christi in animis radicandum et roborandum, illudque ad omnes plagas dilatandum. Unde et Ecclesia propriam indolem variorum Institutorum religiosorum tuetur et fovet.

§ 44b

[E] Evangelicorum proinde consiliorum professio tamquam signum apparet, quod omnia Ecclesiae membra ad officia vocationis christianae impigre adimplenda efficaciter attrahere potest ac debet. Cum enim Populus Dei hic manentem civitatem non habeat, sed futuram inquirat, status religiosus, qui suos asseclas a curis terrenis magis liberat, magis etiam tum bona coelestia iam in hoc saeculo praesentia omnibus credentibus manifestat, tum vitam novam et aeternam redemptione Christi acquisitam testificat, tum resurrectionem futuram et gloriam Regni coelestis praenuntiat. Formam quoque vitae, quam Filius Dei accepit, mundum ingressus ut faceret voluntatem Patris, quamque discipulis Ipsum sequentibus proposuit, idem status pressius imitatur atque in Ecclesia perpetuo repraesentat. Regni Dei denique super omnia terrestria elevationem eiusque summas necessitudines peculiari modo patefacit; supereminentem quoque magnitudinem virtutis Christi regnantis atque infinitam Spiritus Sancti potentiam, in Ecclesia mirabiliter operantem, cunctis hominibus demonstrat.

Status ergo, qui professione consiliorum evangelicorum constituitur, licet ad Ecclesiae structuram hierarchicam non spectet, ad eius tamen vitam et sanctitatem inconcusse pertinet.

§ 45

[E] Cum ecclesiasticae Hierarchiae munus sit Populum Dei pascere et ad pascua uberrima ducere (cf. Ez 34,14), ad ipsam spectat evangelicorum consiliorum praxim, quibus perfectio caritatis erga Deum et proximum singulariter fovetur, legibus suis sapienter moderari.[142] Ipsa etiam, Spiritus Sancti impulsus dociliter sequens, regulas a praeclaris viris et mulieribus propositas recipit et ulterius ordinatas authentice adprobat, necnon Institutis ad aedificationem Corporis Christi passim erectis, ut secundum spiritum fundatorum crescant atque floreant, auctoritate sua invigilante et protegente adest.

§ 45b

[E] Quo autem melius necessitatibus totius dominici gregis provideatur, quodcumque perfectionis Institutum ac sodales singuli a Summo Pontifice, ratione ipsius in universam Ecclesiam primatus, intuitu utilitatis communis, ab Ordinariorum loci iurisdictione eximi et ei soli subiici possunt.[143] Similiter possunt propriis auctoritatibus patriarchalibus relinqui aut committi. Ipsi sodales, in officio erga Ecclesiam ex peculiari suae vitae forma adimplendo, reverentiam et oboedientiam secundum canonicas leges praestare debent Episcopis, ob eorum in Ecclesiis particularibus auctoritatem pastoralem et ob necessariam in labore apostolico unitatem et concordiam.[144]

[E] Ecclesia autem professionem religiosam non tantum sua sanctione ad status canonici dignitatem erigit, sed eam ut statum Deo consecratum etiam actione sua liturgica exhibet. Ipsa enim Ecclesia, auctoritate sibi a Deo commissa, profitentium vota suscipit, prece sua publica eis auxilia et gratiam a Deo impetrat, eos Deo commendat eisque spiritualem benedictionem impertitur, oblationem eorum sacrificio eucharistico adsocians.

§ 46

[E] Sollicite attendant religiosi, ut per ipsos Ecclesia revera Christum in dies, sive fidelibus sive infidelibus, melius commonstret, vel in monte contemplantem, vel turbis Regnum Dei annuntiantem, vel aegrotos et saucios sanantem ac peccatores ad bonam frugem convertentem, vel pueris benedicentem, et omnibus benefacientem, semper autem voluntati Patris qui Eum misit oboedientem.[145]

§ 46b

[E] Omnes tandem perspectum habeant, consiliorum evangelicorum professionem, quamvis renuntiationem secumferat bonorum quae indubie magni aestimanda veniunt, tamen personae humanae vero profectui non obstare, sed natura sua ei summopere prodesse. Consilia enim, secundum cuiusquam personalem vocationem voluntarie suscepta, ad cordis purificationem et spiritualem libertatem non parum conferunt, fervorem caritatis iugiter excitant et praesertim ad genus vitae virginalis ac pauperis, quod sibi elegit Christus Dominus, quodque Mater Eius Virgo amplexa est, hominem christianum magis conformare valent, ut exemplo tot sanctorum fundatorum comprobatur. Nec quisquam aestimet religiosos consecratione sua aut ab hominibus alienos aut inutiles in civitate terrestri fieri. Nam etsi quandoque coaetaneis suis non directe adsistunt, profundiore tamen modo eos in visceribus Christi praesentes habent atque cum eis spiritualiter cooperantur, ut aedificatio terrenae civitatis semper in Domino fundetur ad Ipsumque dirigatur, ne forte in vanum laboraverint qui aedificant eam.[146]

[E] Idcirco denique Sacra Synodus confirmat et laudat viros ac mulieres, Fratres ac Sorores, qui in monasteriis, vel in scholis et nosocomiis, vel in missionibus, constanti et humili fidelitate in praedicta consecratione Sponsam Christi condecorant, omnibusque hominibus generosa ac diversissima servitia praestant.

§ 47

[E] Unusquisque autem ad professionem consiliorum vocatus sedulo curet, ut in quam vocationem a Deo vocatus est, in ea permaneat atque magis excellat, ad uberiorem Ecclesiae sanctitatem, ad maiorem gloriam unius et indivisae Trinitatis, quae in Christo et per Christum est omnis sanctitatis fons et origo.

Caput VII DE INDOLE ESCHATOLOGICA ECCLESIAE PEREGRINANTIS EIUSQUE UNIONE CUM ECCLESIA COELESTI

§ 48

[E] Ecclesia, ad quam in Christo Iesu vocamur omnes et in qua per gratiam Dei sanctitatem acquirimus, nonnisi in gloria coelesti consummabitur, quando adveniet tempus restitutionis omnium (cf. Act 3,21) atque cum genere humano universus quoque mundus, qui intime cum homine coniungitur et per eum ad finem suum accedit, perfecte in Christo instaurabitur. (cf. Eph 1,10; Col 1,20; II Pt 3,10-13)

§ 48b

[E] Christus quidem exaltatus a terra omnes traxit ad seipsum (cf. Io 12,32 gr.); resurgens ex mortuis (cf. Rom 6,9) Spiritum suum vivificantem in discipulos immisit et per eum Corpus suum quod est Ecclesia ut universale salutis sacramentum constituit; sedens ad dexteram Patris continuo operatur in mundo ut homines ad Ecclesiam perducat arctiusque per eam Sibi coniungat ac proprio Corpore et Sanguine illos nutriendo gloriosae vitae suae faciat esse participes. Restitutio ergo quam promissam exspectamus, iam incepit in Christo, provehitur in missione Spiritus Sancti et per Eum pergit in Ecclesia in qua per fidem de sensu quoque vitae nostrae temporalis edocemur, dum opus a Patre nobis in mundo commissum cum spe futurorum bonorum ad finem perducimus et salutem nostram operamur. (cf. Phil 2,12)

§ 48c

[E] Iam ergo fines saeculorum ad nos pervenerunt (cf. I Cor 10,11) et renovatio mundi irrevocabiliter est constituta atque in hoc saeculo reali quodam modo anticipatur: etenim Ecclesia iam in terris vera sanctitate licet imperfecta insignitur. Donec tamen fuerint novi coeli et nova terra, in quibus iustitia habitat (cf. II Pt 3,13), Ecclesia peregrinans, in suis sacramentis et institutionibus, quae ad hoc aevum pertinent, portat figuram huius saeculi quae praeterit et ipsa inter creaturas degit quae ingemiscunt et parturiunt usque adhuc et exspectant revelationem filiorum Dei. (cf. Rom 8,19-22)

§ 48d

[E] Coniuncti ergo Christo in Ecclesia et signati Spiritu Sancto «qui est pignus hereditatis nostrae» (Eph 1,14), vere filii Dei nominamur et sumus (cf. I Io 3,1), sed nondum apparuimus cum Christo in gloria (cf. Col 3,4), in qua similes Deo erimus, quoniam videbimus Eum sicut est. (cf. I Io 3,2) Itaque «dum sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino» (II Cor 5,6) et primitias Spiritus habentes intra nos gemimus (cf. Rom 8,23) et cupimus esse cum Christo. (cf. Phil 1,23) Eadem autem caritate urgemur ut magis vivamus Ei, qui pro nobis mortuus est et resurrexit. (cf. II Cor 5,15)

§ 48e

[E] Contendimus ergo in omnibus placere Domino (cf. II Cor 5,9) et induimus armaturam Dei, ut possimus stare adversus insidias diaboli et resistere in die malo. (cf. Eph 6,11-13) Cum vero nesciamus diem neque horam, monente Domino, constanter vigilemus oportet ut, expleto unico terrestris nostrae vitae cursu (cf. Hebr 9,27), cum Ipso ad nuptias intrare et cum benedictis connumerari mereamur (cf. Mt 25,31-46), neque sicut servi mali et pigri (cf. Mt 25,26) iubeamur discedere in ignem aeternum (cf. Mt 25,41), in tenebras exteriores ubi «erit fletus et stridor dentium». (Mt 22,13 et 25,30) Etenim, antequam cum Christo glorioso regnemus, omnes nos manifestabimur «ante tribunal Christi, ut referat unusquisque propria corporis, prout gessit sive bonum sive malum» (II Cor 5,10) et in fine mundi «procedent qui bona fecerunt in resurrectionem vitae, qui vero mala egerunt, in resurrectionem iudicii». (Io 5,29; cf. Mt 25,46)

§ 48f

[E] Existimantes proinde quod «non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam, quae revelabitur in nobis» (Rom 8,18; cf. II Tim 2,11-12), fortes in fide exspectamus «beatam spem et adventum gloriae magni Dei et Salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi» (Tit 2,13), «qui reformabit corpus humilitatis nostrae configuratum corpori claritatis suae» (Phil 3,21) et qui veniet «glorificari in sanctis suis et admirabilis fieri in omnibus, qui crediderunt». (II Thess 1,10)

§ 49

[E] Donec ergo Dominus venerit in maiestate sua et omnes Angeli cum eo (cf. Mt 25,31) et, destructa morte, Illi subiecta fuerint omnia (cf. I Cor 15,26-27), alii e discipulis Eius in terris peregrinantur, alii hac vita functi purificantur, alii vero glorificantur intuentes «clare ipsum Deum trinum et unum, sicuti est»[147]; omnes tamen, gradu quidem modoque diverso, in eadem Dei et proximi caritate communicamus et eundem hymnum gloriae Deo nostro canimus. Universi enim qui Christi sunt, Spiritum Eius habentes, in unam Ecclesiam coalescunt et invicem cohaerent in Ipso. (cf. Eph 4,16) Viatorum igitur unio cum fratribus qui in pace Christi dormierunt, minime intermittitur, immo secundum perennem Ecclesiae fidem, spiritualium bonorum communicatione roboratur.[148] Ex eo enim quod coelites intimius cum Christo uniuntur, totam Ecclesiam in sanctitatem firmius consolidant, cultum, quem ipsa hic in terris Deo exhibet, nobilitant ac multipliciter ad ampliorem eius aedificationem contribuunt.[149] (cf. I Cor 12,12-27) Nam in patriam recepti et praesentes ad Dominum (cf. II Cor 5,8), per Ipsum, cum Ipso et in Ipso non desinunt apud Patrem pro nobis intercedere[150], exhibentes merita quae per unum Mediatorem Dei et hominum, Christum Iesum (cf. I Tim 2,5) in terris sunt adepti, Domino in omnibus servientes et adimplentes ea quae desunt passionum Christi in carne sua pro Corpore Eius quod est Ecclesia.[151] (cf. Col 1,24) Eorum proinde fraterna sollicitudine infirmitas nostra plurimum iuvatur.

§ 50

[E] Hanc communionem totius Iesu Christi Mystici Corporis apprime agnoscens, Ecclesia viatorum inde a primaevis christianae religionis temporibus, defunctorum memoriam magna cum pietate excoluit[152] et, quia «sancta et salubris est cogitatio pro defunctis exorare, ut a peccatis solvantur» (II Mach 12,46), etiam suffragia pro illis obtulit. Apostolos autem et martyres Christi, qui sui sanguinis effusione supremum fidei et caritatis testimonium dederant, in Christo arctius nobis coniunctos esse Ecclesia semper credidit, eos simul cum Beata Virgine Maria et sanctis Angelis peculiari affectu venerata est[153], eorumque intercessionis auxilium pie imploravit. Quibus mox adnumerati sunt alii quoque qui Christi virginitatem et paupertatem pressius erant imitati[154] et tandem ceteri quos praeclarum virtutum christianarum exercitium[155] ac divina charismata piae fidelium devotioni et imitationi commendabant.[155a]

§ 50b

[E] Dum enim illorum conspicimus vitam qui Christum fideliter sunt secuti, nova ratione ad futuram Civitatem inquirendam (cf. Hebr 13,14 et 11,10) incitamur simulque tutissimam edocemur viam qua inter mundanas varietates, secundum statum ac condicionem unicuique propriam, ad perfectam cum Christo unionem seu sanctitatem pervenire poterimus.[156] In vita eorum qui, humanitatis nostrae consortes, ad imaginem tamen Christi perfectius transformantur (cf. II Cor 3,18), Deus praesentiam vultumque suum hominibus vivide manifestat. In eis Ipse nos alloquitur, signumque nobis praebet Regni sui[157], ad quod tantam habentes impositam nubem testium (cf. Hebr 12,1), talemque contestationem veritatis Evangelii, potenter attrahimur.

§ 50c

[E] Nec tamen solius exempli titulo coelitum memoriam colimus, sed magis adhuc ut totius Ecclesiae unio in Spiritu roboretur per fraternae caritatis exercitium. (cf. Eph 4,1-6) Nam sicut christiana inter viatores communio propinquius nos ad Christum adducit, ita consortium cum Sanctis nos Christo coniungit, a quo tamquam a Fonte et Capite omnis gratia et ipsius Populi Dei vita promanat.[158] Summopere ergo decet ut hos Iesu Christi amicos et coheredes, fratres quoque nostros et benefactores eximios diligamus, debitas pro ipsis Deo rependamus gratias[159], «suppliciter eos invocemus et ob beneficia impetranda a Deo per Filium eius Iesum Christum, Dominum nostrum, qui solus noster Redemptor et Salvator est, ad eorum orationes, opem auxiliumque confugiamus»[160]. Omne enim genuinum amoris testimonium coelitibus a nobis exhibitum, suapte natura tendit ac terminatur ad Christum qui est «corona Sanctorum omnium»[161] et per Ipsum ad Deum qui est mirabilis in Sanctis suis et in ipsis magnificatur.[162]

§ 50d

[E] Nobilissima vero ratione unio nostra cum Ecclesia coelesti actuatur, cum, praesertim in sacra Liturgia, in qua virtus Spiritus Sancti per signa sacramentalia super nos agit, divinae maiestatis laudem socia exsultatione concelebramus[163], et universi, in sanguine Christi ex omni tribu et lingua et populo et natione redempti (cf. Apoc 5,9) atque in unam Ecclesiam congregati, uno cantico laudis Deum unum et trinum magnificamus. Eucharisticum ergo sacrificium celebrantes cultui Ecclesiae coelestis vel maxime iungimur communicantes et memoriam venerantes in primis gloriosae semper Virginis Mariae, sed et beati Ioseph et beatorum Apostolorum et Martyrum et omnium Sanctorum.[164]

§ 51

[E] Quam venerabilem maiorum nostrorum fidem circa vitale consortium cum fratribus qui in gloria coelesti sunt vel adhuc post mortem purificantur, magna cum pietate haec Sacrosancta Synodus recipit et decreta Sacrorum Conciliorum Nicaeni II[165], Florentini[166] et Tridentini[167] rursus proponit. Simul autem pro pastorali sua sollicitudine omnes ad quos spectat hortatur, ut si qui abusus, excessus vel defectus hic illicve irrepserint, eos arcere aut corrigere satagant ac omnia ad pleniorem Christi et Dei laudem instaurent. Doceant ergo fideles authenticum Sanctorum cultum non tam in actuum exteriorum multiplicitate quam potius in intensitate amoris nostri actuosi consistere, quo, ad maius nostrum et Ecclesiae bonum, Sanctorum quaerimus «et conversatione exemplum et communione consortium, et intercessione subsidium».[168] Ex altera vero parte instruant fideles nostram cum coelitibus conversationem, dummodo haec in pleniore fidei luce concipiatur, nequaquam extenuare latreuticum cultum, Deo Patri per Christum in Spiritu tributum, sed illum e contra impensius ditare.[169]

§ 51b

[E] Nam omnes qui filii Dei sumus et unam familiam in Christo constituimus (cf. Hebr 3,6), dum in mutua caritate et una sanctissimae Trinitatis laude invicem communicamus, intimae Ecclesiae vocationi correspondemus et consummatae gloriae liturgiam praegustando participamus.[170] Quando enim Christus apparebit et gloriosa mortuorum resurrectio erit, claritas Dei illuminabit coelestem Civitatem et eius lucerna erit Agnus. (cf. Apoc 21,23) Tunc tota Ecclesia sanctorum in summa caritatis beatitudine adorabit Deum et «Agnum qui occisus est» (Apoc 5,12), una voce proclamans: «Sedenti in throno et Agno: benedictio et honor et gloria, et potestas in saecula saeculorum». (Apoc 5,13)

Caput VIII DE BEATA MARIA VIRGINE DEIPARA IN MYSTERIO CHRISTI ET ECCLESIAE

I. Prooemium

§ 52

[E] Benignissimus et sapientissimus Deus, mundi redemptionem complere volens, «ubi venit plenitudo temporis, misit Filium suum factum ex muliere, ... ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus». (Gal 4,4-5) «Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis, et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine».[171] Quod salutis divinum mysterium nobis revelatur et continuatur in Ecclesia, quam Dominus ut corpus suum constituit, et in qua fideles Christo Capiti adhaerentes atque cum omnibus sanctis Eius communicantes, memoriam etiam venerentur oportet «in primis gloriosae semper Virginis Mariae, Genitricis Dei et Domini nostri Iesu Christi»[172].

§ 53

[E] Virgo enim Maria, quae Angelo nuntiante Verbum Dei corde et corpore suscepit et Vitam mundo protulit, ut vera Mater Dei ac Redemptoris agnoscitur et honoratur. Intuitu meritorum Filii sui sublimiore modo redempta Eique arcto et indissolubili vinculo unita, hoc summo munere ac dignitate ditatur ut sit Genitrix Dei Filii, ideoque praedilecta filia Patris necnon sacrarium Spiritus Sancti quo eximiae gratiae dono omnibus aliis creaturis, coelestibus et terrestribus, longe antecellit. Simul autem cum omnibus hominibus salvandis in stirpe Adam invenitur coniuncta, immo «plane mater membrorum (Christi), ... quia cooperata est caritate ut fideles in Ecclesia nascerentur, quae illius Capitis membra sunt».[173] Quapropter etiam ut supereminens prorsusque singulare membrum Ecclesiae necnon eius in fide et caritate typus et exemplar spectatissimum salutatur eamque Catholica Ecclesia, a Spiritu Sancto edocta, filialis pietatis affectu tamquam matrem amantissimam prosequitur.

§ 54

[E] Ideo Sacrosancta Synodus, doctrinam de Ecclesia, in qua divinus Redemptor salutem operatur, exponens, illustrare sedulo intendit tum munus Beatae Virginis in mysterio Incarnati Verbi et Corporis Mystici, tum hominum redemptorum officia erga Deiparam, matrem Christi et matrem hominum, maxime fidelium, quin tamen in animo habeat completam de Maria proponere doctrinam, atque quaestiones labore theologorum nondum ad plenam lucem perductas dirimere. Servantur itaque in suo iure sententiae, quae in scholis catholicis libere proponuntur de Illa, quae in Sancta Ecclesia locum occupat post Christum altissimum nobisque maxime propinquum.[174]

II. De munere B. Virginis in oeconomia salutis

§ 55

[E] Sacrae Litterae Veteris Novique Testamenti et veneranda Traditio munus Matris Salvatoris in salutis oeconomia modo magis magisque dilucido ostendunt et veluti conspiciendum proponunt. Libri quidem Veteris Testamenti historiam salutis, qua Christi in mundum adventus lento gradu praeparatur, describunt. Quae primaeva documenta, qualiter in Ecclesia leguntur et sub luce ulterioris et plenae revelationis intelliguntur, clarius pedetentim in lucem proferunt figuram mulieris, Matris Redemptoris. Ipsa, sub hac luce, iam prophetice adumbratur in promissione, lapsis in peccatum primis parentibus data, de victoria super serpentem. (cf. Gen 3,15) Similiter haec est Virgo quae concipiet et pariet Filium, cuius nomen vocabitur Emmanuel. (cf. Is 7,14; coll. Mi 5,2-3; Mt 1,22-23) Ipsa praecellit inter humiles ac pauperes Domini, qui salutem cum fiducia ab Eo sperant et accipiunt. Cum Ipsa tandem praecelsa Filia Sion, post diuturnam exspectationem promissionis, complentur tempora et nova instauratur Oeconomia, quando Filius Dei humanam naturam ex ea assumpsit, ut mysteriis carnis suae hominem a peccato liberaret.

§ 56

[E] Voluit autem misericordiarum Pater, ut acceptatio praedestinatae matris incarnationem praecederet, ut sic, quemadmodum femina contulit ad mortem, ita etiam femina conferret ad vitam. Quod praecellentissime valet de Matre Iesu, quae ipsam Vitam, omnia renovantem, mundo effudit, et a Deo donis tanto munere dignis praedita est. Unde nil mirum apud Sanctos Patres usum invaluisse quo Deiparam appellarunt totam sanctam et ab omni peccati labe immunem, quasi a Spiritu Sancto plasmatam novamque creaturam formatam.[175] Singularis prorsus sanctitatis splendoribus a primo instante suae conceptionis ditata, Nazarethana Virgo ab Angelo nuntiante, Dei mandato, ut «gratia plena» salutatur (cf. Lc 1,28), et coelesti nuntio ipsa respondet: «Ecce Ancilla Domini, fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum». (Lc 1,38) Ita Maria filia Adam, verbo divino consentiens, facta est Mater Iesu, ac salvificam voluntatem Dei, pleno corde et nullo retardata peccato, complectens, semetipsam ut Domini ancillam personae et operi Filii sui totaliter devovit, sub Ipso et cum Ipso, omnipotentis Dei gratia, mysterio redemptionis inserviens. Merito igitur SS. Patres Mariam non mere passive a Deo adhibitam, sed libera fide et oboedientia humanae saluti cooperantem censent. Ipsa enim, ut ait S. Irenaeus, «oboediens et sibi et universo generi humano causa facta est salutis»[176]. Unde non pauci Patres antiqui in praedicatione sua cum eo libenter asserunt: «Hevae inoboedientiae nodum solutionem accepisse per oboedientiam Mariae; quod alligavit virgo Heva per incredulitatem, hoc virginem Mariam solvisse per fidem»[177]; et comparatione cum Heva instituta, Mariam «matrem viventium» appellant[178], saepiusque affirmant: «mors per Hevam vita per Mariam»[179].

§ 57

[E] Haec autem Matris cum Filio in opere salutari coniunctio a tempore virginalis conceptionis Christi ad Eius usque mortem manifestatur; in primis quidem cum Maria, exsurgens cum festinatione ad visitandam Elisabeth, ab ea ob fidem suam in salutem promissam beata salutatur et praecursor in sinu matris exsultavit (cf. Lc 1,41-45); in nativitate vero, cum Deipara Filium suum primogenitum, qui virginalem eius integritatem non minuit sed sacravit[180], pastoribus et Magis laetabunda ostendit. Cum autem Eum in templo, dono pauperum oblato, Domino praesentavit, audivit Simeonem simul praenuntiantem Filium futurum contradictionis signum et matris animam gladium pertransiturum, ut revelarentur ex multis cordibus cogitationes. (cf. Lc 2,34-35) Puerum Iesum deperditum ac cum dolore quaesitum, parentes eius in templo invenerunt in his quae Patris Eius erant occupatum; verbumque Filii non intellexerunt. Mater vero Eius omnia haec in corde suo meditabunda conservabat. (cf. Lc 2,41-51)

§ 58

[E] In vita publica Iesu, Mater Eius signanter apparet, in initio quidem, cum ad nuptias in Cana Galilaeae, misericordia permota, initium signorum Iesu Messiae intercessione sua induxit. (cf. Io 2,1-11) In decursu praedicationis Eius suscepit verba, quibus Filius, Regnum ultra rationes et vincula carnis et sanguinis extollens, audientes et custodientes verbum Dei, sicut ipsa fideliter faciebat (cf. Lc 2,19 et 51), beatos proclamavit. (cf. Mc 3,35; Lc 11,27-28) Ita etiam B. Virgo in peregrinatione fidei processit, suamque unionem cum Filio fideliter sustinuit usque ad crucem, ubi non sine divino consilio stetit (cf. Io 19,25), vehementer cum Unigenito suo condoluit et sacrificio Eius se materno animo sociavit, victimae de se genitae immolationi amanter consentiens; ac demum ab eodem Christo Iesu in cruce moriente uti mater discipulo, hisce verbis data est: Mulier, ecce filius tuus.[181] (cf. Io 19,26-27)

§ 59

[E] Cum vero Deo placuerit humanae salutis sacramentum non ante solemniter manifestare quam promissum a Christo Spiritum effunderet, Apostolos videmus ante diem Pentecostes «perseverantes unanimiter in oratione cum mulieribus et Maria Matre Iesu et fratribus Eius» (Act 1,14), Mariam quoque precibus suis implorantem donum Spiritus, qui in Annuntiatione ipsam iam obumbraverat. Denique Immaculata Virgo, ab omni originalis culpae labe praeservata immunis[182], expleto terrestris vitae cursu, corpore et anima ad coelestem gloriam assumpta est[183], ac tamquam universorum Regina a Domino exaltata, ut plenius conformaretur Filio suo, Domino dominantium (cf. Apoc 19,16) ac peccati mortisque victori.[184]

III. De Beata Virgine et Ecclesia

§ 60

[E] Unicus est Mediator noster secundum verba Apostoli: «Unus enim Deus, unus et mediator Dei et hominum homo Christus Iesus, qui dedit redemptionem semetipsum pro omnibus». (I Tim 2,5-6) Mariae autem maternum munus erga homines hanc Christi unicam mediationem nullo modo obscurat nec minuit, sed virtutem eius ostendit. Omnis enim salutaris Beatae Virginis influxus in homines non ex aliqua rei necessitate, sed ex beneplacito divino exoritur et ex superabundantia meritorum Christi profluit, Eius mediationi innititur, ab illa omnino dependet, ex eademque totam virtutem haurit; unionem autem immediatam credentium cum Christo nullo modo impedit sed fovet.

§ 61

[E] Beata Virgo, ab aeterno una cum divini Verbi incarnatione tamquam Mater Dei praedestinata, divinae Providentiae consilio, his in terris exstitit alma divini Redemptoris Mater, singulariter prae aliis generosa socia, et humilis ancilla Domini. Christum concipiens, generans, alens, in templo Patri sistens, Filioque suo in cruce morienti compatiens, operi Salvatoris singulari prorsus modo cooperata est, oboedientia, fide, spe et flagrante caritate, ad vitam animarum supernaturalem restaurandam. Quam ob causam mater nobis in ordine gratiae exstitit.

§ 62

[E] Haec autem in gratiae oeconomia maternitas Mariae indesinenter perdurat, inde a consensu quem in Annuntiatione fideliter praebuit, quemque sub cruce incunctanter sustinuit, usque ad perpetuam omnium electorum consummationem. In coelis enim assumpta salutiferum hoc munus non deposuit, sed multiplici intercessione sua pergit in aeternae salutis donis nobis conciliandis.[185] Materna sua caritate de fratribus Filii sui adhuc peregrinantibus necnon in periculis et angustiis versantibus curat, donec ad felicem patriam perducantur. Propterea B. Virgo in Ecclesia titulis Advocatae, Auxiliatricis, Adiutricis, Mediatricis invocatur.[186] Quod tamen ita intelligitur, ut dignitati et efficacitati Christi unius Mediatoris nihil deroget, nihil superaddat.[187]

§ 62b

[E] Nulla enim creatura cum Verbo incarnato ac Redemptore connumerari umquam potest; sed sicut sacerdotium Christi variis modis tum a ministris tum a fideli populo participatur, et sicut una bonitas Dei in creaturis modis diversis realiter diffunditur, ita etiam unica mediatio Redemptoris non excludit, sed suscitat variam apud creaturas participatam ex unico fonte cooperationem.

Tale autem munus subordinatum Mariae Ecclesia profiteri non dubitat, iugiter experitur et fidelium cordi commendat, ut hoc materno fulti praesidio Mediatori ac Salvatori intimius adhaereant.

§ 63

[E] Beata autem Virgo divinae maternitatis dono et munere, quo cum Filio Redemptore unitur, suisque singularibus gratiis et muneribus, etiam cum Ecclesia intime coniungitur: Deipara est Ecclesiae typus, ut iam docebat S. Ambrosius, in ordine scilicet fidei, caritatis et perfectae cum Christo unionis.[188] In mysterio enim Ecclesiae, quae et ipsa iure mater vocatur et virgo, Beata Virgo Maria praecessit, eminenter et singulariter tum virginis tum matris exemplar praebens.[189] Credens enim et oboediens, ipsum Filium Patris in terris genuit, et quidem viri nescia, Spiritu Sancto obumbrata, tamquam nova Heva, non serpenti antiquo, sed Dei nuntio praestans fidem, nullo dubio adulteratam. Filium autem peperit, quem Deus posuit primogenitum in multis fratribus (cf. Rom 8,29), fidelibus nempe, ad quos gignendos et educandos materno amore cooperatur.

§ 64

[E] Iamvero Ecclesia, eius arcanam sanctitatem contemplans et caritatem imitans, voluntatemque Patris fideliter adimplens, per verbum Dei fideliter susceptum et ipsa fit mater: praedicatione enim ac baptismo filios, de Spiritu Sancto conceptos et ex Deo natos, ad vitam novam et immortalem generat. Et ipsa est virgo, quae fidem Sponso datam integre et pure custodit, et imitans Domini sui Matrem, virtute Spiritus Sancti, virginaliter servat integram fidem, solidam spem, sinceram caritatem.[190]

§ 65

[E] Dum autem Ecclesia in Beatissima Virgine ad perfectionem iam pertingit, qua sine macula et ruga existit (cf. Eph 5,27), christifideles adhuc nituntur, ut devincentes peccatum in sanctitate crescant; ideoque oculos suos ad Mariam attollunt, quae toti electorum communitati tamquam exemplar virtutum praefulget. Ecclesia de Ea pie recogitans Eamque in lumine Verbi hominis facti contemplans, in summum incarnationis mysterium venerabunda penitius intrat, Sponsoque suo magis magisque conformatur. Maria enim, quae, in historiam salutis intime ingressa, maxima fidei placita in se quodammodo unit et reverberat, dum praedicatur et colitur, ad Filium suum Eiusque sacrificium atque ad amorem Patris credentes advocat. Ecclesia vero, gloriam Christi prosequens, praecelso suo Typo similior efficitur, continuo progrediens in fide, spe et caritate, ac divinam voluntatem in omnibus quaerens et obsequens. Unde etiam in opere suo apostolico Ecclesia ad Eam merito respicit, quae genuit Christum, ideo de Spiritu Sancto conceptum et de Virgine natum, ut per Ecclesiam in cordibus quoque fidelium nascatur et crescat. Quae Virgo in sua vita exemplum exstitit materni illius affectus, quo cuncti in missione apostolica Ecclesiae cooperantes ad regenerandos homines animentur oportet.

IV. De cultu Beatae Virginis in Ecclesia

§ 66

[E] Maria, per gratiam Dei post Filium prae omnibus angelis et hominibus exaltata, utpote sanctissima Dei Mater, quae mysteriis Christi interfuit, speciali cultu ab Ecclesia merito honoratur. Et sane ab antiquissimis temporibus Beata Virgo sub titulo «Deiparae» colitur, sub cuius praesidium fideles in cunctis periculis et necessitatibus suis deprecantes confugiunt.[191] Inde praesertim ab Ephesina Synodo cultus Populi Dei erga Mariam mirabiliter crevit in veneratione et dilectione, in invocatione et imitatione, secundum ipsius verba prophetica: «Beatam me dicent omnes generationes, quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est». (Lc 1,48-49) Qui cultus, prout in Ecclesia semper exstitit, singularis omnino quamquam est, essentialiter differt a cultu adorationis, qui Verbo incarnato aeque ac Patri et Spiritui Sancto exhibetur, eidemque potissimum favet. Variae enim formae pietatis erga Dei Genitricem, quas Ecclesia intra limites sanae et orthodoxae doctrinae, pro temporum et locorum conditionibus et pro indole ingenioque fidelium approbavit, id efficiunt ut dum Mater honoratur, Filius, propter quem omnia (cf. Col 1,15-16) et in quo aeterno Patri «complacuit omnem plenitudinem inhabitare» (Col 1,19), rite noscatur, ametur, glorificetur, Eiusque mandata serventur.

§ 67

[E] Hanc catholicam doctrinam Sacrosancta Synodus consulto docet, simulque omnes Ecclesiae filios admonet, ut cultum, praesertim liturgicum, erga Beatam Virginem generose foveant, praxes autem et exercitia pietatis erga Eam saeculorum cursu a Magisterio commendata magni faciant et ea quae anteactis temporibus de cultu imaginum Christi, Beatae Virginis et Sanctorum decreta fuere, religiose servent.[192] Theologos autem verbique divini praecones enixe exhortatur, ut aeque ab omni falsa superlatione, quemadmodum et a nimia mentis angustia, in singulari Deiparae dignitate consideranda sedulo abstineant.[193] Studium Sacrae Scripturae, Sanctorum Patrum et Doctorum Ecclesiaeque liturgiarum sub ductu Magisterii excolentes, recte illustrent munera et privilegia Beatae Virginis, quae semper Christum spectant, totius veritatis, sanctitatis et pietatis originem. Sedulo arceant quaecumque sive in dictis sive in factis fratres seiunctos vel alios quoscumque in errorem circa veram Ecclesiae doctrinam inducere possent. Meminerint porro fideles veram devotionem neque in sterili et transitorio affectu, neque in vana quadam credulitate consistere, sed a vera fide procedere, qua ad Dei Genitricis excellentiam agnoscendam adducimur, et ad filialem erga Matrem nostram amorem eiusque virtutum imitationem excitamur.

V. Maria, signum certae spei et solatii peregrinanti Populo Dei

§ 68

[E] Interim autem Mater Iesu, quemadmodum in coelis corpore et anima iam glorificata, imago et initium est Ecclesiae in futuro saeculo consummandae, ita his in terris, quoadusque advenerit dies Domini (cf. II Pt 3,10), tamquam signum certae spei et solatii peregrinanti Populo Dei praelucet.

§ 69

[E] Sacrosanctae huic Synodo magnum affert gaudium et solatium, etiam inter fratres seiunctos non deesse, qui Matri Domini ac Salvatoris debitum afferunt honorem, speciatim apud Orientales, qui ad cultum Deiparae semper Virginis fervido impulsu ac devoto animo concurrunt.[194] Universi christifideles supplicationes instantes ad Matrem Dei et Matrem hominum effundant, ut Ipsa, quae primitiis Ecclesiae precibus suis adstitit, nunc quoque in coelo super omnes Beatos et Angelos exaltata, in omnium Sanctorum Communione apud Filium suum intercedat, donec cunctae familiae populorum, sive quae christiano nomine decorantur, sive quae Salvatorem suum adhuc ignorant, cum pace et concordia in unum Populum Dei feliciter congregentur, ad gloriam Sanctissimae et individuae Trinitatis.


Subscriptiones

Haec omnia et singula quae in hac Constitutione dogmatica edicta sunt placuerunt Sacrosancti Concilii Patribus. Et Nos, Apostolica a Christo Nobis tradita potestate, illa una cum Venerabilibus Patribus, in Spiritu Sancto approbamus, decernimus ac statuimus et quae ita synodaliter statuta sunt ad Dei gloriam promulgari iubemus.

Romae, apud S. Petrum die XXI mensis Novemhris anno MCMLXIV.

Ego PAULUS Catholicae Ecclesiae Episcopus

† Ego EUGENIUS Episcopus Ostiensis ac Portuensis et S. Rufinae Cardinalis TISSERANT, Sacri Collegii Decanus.

† Ego IOSEPHUS Episcopus Albanensis Cardinalis PIZZARDO.

† Ego BENEDICTUS Episcopus Praenestinus Cardinalis ALOISI MASELLA.

† Ego HAMLETUS IOANNES Episcopus tit. Tusculanus Cardinalis CICOGNANI.

† Ego IOSEPHUS Episcopus tit. Sabinensis et Mandelensis Cardinalis FERRETTO.

† Ego EMMANUEL titulo Ss. Marcellini et Petri Presbyter Cardinalis GONÇALVES CEREJEIRA, Patriarcha Lisbonensis.

† Ego IGNATIUS GABRIEL titulo Basilicae XII Apostolorum Presbyter Cardinalis TAPPOUNI, Patriarcha Antiochenus Syrorum.

Ego IACOBUS ALOISIUS titulo S. Laurentii in Damaso Prsbyter Cardinalis COPELLO, S. R. E. Cancellarius.

† Ego PETRUS titulo Ssmae Trinitatis in Monte Pincio Presbyter Cardinalis GERLIER, Archiepiscopus Lugdunensis et Viennensis, Primas Galliae.

Ego GREGORIUS PETRUS titulo Ss. Bartholomaei in insula Presbyter Cardinalis AGAGIANIAN.

† Ego NORMANNUS THOMAS titulo Ss. Quattuor Coronatorum Presbyter Cardinalis GILROY, Archiepiscopus Sydneyensis.

† Ego IOSEPHUS titulo S. Ioannis ante Portam Latinam Presbyter Cardinalis FRINGS, Archiepiscopus Coloniensis.

† Ego ERNESTUS titulo S. Sabinae Presbyter Cardinalis RUFFINI, Archiepiscopus Panormitanus.

† Ego ANTONIUS titulo S. Laurentii in Panisperna Presbyter Cardinalis CAGGIANO, Archiepiscopus Bonaërensis.

Ego PETRUS titulo S. Laurentii in Lucina Presbyter Cardinalis CIRIACI.

† Ego MAURITIUS titulo S. Mariae de Pace Presbyter Cardinalis FELTIN, Archiepiscopus Parisiensis.

† Ego IACOBUS titulo S. Mariae in Transpontina Presbyter Cardinalis LERCARO, Archiepiscopus Bononiensis.

† Ego STEPHANUS titulo S. Mariae trans Tiberim Presbyter Cardinalis WYSZYNSKI, Archiepiscopus Gnesnensis et Varsaviensis, Primas Poloniae.

† Ego FERDINANDUS titulo S. Augustini Presbyter Cardinalis QUIROGA Y PALACIOS, Archiepiscopus Compostellanus.

† Ego PAULUS AEMILIUS titulo S. Mariae Angelorum in Thermis Presbyter Cardinalis LEGER, Archiepiscopus Marianopolitanus.

† Ego ALOISIUS titulo S. Mariae Novae Presbyter Cardinalis CONCHA, Archiepiscopus Bogotensis.

Ego IOSEPHUS titulo S. Priscae Presbyter Cardinalis DA COSTA NUNES.

Ego HILDEBRANDUS titulo S. Sebastiani ad Catacumbas Presbyter Cardinalis ANTONIUTTI.

Ego EPHRAEM titulo S. Crucis in Hierusalem Presbyter Cardinalis FORNI.

† Ego IOANNES titulo S. Mariae de Aracoeli Presbyter Cardinalis LANDAZURI RICKETTS, Archiepiscopus Limanus, Primas Peruviae.

† Ego RADULFUS titulo S. Bernardi ad Thermas Presbyter Cardinalis SILVA HENRIQUEZ, Archiepiscopus S. Iacobi in Chile.

† Ego LEO IOSEPHUS titulo S. Petri ad Vincula Presbyter Cardinalis SUENENS, Archiepiscopus Mechliniensis-Bruxellensis.

Ego ALAPHRIDUS S. Mariae in Domnica Protodiaconus Cardinalis OTTAVIANI.

Ego ALBERTUS S. Pudentianae Diaconus Cardinalis DI JORIO.

Ego FRANCISCUS S. Mariae in Cosmedin Diaconus Cardinalis ROBERTI.

Ego ARCADIUS SS. Blasii et Caroli ad Catinarios Diaconus Cardinalis LARRAONA.

Ego FRANCISCUS SS. Cosmae et Damiani Diaconus Cardinalis MORANO.

Ego GUILLELMUS THEODORUS S. Theodori in Palatio Diaconus Cardinalis HEARD.

Ego AUGUSTINUS S. Sabae Diaconus Cardinalis BEA.

Ego ANTONIUS S. Eugenii Diaconus Cardinalis BACCI.

Ego FRATER MICHAEL S. Pauli Apostoli in Arenula Diaconus Cardinalis BROWNE.

Ego IOACHIM ANSELMUS S. Apollinaris Diaconus Cardinalis ALBAREDA.

† Ego STEPHANUS I SIDAROUSS, Patriarcha Alexandrinus Coptorum.

† Ego MAXIMUS IV SAIGH, Patriarcha Antiochenus Melchitarum.

† Ego PAULUS PETRUS MEOUCHI, Patriarcha Antiochenus Maronitarum.

† Ego ALBERTUS GORI, Patriarcha Hierosolymitanus Latinorum.

† Ego PAULUS II CHEIKHO, Patriarcha Babylonensis Chaldaeorum.

EX ACTIS SS. OECUMENICI CONCILII VATICANI II


NOTIFICATIONES

Factae ab Exc.mo Secretario Generali Ss. Concilii in Congregatione Generali CXXIII diei XVI Nov. MCMLXIV

[E] Quaesitum est quaenam esse debeat qualificatio theologica doctrinae, quae in Schemate de Ecclesia exponitur et suffragationi subicitur.

Commissio Doctrinalis quaesito responsionem dedit, in expendendis Modis spectantibus ad caput tertium Schematis de Ecclesia [DE CONSTITUTIONE HIERARCHICA ECCLESIAE ET IN SPECIE DE EPISCOPATU], hisce verbis:

Ut de se patet, textus Concilii semper secundum regulas generales, ab omnibus cognitas, interpretandus est.

Qua occasione Commissio Doctrinalis remittit ad suam Declarationem 6 martii 1964, cuius textum hic transcribimus:

[E] Ratione habita moris conciliaris ac praesentis Concilii finis pastoralis, haec S. Synodus ea tantum de rebus fidei vel morum ab Ecclesia tenenda definit, quae ut talia aperte ipsa declaraverit.

Cetera autem, quae S. Synodus proponit, utpote Supremi Ecclesiae Magisterii doctrinam, omnes ac singuli christifideles excipere et amplecti debent iuxta ipsius S. Synodi mentem, quae sive ex subiecta materia sive ex dicendi ratione innotescit, secundum normas theologicae interpretationis.

[E] Superiore dein Auctoritate communicatur Patribus nota explicativa praevia ad Modos circa caput tertium Schematis de Ecclesia, ad cuius notae mentem atque sententiam explicari et intelligi debet doctrina in eodem capite tertio exposita.

Nota explicativa praevia

«Commissio statuit expensioni Modorum sequentes observationes generales praemittere.

  1. [E] Collegium non intelligitur sensu stricte iuridico, scilicet de coetu aequalium, qui potestatem suam praesidi suo demandarent, sed de coetu stabili, cuius structura et auctoritas ex Revelatione deduci debent. Quapropter in Responsione ad Modum 12 explicite de Duodecim dicitur quod Dominus eos constituit «ad modum collegii seu coetus stabilis». Cf etiam Mod. 53, c. [Cf. §19] Ob eandem rationem, de Collegio Episcoporum passim etiam adhibentur vocabula Ordo vel Corpus. Parallelismus inter Petrum ceterosque Apostolos ex una parte, et Summum Pontificem et Episcopos ex altera parte, non implicat transmissionem potestatis extraordinariae Apostolorum ad successores eorum, neque, uti patet, aequalitatem inter Caput et membra Collegii, sed solam proportionalitatem inter primam relationem (Petrus-Apostoli) et alteram (Papa-Episcopi). Unde Commissio statuit scribere in n. 22: non eadem sed pari ratione. Cf Modum 57.
  2. [E] Aliquis fit membrum Collegii vi consecrationis episcopalis et communione hierarchica cum Collegii Capite atque membris. Cf n. 22, § 1 in fine.
  3. [E] Collegium, quod sine Capite non datur, dicitur: «subiectum quoque supremae ac plenae potestatis in universam Ecclesiam existere». Quod necessario admittendum est, ne plenitudo potestatis Romani Pontificis in discrimen poneretur. Collegium enim necessario et semper Caput suum cointelligit, quod in Collegio integrum servat suum munus Vicarii Christi et Pastoris Ecclesiae universalis. Aliis verbis distinctio non est inter Romanum Pontificem et Episcopos collective sumptos, sed inter Romanum Pontificem seorsim et Romanum Pontificem simul cum Episcopis. Quia vero Summus Pontifex est Caput Collegii, ipse solus quosdam actus facere potest, qui Episcopis nullo modo competunt, v. gr. Collegium convocare et dirigere, normas actionis approbare, etc. Cf. Modum 81. Ad iudicium Summi Pontificis, cui cura totius gregis Christi commissa est, spectat, secundum necessitates Ecclesiae decursu temporum variantes, determinare modum quo haec cura actuari conveniat, sive modo personali, sive modo collegiali. Romanus Pontifex ad collegiale exercitium ordinandum, promovendum, approbandum, intuitu boni Ecclesiae, secundum propriam discretionem procedit.
  4. [E] Summus Pontifex, utpote Pastor Supremus Ecclesiae, suam potestatem omni tempore ad placitum exercere potest, sicut ab ipso suo munere requiritur. Collegium vero, licet semper exsistat, non propterea permanenter actione stricte collegiali agit, sicut ex Traditione Ecclesiae constat. Aliis verbis non semper est «in actu pleno», immo nonnisi per intervalla actu stricte collegiali agit et nonnisi consentiente Capite. Dicitur autem «consentiente Capite», ne cogitetur de dependentia velut ab aliquo extraneo; terminus «consentiens» evocat e contra communionem [communicabant] inter Caput et membra, et implicat necessitatem actus qui Capiti proprie competit. Res affirmatur explicite in n. 22, § 2 et explicatur ibid., in fine. Formula negativa «nonnisi» omnes casus comprehendit: unde evidens est quod normae a suprema Auctoritate approbatae semper observari debent. Cf. Modum 84.

† PERICLES FELICI Archiepiscopus tit. Samosatensis Ss. Concilii Secretarius Generalis


[1] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 64, 4: PL 3, 1017; CSEL (Hartel), III B, p. 720. S. HILARIUS PICT., In Mt 23,6: PL 9, 1047. S. AUGUSTINUS, passim. S. CYRILLUS ALEX., Glaph. in Gen. 2,10: PG 69, 110 A.

[2] S. GREGORIUS M., Hom. in Evang. 19, 1: PL 76, 1154 B. Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 341, 9, 11: PL 39, 1499 s. S. Io. DAMASCENUS, Adv. Iconocl. 11: PG 96, 1357.

[3] Cf. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 24, 1: PG 7, 966 B; HARVEY 2, 131, ed. SAGNARD, Sources Chr., p. 398.

[4] S. CYPRIANUS, De Orat. Dom. 23: PL 4, 553: HARTEL, III A, p. 285. S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 71, 20, 33: PL 38, 463s. S. Io. DAMASCENUS, Adv. Iconocl. 12: PG 96, 1358 D.

[5] Cf. ORIGENES, In Mt. 16,21: PG 13, 1443 C; TERTULLIANUS, Adv. Marc. 3, 7: PL 2, 357 C; CSEL 47, 3, p. 386. Pro documentis liturgicis, Cf. Sacramentarium Gregorianum: PL 78, 160 B; vel C. MOHLHERG, Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae, Romae, 1960, p. 111, XC: «Deus, qui ex omni coaptatione sanctorum aeternum tibi condis habitaculum ...». Hymnus Urbs Ierusalem beata in Breviario monastico, et Coelestis urbs Ierusalem in Breviario romano.

[6] Cf. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 62, a. 5, ad 1.

[7] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 208.

[8] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Divinum illud, 9 maii 1897: ASS 29 (1896-97), p. 650. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, l. c., pp. 219-220: DENZ. 2288 (3808). S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 268, 2: PL 38, 1232, et alibi. S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Eph, Hom. 9, 3: PG 62, 72. DIDYMUS ALEX., Trin. 2, 1: PG 39, 449s. S. THOMAS, In Col. 1, 18, lect. 5: ed. Marietti, II, n. 46: «Sicut constituitur unum corpus ex unitate animae, ita Ecclesia ex unitate Spiritus ...».

[9] Cf. LEO XIII, Litt. Encycl. Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. 1890: ASS 22 (1889-90), p. 392. ID., Epist Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), pp. 710 et 724ss. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, l. c., pp. 199-200.

[10] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, l. c., p. 221ss. ID., Litt. Encycl. Humani generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 571.

[11] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, l. c., p. 713

[12] Cf. Symbolum Apostolicum: DENZ. 6-9 (10-30); Symb. Nic.-Const.: DENZ. 86 (150); coll. Prof. fidei Trid.: DENZ. 994 et 999 (1862 et 1868). [MR 1029]

[13] Dicitur «Sancta (catholica apostolica) Romana Ecclesia», in Prof. fidei Trid., l. c. et CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. de fide cath. Dei Filius: DENZ. 1782 (3001).

[14] S. AUGUSTINUS, De civ. Dei, XVIII, 51, 2: PL 41, 614.

[14a] [Cf. Unde et memores, MR 1106]

[15] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 69, 6: PL 3, 1142 B; HARTEL 3 B, p. 754: «inseparabile unitatis sacramentum».

[16] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc. Magnificate Dominum, 2 nov. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 669. Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 555.

[17] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus redemptor, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 171s. PIUS XII, Alloc. Vous nous avez, 22 sept. 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 714.

[18] Cf. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 63, a. 2.

[19] Cf. S. CYRILLUS HIER., Catech. 17, de Spiritu Sancto, II, 35-37: PG 33, 1009-1012. NIC. CABASILAS, De vita in Christo, lib. III, de utilitate chrismatis: PG 150, 569-580. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 65, a. 3 et q. 72, a. 1 et 5.

[20] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), praesertim p. 552s.

[21] I Cor 7,7: «Unusquisque proprium donum (idion charisma [ἴδιον χάρισμα]) habet ex Deo, alius quidem sic, alius vero sic». Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, De Dono Persev., 14, 37: PL 45, 1015s.: «Non tantum continentia Dei donum est, sed coniugatorum etiam castitas».

[22] S. AUGUSTINUS, De Praed. Sanct. 14, 27: PL 44, 980.

[23] S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Io., Hom. 65, 1: PG 59, 361.

[24] Cf. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 16, 6; III, 22, 1-3: PG 7, 925 C-926 A et 955 C-958 A; HARVEY 2, 87s. et 120-123; SAGNARD, ed. Sources Chrét., pp. 290-292 et 372ss.

[25] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Rom, Praef.: ed. FUNK, I, 252.

[26] Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Bapt. c. Donat. V, 28, 39: PL 43, 197: «Certe manifestum est, id quod dicitur, in Ecclesia intus et foris, in corde, non in corpore cogitandum». Cf. ib., III, 19, 26: col. 152; V, 18, 24: col. 189; In Io, Tr. 61, 2: PL 35, 1800, et alibi saepe.

[27] Luc. 12, 48: «Omni autem, cui multum datum est, multum quaeretur ab eo». Cf. Mt 5,19-20; 7,21-22; 25,41-46; Iac 2,14.

[28] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Apost. Praeclara gratulationis, 20 iun. 1894: ASS 26 (1893-94), p. 707.

[29] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 738. Epist. Encycl. Caritatis studium, 25 iul. 1898: ASS 31 (1898-99), p. 11. PIUS XII, Nuntius radioph. Nell'alba, 24 dec. 1941: AAS 34 (1942), p. 21.

[30] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum orientalium, 8 sept. 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 287. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Orientalis ecclesiae [E], 9 apr. 1944: AAS 36 (1944), p. 137.

[31] Cf. Instr. S. S. C. S. OFFICII, 20 dec. 1949: AAS 42 (1950), p. 142.

[32] Cf. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 8, a. 3, ad 1.

[33] Cf. Epist. S. S. C. S. OFFICII ad Archiep. Boston.: DENZ. 3869-72.

[34] Cf. EUSEBIUS CAES., Praeparatio Evangelica, 1, 1: PG 21, 28 AB.

[35] Cf. BENEDICTUS XV, Epist. Apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 440, praesertim p. 451ss. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926), pp. 68-69. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Fidei donum, 21 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), pp. 236-237.

[36] Cf. Didachè, 14: ed. FUNK, I, p. 32. S. IUSTINUS, Dial. 41: PG 6, 564. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. IV, 17, 5: PG 7, 1023; HARVEY, 2, p. 199s. CONC. TRID., Sess. 22, cap. 1: DENZ. 939 (1742).

[37] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. De Ecclesia Christi, Pastor aeternus: DENZ. 1821 (3050s.).

[38] Cf. CONC. FLOR., Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 694 (1307) et CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. De Ecclesia Christi, Pastor aeternus: DENZ. 1826 (3059).

[39] Cf. Liber sacramentorum S. GREGORII, Praef. in natali S. Matthiae et S. Thomae: PL 78, 51 et 152; Cf. Cod. Vat. lat. 3548, f. 18. S. HILARIUS, In Ps. 67, 10: PL 9, 450, CSEL 22, p. 286. S. HIERONYMUS, Adv. Iovin. 1, 26: PL 23, 247 A. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Ps. 86, 4: PL 37, 1103. S. GREGORIUS M., Mor. in Iob, XXVIII, V: PL 76, 455-456. PRIMASIUS, Comm. in Apoc. V: PL 68, 924 BC. PASCHASIUS RADB., In Mt, L. VIII, cap. 16: PL 120, 561 C. Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: ASS 21 (1888), p. 321.

[40] Cf. Act 6,2-6; 11,30; 13,1; 14,23; 20,17; I Thess 5,12-13; Phil 1,1; Col 4,11 et passim.

[41] Cf. Act 20,25-27; II Tim 4,6 s. coll. I Tim 5,22; II Tim 2,2; Tit 1,5; S. CLEMENS ROM., Ad Cor. 44, 3: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 156.

[42] Cf. S. CLEMENS ROM., Ad Cor. 44, 2: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 154s.

[43] Cf. TERTULLIANUS, Praescr. Haer. 32: PL 2, 52 s. S. IGNATIUS M., passim.

[44] Cf. TERTULLIANUS, Praescr. Haer. 32: PL 2, 53.

[45] Cf. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848 A; HARVEY 2, 8; SAGNARD, p. 100 s.: «manifestatam».

[46] Cf. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 2, 2: PG 7, 847; HARVEY 2, 7, SAGNARD, p. 100: «custoditur», Cf. ib. IV, 26, 2: col. 1053; HARVEY 2, 236, necnon IV, 33, 8: col. 1077; HARVEY 2, 262.

[47] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad., Praef.: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 264.

[48] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad., 1, 1; Magn. 6, 1: ed. FUNK, 1, 264 et 234.

[49] S. CLEMENS ROM. l. c., 42, 3-4; 44, 3-4; 57, 1-2; ed. FUNK I, 152, 156, 171s. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad. 2; Smyrn. 8; Magn. 3; Trall. 7: ed. FUNK, I, p. 265s.; 282; 232; 246s. etc.; S. IUSTINUS, Apol., 1, 65: PG 6, 428; S. CYPRIANUS, Epist., passim.

[50] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 732.

[51] Cf. CONC. TRID., Decr. De sacr. Ordinis, cap. 4: DENZ. 960 (1768); CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. I De Ecclesia Christi, Pastor aeternus, cap. 3: DENZ. 1828 (3061). PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 209 et 212. CIC, can. 329 § 1.

[52] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: ASS 21 (1888), p. 321s.

[53] Cf. S. LEO M., Serm. 5, 3: PL 54, 154.

[54] CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, cap. 3, citat verba II Tim 1,6-7, ut demonstret Ordinem esse verum sacramentum: DENZ. 959 (1766).

[55] In Trad. Apost. 3: ed. BOTTE, Sources Chr., pp. 27-30, Episcopo tribuitur “primatus sacerdotii”. Cf. Sacramentarium Leonianum, ed. C. MOHLBERG, Sacramentarium Veronense, Romae, 1955, p. 119: «ad summi sacerdotii ministerium ... Comple in sacerdotibus tuis mysterii tui summam ...». IDEM, Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae, Romae, 1960, pp. 121-122: «Tribuas eis, Domine, cathedram episcopalem ad regendam Ecclesiam tuam et plebem universam». Cf. PL 78, 224.

[56] Cf. Trad Apost. 2: ed. BOTTE, p. 27.

[57] Cf. CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, cap. 4, docet Ordinis sacramentum imprimere characterem indelebilem: DENZ. 960 (1767). Cf. IOANNES XXIII, Alloc. Iubilate Deo, 8 maii 1960: AAS 52 (1960), p. 466. PAULUS VI, Homilia in Bas. Vaticana, 20 oct. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 1014.

[58] S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 63, 14: PL 4, 386; HARTEL, III B, p. 713: «Sacerdos vice Christi vere fungitur». S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In 2 Tim., Hom. 2, 4: PG 62, 612: Sacerdos est «symbolon» Christi. S. AMBROSIUS, In Ps. 38, 25-26: PL 14, 1051-52; CSEL 64, 203-204. AMBROSIASTER, In I Tim 5, 19: PL 17, 479 C et In Eph 4, 11-12: col. 387 C. THEODORUS MOPS., Hom. Catech. XV, 21 et 24: ed. TONNEAU, pp. 497 et 503. HESYCHIUS HIER., In Lev., L. 2, 9, 23: PG 93, 894 B.

[59] Cf. EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccl., V, 24, 10: GCS II, 1, p. 495; ed. BARDY, Sources Chrét. II, p. 69. DIONYSIUS, apud EUSEBIUM, ib. VII, 5, 2: GCS II, 2, p. 638 s.; BARDY, II, p. 168s.

[60] Cf. de antiquis Conciliis, EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccl. V, 23-24: GCS II, 1, p. 488ss.; BARDY, II, p. 66 ss. et passim. CONC. NICAENUM, can. 5: Conc. Oec. Decr. p. 7.

[61] Cf. TERTULLIANUS, De Ieiunio, 13: PL 2, 972 B; CSEL 20, p. 292, lin. 13-16.

[62] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 56, 3: HARTEL, III B, p. 650; BAYARD, p. 154.

[63] Cf. Relatio officialis ZINELLI, in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 52, 1109 C.

[64] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Schema Const. dogm. II, De Ecclesia Christi, c. 4: MANSI 53, 310. Cf. relatio KLEUTGEN de Schemate reformato: MANSI 53, 321 B-322 B et declaratio ZINELLI: MANSI 52, 1110 A. Vide etiam S. LEONEM M., Serm. 4, 3: PL 54, 151 A.

[65] Cf. CIC, cann. 222 et 227.

[66] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. Dogm. Pastor aeternus: DENZ. 1821 (3050s.).

[67] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 66, 8: HARTEL III, 2, p. 733: «Episcopus in Ecclesia et Ecclesia in Episcopo».

[68] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 55, 24: HARTEL, p. 624, lin. 13: «Una Ecclesia per totum mundum in multa membra divisa». Epist. 36, 4: HARTEL, p. 575, lin. 20-21.

[69] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt Encycl. Fidei donum, 21 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 237.

[70] Cf. S. HILARIUS PICT., In Ps. 14, 3: PL 9, 206; CSEL 22, p. 86. S. GREGORIUS M., Moral. IV, 7, 12: PL 75, 643 C. Ps.-BASILIUS, In Is. 15, 296: PG 30, 637 C.

[71] Cf. S. COELESTINUS, Epist. 18, 1-2, ad Conc. Eph: PL 50, 505 AB; SCHWARTZ, Acta Conc. Oec. I, 1, 1, p. 22. Cf. BENEDICTUS XV, Epist. Apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 440. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum ecclesiae, 28 febr. 1926: AAS 18 (1926), p. 69. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Fidei donum, l.c.

[72] Cf. LEO XIII, Litt. encycl. Grande munus, 30 sept. 1880: ASS 13 (1880), p. 145. Cf. CIC, can. 1327; can. 1350 § 2.

[73] De iuribus Sedium patriarchalium, Cf. CONC. NICAENUM, can. 6 de Alexandria et Antiochia, et can. 7 de Hierosolymis: Conc. Oec. Decr., p. 8. CONC. LATER. IV, anno 1215, Constit. V: De dignitate Patriarcharum: ibid. p. 212. CONC. FERR.-FLOR.: ibid. p. 504.

[74] Cf. Cod. Iuris Can., pro Eccl. Orient., cann. 216-314: de Patriarchis; cc. 324-339 de Archiepiscopis maioribus; cc. 362-391: de aliis dignitariis; in specie, c. 238 § 3; 216; 240; 251; 255: de Episcopis a Patriarcha nominandis.

[75] Cf. CONC. TRID., Decr. De reform., Sess. V, c. 2, n. 9, et Sess. XXIV, can. 4: Conc. Oec. Decr., pp. 645 et 739.

[76] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Dei Filius, 3: DENZ. 1792 (3011). Cf. nota adiecta ad Schema I De Eccl. (desumpta ex S. ROB. BELLARMINO): MANSI 51, 579 C; necnon Schema reformatum Const. II De Ecclesia Christi, cum commentario KLEUTGEN: MANSI 53, 313 AB. PIUS IX, Epist. Tuas libenter: DENZ. 1683 (2879).

[77] Cf. CIC, cann. 1322-1323.

[78] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus: Denz. 1839 (3074).

[79] Cf. explicatio GASSER in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 52, 1213 AC.

[80] Cf. GASSER in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 1214 A.

[81] Cf. GASSER in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 1215 CD, 1216-1217 A.

[82] Cf. GASSER in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 1213.

[83] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus, 4: DENZ. 1836 (3070).

[84] Oratio consecrationis episcopalis in ritu byzantino: Euchologion to mega, Romae, 1873, p. 139.

[85] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Smyrn. 8, 1: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 282.

[86] Cf. Act 8,1; Act 14,22-23; Act 20,17, et passim.

[87] Oratio mozarabica: PL 96, 759 B.

[88] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Smyrn. 8, 1: ed. FUNK, I, p. 282.

[89] S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 73, a. 3.

[90] Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS C. Faustum, 12, 20: PL 42, 265; Serm. 57, 7: PL 38, 389, etc.      

[91] S. Leo M., Serm. 63, 7: PL 54, 357 C.

[92] Cf. Traditio Apostolica Hippolyti, 2-3: ed. BOTTE, pp. 26-30.

[93] Cf. textus examinis in initio consecrationis episcopalis, et Oratio in fine Missae eiusdem consecrationis, post Te Deum.

[94] BENEDICTUS XIV, Br. Romana Ecclesia, 5 oct. 1752, § 1: Bullarium Benedicti XIV, t. IV, Romae, 1758, 21: «Episcopus Christi typum gerit, Eiusque munere fungitur». PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, l. c., p. 211: «Assignatos sibi greges singuli singulos Christi nomine pascunt et regunt».

[95] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: AAS 28 (1895-96), p. 732. IDEM, Epist. Officio sanctissimo, 22 dec. 1887: ASS 20 (1887), p. 264. PIUS IX, Litt. Apost. ad Episcopos Germaniae, 12 mart. 1875, et Alloc. Consist., 15 mart. 1875: DENZ. 3112-3117, in nova ed. tantum.

[96] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus, 3: DENZ. 1828 (3061). Cf. Relatio ZINELLI: MANSI 52, 1114 D.

[97] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Ephes. 5, 1: ed. FUNK, I, p. 216.

[98] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Ephes. 6, 1: ed. FUNK, I, p. 218.

[99] Cf. CONC. TRID., De sacr. Ordinis, cap. 2: DENZ. 958 (1765), et can. 6: DENZ. 966 (1776).

[100] Cf. INNOCENTIUS I, Epist. ad Decentium: PL 20, 554 A; MANSI 3, 1029; DENZ. 98 (215): «Presbyteri, licet secundi sint sacerdotes, pontificatus tamen apicem non habent». S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 61, 3: ed. HARTEL, p. 696.

[101] Cf. CONC. TRID., l. c., DENZ. 956a-968 (1763-1778), et in specie can. 7: DENZ. 967 (1777). PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Sacramentum ordinis: DENZ. 2301 (3857-61).

[102] Cf. INNOCENTIUS I, l. c. S. GREGORIUS NAZ., Apol. II, 22: PG 35, 432 B. Ps.-DIONYSIUS, Eccl. Hier., 1, 2: PG 3, 372 D.

[103] Cf. CONC. TRID., Sess. 22: DENZ. 940 (1743). PIUS XII Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 553: DENZ. 2300 (3850).

[104] Cf. CONC. TRID., Sess. 22: DENZ. 938 (1739-40). CONC. VAT. II, Const. De Sacra Liturgia, Sacrosanctum Concilium, n. 7 et n. 47, AAS 56 (1964), pp. 100-113.

[105] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, l. c., sub n. 67.

[106] Cf. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 11, 3: PL 4, 242 B; HARTEL, II, 2, p. 497.

[107] Cf. Pontificale romanum, De Ordinatione Presbyterorum, in impositione vestimentorum.

[108] Cf. Pontificale romanum, De Ordinatione Presbyterorum, in praefatione.

[109] CCf. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad. 4: ed. FUNK, I, p. 266. S. CORNELIUS I, apud S. CYPRIANUM, Epist. 48, 2: HARTEL, III, 2, p. 610.

[110] Constitutiones Ecclesiae Aegyptiacae, III, 2: ed. FUNK, Didascalia, II, p. 103. Statuta Eccl. Ant. 37-41: MANSI 3, 954.

[111] S. POLYCARPUS, Ad Phil. 5, 2: ed. FUNK, I, p. 300: Christus dicitur «omnium diaconus factus». Cf. Didachè, 15, 1: ib., p. 32. S. IGNATIUS M., Trall. 2, 3: ib., p. 242. Constitutiones Apostolorum, 8, 28, 4: ed. FUNK, Didascalia, I, p. 530.

[112] S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 340, 1: PL 38, 1483.

[113] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Quadragesimo anno, 15 maii 1931: AAS 23 (1931), p. 221s. PIUS XII, Alloc. De quelle consolation, 14 oct. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 790s.

[114] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc. Six ans se sont écoulés, 5 oct. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 927.

[115] Missale romanum, e Praefatione festi Christi Regis. [MR 1080]

[116] Cf. LEO XIII, Epist. Encycl. Immortale Dei, 1 nov. 1885: ASS 18 (1885), p. 166ss. IDEM, Litt. Encycl. Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. 1890: ASS 22 (1889-90), p. 397ss. PIUS XII, Alloc. Alla vostra filiale, 23 mart. 1958: AAS 50 (1958), p. 220: «la legittima sana laicità dello Stato».

[117] Cf. CIC, can. 682.

[118] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc. De quelle consolation, l. c., p. 789: «Dans les batailles décisives, c'est parfois du front que partent les plus heureuses initiatives ...». IDEM, Alloc. L'importance de la presse catholique, 17 febr. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 256.

[119] Cf. I Thess 5,19 et I Io 4,1.

[120] Epist. ad Diognetum, 6: ed. FUNK, I, p. 400. Cf. S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Mt., Hom. 46 (47), 2: PG 58, 478, de fermento in massa.

[121] Missale romanum, Gloria in excelsis. [MR 1025] Cf. Lc 1,35; Mc 1,24; Lc 4,34; Io 6,69 (ho hagios tou Theou) [Io 6,69: πεπιστεύκαμεν ἐγνώκαμεν ἅγιος θεοῦ]; Act 3,14; 4,27 et 30; Hebr 7,26; I Io 2,20; Apoc 3,7.

[122] Cf. ORIGENES, Comm. Rom 7, 7: PG 14, 1122 B. PS.-MACARIUS, De Oratione, 11: PG 34, 861 AB. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3.

[123] Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Retract. II, 18: PL 32, 637s. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 225.

[124] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum omnium, 26 ian. 1923: AAS 15 (1923), pp. 50 et 59-60; Litt. Encycl. Casti connubii, 31 dec 1930: AAS 22 (1930), p. 548. PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Provida Mater, 2 febr. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 117. Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 27-28. Alloc. Nel darvi, 1 iul. 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 574s.

[125] Cf. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol., II-II, q. 184, a. 5 et 6. De perf. vitae spir., c. 18. ORIGENES, In Is., Hom. 6, 1: PG 13, 239.

[126] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Magn. 13, 1: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 241.

[127] Cf. S. PIUS X, Exhort. Haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: ASS 41 (1908), p. 560s. CIC, can. 124. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), p. 22.

[128] Cf. Pontificale romanum, De Ordinatione Presbyterorum, in exhortatione initiali.

[129] Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Trall. 2, 3: ed. FUNK, 1, p. 244.

[130] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. 1957: AAS 50 (1958), p. 36.

[131] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Casti connubii, 31 dec. 1930: AAS 22 (1930), p. 548s. S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Ephes., Hom. 20, 2: PG 62, 136ss.

[132] Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Enchir. 121, 32: PL 40, 288. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 1. PIUS XII, Adhort. Apost. Menti nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 660.

[133] De consiliis in genere, Cf. ORIGENES, Comm. Rom. X, 14: PG 14, 1275 B. S. AUGUSTINUS, De S. Virginitate, 15, 15: PL 40, 403. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. I-II, q. 100, a. 2 C (in fine); II-II, q. 44, a. 4, ad 3.

[134] De praestantia sacrae virginitatis, Cf. TERTULLIANUS, Exhort. Cast. 10: PL 2, 925 C. S. CYPRIANUS, Hab. Virg. 3 et 22: PL 4, 443 B et 461 As. S. ATHANASIUS (?), De Virg.: PG 28, 252ss. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, De Virg.: PG 48, 533ss.

[135] De spirituali paupertate Cf. Mt 5,3 et 19,21; Mc 10,21; Lc 18,22; de oboedientia exemplum Christi affertur Io 4,34 et 6,38; Phil 2,8-10; Hebr 10,5-7. Patres et ordinum fundatores abundant.

[136] De praxi effectiva consiliorum quae non omnibus imponitur, Cf. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Mt, Hom. 7, 7: PG 57, 81s. S. AMBROSIUS, De Viduis, 4, 23: PL 16, 241s.

[137] Cf. ROSWEYDUS, Vitae Patrum, Antwerpiae, 1628. Apophtegmata Patrum: PG 65. PALLADIUS, Historia Lausiaca: PG 34, 995ss.: ed. C. BUTLER, Cambridge 1898 (1904). PIUS XI, Const. Apost. Umbratilem, 8 iul. 1924: AAS 16 (1924), pp. 386-387. PIUS XII, Alloc. Nous sommes heureux, 11 apr. 1958: AAS 50 (1958), p. 283.

[138] Cf. PAULUS VI, Alloc. Magno gaudio, 23 maii 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 566.

[139] Cf. CIC, cann. 487 et 488, 4o. PIUS XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), p. 27s. PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Provida Mater, 2 febr. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 120ss.

[140] Cf. PAULUS VI, l. c., p. 567.

[141] Cf. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3 et q. 188, a. 2. S. BONAVENTURA, Opusc. XI, Apologia Pauperum, c. 3, 3: ed. Opera, Quaracchi, t. 8, 1898, p. 245 a.

[142] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Schema De Ecclesia Christi, cap. XV, et Adnot. 48: MANSI 51, 549s. et 619s. LEO XIII, Epist. Au milieu des consolations, 23 dec. I900: ASS 33 (1900-01), p. 361. PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Provida Mater. l. c., p. 114s.

[143] Cf. LEO XIII, Const. Romanos pontifices, 8 maii 1881: ASS 13 (1880-81), p. 483. PIUS XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), p. 28s.

[144] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc Annus sacer, l. c., p. 28. PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Sedes sapientiae, 31 maii 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 355. PAULUS VI, Alloc. Magno gaudio, 23 maii 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 570-571.

[145] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 214s.

[146] Cf. PIUS XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, l. c., p. 30. Alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. 1957: AAS 50 (1958), p. 39s.

[147] CONC. FLOR., Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 693 (1305).

[148] Praeter documenta antiquiora contra quamlibet formam evocationis spirituum inde ab Alexandro IV (27 sept. 1258), Cf. Encycl. S. S. C. S. OFFICII, De magnetismi abusu, 4 aug. 1856: ASS 1 (1865), pp. 177-178, DENZ. 1653-1654 (2823-2825); responsionem S. S. C. S. OFFICII, 24 apr. 1917: AAS 9 (1917), p. 268: DENZ. 2182 (3642).

[149] Videatur synthetica expositio huius doctrinae paulinae in: PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943), p. 200 et passim.

[150] Cf, v. g., S. AUGUSTINUS, Enarr. in Ps. 85, 24: PL 37, 1099. S. HIERONYMUS, Liber contra Vigilantium, 6: PL 23, 344. S. THOMAS, In 4m Sent., d. 45, q. 3, a. 2. S. BONAVENTURA, In 4m Sent., d. 45, a. 3, q. 2; etc.

[151] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943), p. 245.

[152] Cf. Plurimae inscriptiones in Catacumbis romanis.

[153] Cf. GELASIUS I, Decretalis De libris recipiendis, 3: PL 59, 160: DENZ. 165 (353).

[154] Cf. S. METHODIUS, Symposion, VII, 3: GCS (BONWETSCH), p. 74.

[155] Cf. BENEDICTUS XV, Decretum approbationis virtutum in Causa beatificationis et canonizationis Servi Dei Ioannis Nepomuceni Neumann: AAS 14 (1922), p. 23; plures Allocutiones PII XI de Sanctis: Inviti all'eroismo, in Discorsi e Radiomessaggi, tt. I-III, 1941-1942, passim; PIUS XII, Discorsi e Radiomessaggi, t. X, 1949, 37-43.

[155a] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl : Mediator Dei: AAS 39 (1947) p . 581. [NB: This corresponds to English note 7.10, not present in Latin. Also, Online Latin version repeats footnote 158 twice.]

[156] Cf. Hebr 13,7; Eccli 44-50; Hebr 11,3-40. Cf. etiam PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei: AAS 39 (1947), pp. 582-583.

[157] Cf. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. De fide catholica, Dei Filius, cap. 3: DENZ. 1794 (3013).

[158] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943), p. 216. [NB: Online Latin version refers to footnote 158 twice.]

[159] Quoad gratitudinem erga ipsos Sanctos, Cf. E. DIEHL, Inscriptiones latinae christianae veteres, I, Berolini, 1925, nn. 2008, 2382 et passim.

[160] CONC. TRID, Decr. De invocatione ... Sanctorum: DENZ. 984 (1821).

[161] Breviarium romanum, Invitatorium in festo Sanctorum Omnium.

[162] Cf. v. g., II Thess 1,10.

[163] CONC. VAT. II, Const. De Sacra Liturgia, Sacrosanctum Concilium, cap. 5, n. 104. AAS 56 (1964), pp. 125-126.

[164] Cf. Missale romanum, Canon Missae. [MR 1090]

[165] Cf. CONC. NIC. II, Act VII: DENZ. 302 (600).

[166] Cf. CONC. FLOR., Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 693 (1304).

[167] Cf. CONC. TRID., Decr. De invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis Sanctorum et sacris imaginibus: DENZ. 984-988 (1821-1824); Decr. De Purgatorio: DENZ. 983 (1820); Decr. De iustificatione, can. 30: DENZ. 840 (1580).

[168] Missale romanum, e Praefatione de Sanctis, dioecesibus Galliae concessa.

[169] Cf. S. PETRUS CANISIUS, Catechismus Maior seu Summa Doctrinae christianae, cap. III (ed. crit. F. STREICHER), Pars I, 15-16, n. 44 et pp. 100-101, n. 49.

[170] Cf. CONC. VAT. II, Const. De Sacra Liturgia, Sacrosanctum Concilium, cap. 1, n. 8: AAS 56 (1964), p. 401.

[171] Symbolum Constantinopolitanum: MANSI 3, 566. Cf. CONC. EPH, ib. 4, 1130 (necnon ib. 2, 665 et 4, 1071); CONC. CHALC., ib. 7, 111-116; CONC. CONSTANTINOP. II, ib. 9, 375-396; Missale romanum, e Credo. [MR 1029]

[172] Missale romanum, e Canone. [MR 1090]

[173] S. AUGUSTINUS, De S. Virginitate, 6: PL 40, 399.

[174] Cf. PAULUS VI, Allocutio in Concilio, die 4 dec. 1963: AAS 56 (1964), p. 37.

[175] Cf. S. GERMANUS CONST., Hom. in Annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 328 A; In Dorm. 2: 357. ANASTASIUS ANTIOCH., Serm. 2 de Annunt., 2: PG 89, 1377 AB; Serm. 3, 2: 1388 C. S. ANDREAS CRET., Can. in B. V. Nat., 4: PG 97, 1321 B. In B. V. Nat., 1: 812 A. Hom. in dorm., 1: 1068C. S. SOPHRONIUS Or. 2 in Annunt. 18: PG 87 (3), 3237BD.

[176] S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 22, 4 PG 7, 959 A; HARVEY, 2, 123.

[177] S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 22, 4 PG 7, 959 A; 1: HARVEY, 2, 124.

[178] S. EPIPHANIUS, Haer. 78, 18: PG 42, 728 CD-729 AB.

[179] S. HIERONYMUS, Epist. 22, 21: PL 22, 408. Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 51, 2, 3: PL 38, 335; Serm. 232, 2: 1108. S. CYRILLUS HIEROS., Catech. 12, 15: PG 33, 741 AB. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Ps. 44, 7: PG 55, 193. S. IO. DAMASCENUS, Hom 2 in dorm. B. M. V., 3: PG 96, 728.

[180] Cf. CONC. LAT. anni 649, can. 3: MANSI 10, 1151. S. LEO M., Epist. ad Flav.: PL 54, 759. CONC. CHALC.: MANSI 7, 462. S. AMBROSIUS, De instit. virg.: PL 16, 320.

[181] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 247-248.

[182] Cf. PIUS IX, Bulla Ineffabilis, 8 dec. 1854: Acta Pii IX, 1, I, p. 616; DENZ. 1641 (2803).

[183] Cf. PIUS XII, Const. Apost. Munificentissimus, 1 nov. 1950: AAS 42 (1950); DENZ. 2333 (3903). Cf. S. Io. DAMASCENUS, Enc. in dorm. Dei genetricis, Hom. 2 et 3: PG 96, 721-761, speciatim 728 B. S. GERMANUS CONSTANTINOP., In S. Dei gen. dorm., Serm. 1: PG 98 (6), 340-348; Serm. 3: 361. S. MODESTUS HIER., In dorm. SS. Deiparae: PG 86 (2), 3277-3312.

[184] Cf. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 633-636: DENZ. 3913 ss. Cf. S. ANDREAS CRET., Hom. 3 in dorm. SS. Deiparae: PG 97, 1089-1109. S. Io. DAMASCENUS, De fide orth., IV, 14: PG 94, 1153-1161.

[185] Cf. KLEUTGEN, textus reformatus De mysterio Verbi incarnati, cap. IV: MANSI 53, 290. Cf. S. ANDREAS CRET., In nat. Mariae, Sermo 4: PG 97, 865 A. S. GERMANUS CONSTANTINOP., In annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 321 BC. In dorm. Deiparae, III: 361 D. S. IO. DAMASCENUS, In dorm. B. V. Mariae, Hom. 1, 8: PG 96, 712 BC-713 A.

[186] Cf. LEO XIII, Litt. Encycl. Adiutricem populi, 5 sept. 1895: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 129. S. PIUS X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem illum, 2 febr. 1904: Acta I, p. 154; DENZ. 1978 a (3370). PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 178. PIUS XII, Nuntius Radioph., 13 maii 1946: AAS 38 (1946), p. 266.

[187] Cf. S. AMBROSIUS, Epist. 63: PL 16, 1218.

[188] Cf. S. AMBROSIUS, Expos. Lc II, 7: PL 15, 1555.

[189] Cf. PS.-PETRUS DAM., Serm. 63: PL 144, 861 AB. GODEFRIDUS A S. VICTORE, In nat. B. M., Ms. Paris, Mazarine, 1002, fol. 109 r. GEROBUS REICH., De gloria et honore Filii hominis, 10: PL 194, 1105 AB.

[190] Cf. S. AMBROSIUS, Expos. Lc, II, 7 et X, 24-25: PL 15, 1555 et 1810. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Io., Tr. 13, 12: PL 35, 1499. Cf. Serm. 191, 2, 3: PL 38, 1010; etc. Cf. etiam VEN. BEDA, In Lc Expos. I, cap. 2: PL 92, 330. ISAAC DE STELLA, Serm. 51: PL 194, 1863 A.

[191] Cf. Breviarium romanum, ant. «Sub tuum praesidium», ex I Vesperis Officii Parvi Beatae Mariae Virginis.

[192] Cf. CONC. NIC. II, anno 787: MANSI 13, 378-379; DENZ. 302 (600-601). CONC. TRID., Sess. 25: MANSI 33, 171-172.

[193] Cf. PIUS XII, Nuntius radioph., 24 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 679. Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 637.

[194] Cf. PIUS XI, Litt. Encycl. Ecclesiam Dei, 12 nov. 1923: AAS 15 (1923), p. 581. PIUS XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953), pp. 590-591.


LUMEN GENTIUM

SOLEMNLY PROMULGATED BY HIS HOLINESS POPE PAUL VI ON NOVEMBER 21, 1964

CHAPTER I THE MYSTERY OF THE CHURCH

§ 1

[L] Christ is the Light of nations. [CCC §748] Because this is so, this Sacred Synod gathered together in the Holy Spirit eagerly desires, by proclaiming the Gospel to every creature (Mk 16:15), to bring the light of Christ to all men, a light brightly visible on the countenance of the Church. Since the Church is in Christ like a sacrament or as a sign and instrument both of a very closely knit union with God and of the unity of the whole human race [CCC §775, §1045], it desires now to unfold more fully to the faithful of the Church and to the whole world its own inner nature and universal mission. This it intends to do following faithfully the teaching of previous councils. The present-day conditions of the world add greater urgency to this work of the Church so that all men, joined more closely today by various social, technical and cultural ties, might also attain fuller unity in Christ.

§ 2

[L] The eternal Father, by a free and hidden plan of His own wisdom and goodness, created the whole world. His plan was to raise men to a participation of the divine life. [CCC §375, §541] Fallen in Adam, God the Father did not leave men to themselves, but ceaselessly offered helps to salvation, in view of Christ, the Redeemer "who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature." (Col 1:15) All the elect, before time began, the Father "foreknew and pre-destined to become conformed to the image of His Son, that he should be the firstborn among many brethren." (Rom 8,29) He planned to assemble in the holy Church all those who would believe in Christ. [CCC §759] Already from the beginning of the world the foreshadowing of the Church took place. It was prepared in a remarkable way throughout the history of the people of Israel and by means of the Old Covenant.[1] [CCC §1093] In the present era of time the Church was constituted and, by the outpouring of the Spirit [CCC §1076*], was made manifest. At the end of time it will gloriously achieve completion, when, as is read in the Fathers, all the just, from Adam and "from Abel, the just one, to the last of the elect,"[2] will be gathered together with the Father in the universal Church. [CCC §769]

§ 3

[L] The Son, therefore, came, sent by the Father. It was in Him, before the foundation of the world, that the Father chose us and predestined us to become adopted sons, for in Him it pleased the Father to re-establish all things. (Eph 1:4-5 and 10) To carry out the will of the Father, Christ inaugurated the Kingdom of heaven on earth [CCC §541] and revealed to us the mystery of that kingdom. By His obedience He brought about redemption. The Church, or, in other words, the kingdom of Christ now present in mystery [CCC §669, §763*], grows visibly through the power of God in the world. This inauguration and this growth are both symbolized by the blood and water which flowed from the open side of a crucified Jesus (Jn 19:34) [CCC §766], and are foretold in the words of the Lord referring to His death on the Cross: "And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all things to myself." (Jn 12:32) As often as the sacrifice of the cross in which Christ our Passover was sacrificed (1 Cor 5:7), is celebrated on the altar, the work of our redemption is carried on [CCC §1364, §1405], and, in the sacrament of the eucharistic bread, the unity of all believers who form one body in Christ (1 Cor 10:17) is both expressed and brought about. [CCC §960] All men are called to this union with Christ [CCC §542*], who is the light of the world, from whom we go forth, through whom we live, and toward whom our whole life strains.

§ 4

[L] When the work which the Father gave the Son to do on earth (Jn 17:4) was accomplished, the Holy Spirit was sent on the day of Pentecost in order that He might continually sanctify the Church [CCC §767], and thus, all those who believe would have access through Christ in one Spirit to the Father. (Eph 2:18) He is the Spirit of Life, a fountain of water springing up to life eternal. (Jn 4:14, 7:38,39) To men, dead in sin, the Father gives life through Him, until, in Christ, He brings to life their mortal bodies. (Rom 8:10-11) The Spirit dwells in the Church and in the hearts of the faithful, as in a temple. (1 Cor 3:16) In them He prays on their behalf and bears witness to the fact that they are adopted sons. (Gal 4:6, Rom 8:15-16 and 26) The Church, which the Spirit guides in [the] way of all truth (Jn 16:13) and which He unified in communion and in works of ministry, He both equips and directs with hierarchical and charismatic gifts and adorns with His fruits. (Eph 4:11-12, 1 Cor 12:4, Gal 5:22) [CCC §768] By the power of the Gospel He makes the Church keep the freshness of youth. Uninterruptedly He renews it and leads it to perfect union with its Spouse.[3] The Spirit and the Bride both say to Jesus, the Lord, "Come!" (Rev 22:17)

Thus, the Church has been seen as "a people made one with the unity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit."[4] [CCC §810]

§ 5

[L] The mystery of the holy Church is manifest in its very foundation. The Lord Jesus set it on its course by preaching the Good News, that is, the coming of the Kingdom of God, which, for centuries, had been promised in the Scriptures: "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand." (Mk 1:15; cf. Mt 4:17) [CCC §763] In the word, in the works, and in the presence of Christ, this kingdom was clearly open to the view of men. [CCC §567, §764] The Word of the Lord is compared to a seed which is sown in a field (Mk 4:14); those who hear the Word with faith and become part of the little flock of Christ (Lk 12:32), have received the Kingdom itself. [CCC §541, §543, §669] Then, by its own power the seed sprouts and grows until harvest time. (Mk 4:26-29) The Miracles of Jesus also confirm that the Kingdom has already arrived on earth: "If I cast out devils by the finger of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you." (Lk 11:20) Before all things, however, the Kingdom is clearly visible in the very Person of Christ, the Son of God and the Son of Man, who came "to serve and to give His life as a ransom for many." (Mk 10:45)

§ 5b

[L] When Jesus, who had suffered the death of the cross for mankind, had risen, He appeared as the one constituted as Lord, Christ and eternal Priest (Acts 2:36; Heb 5:6, 7:17-21), and He poured out on His disciples the Spirit promised by the Father. (Acts 2:33) From this source the Church, equipped with the gifts of its Founder and faithfully guarding His precepts of charity, humility and self-sacrifice, receives the mission to proclaim and to spread among all peoples the Kingdom of Christ and of God and to be, on earth, the initial budding forth of that kingdom. [CCC §768] While it slowly grows, the Church strains toward the completed Kingdom and, with all its strength, hopes and desires to be united in glory with its King. [CCC §769]

§ 6

[L] In the Old Testament the revelation of the Kingdom is often conveyed by means of metaphors. In the same way the inner nature of the Church is now made known to us in different images taken either from tending sheep or cultivating the land, from building or even from family life and betrothals [CCC §753], the images receive preparatory shaping in the books of the Prophets.

§ 6b

[L] The Church is a sheepfold whose one and indispensable door is Christ. (Jn 10:1-10) It is a flock of which God Himself foretold He would be the shepherd (Is 40:11, Ez 34:11ff), and whose sheep, although ruled by human shepherds, are nevertheless continuously led and nourished by Christ Himself, the Good Shepherd and the Prince of the shepherds (Jn 10:11; 1 Pet 5:4), who gave His life for the sheep. (Jn 10:11-15] [CCC §754]

§ 6c

[L] The Church is a piece of land to be cultivated, the tillage of God. (1 Cor 3:9) On that land the ancient olive tree grows whose holy roots were the Prophets [Patriarchae] and in which the reconciliation of Jews and Gentiles has been brought about and will be brought about. (Rom 11:13-26) That land, like a choice vineyard, has been planted by the heavenly Husbandman. (Mt 21:33-43; Is 5:1ff) The true vine is Christ who gives life and the power to bear abundant fruit to the branches, that is, to us, who through the Church remain in Christ without whom we can do nothing. (Jn 15:1-5) [CCC §755]

§ 6d

[L] Often the Church has also been called the building of God. (1 Cor 3:9) The Lord Himself compared Himself to the stone which the builders rejected, but which was made into the cornerstone. (Mt 21:42; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:7; Ps 118(117):22) On this foundation the Church is built by the apostles (1 Cor 3:11), and from it the Church receives durability and consolidation. This edifice has many names to describe it: the house of God (1 Tim 3:15) in which dwells His family; the household of God in the Spirit (Eph 2:19-22); the dwelling place of God among men (Rev 21:3); and, especially, the holy temple. This Temple, symbolized [repraesentatum] in places of worship built out of stone, is praised by the Holy Fathers and, not without reason, is compared in the liturgy to the Holy City, the New Jerusalem.[5] As living stones we here on earth are built into it. (1 Pet 2:5) John contemplates this holy city coming down from heaven at the renewal of the world as a bride made ready and adorned for her husband. (Rev 21:2) [CCC §756]

§ 6e

[L] The Church, further, "that Jerusalem which is above" is also called "our mother." (Gal 4:26; cf. Rev 12:17) It is described as the spotless spouse of the spotless Lamb (Rev 19:7; Rev 21:2 and 9; Rev 22:17), whom Christ "loved and for whom He delivered Himself up [CCC §1621*] that He might sanctify her," (Eph 5:25) whom He unites to Himself by an unbreakable covenant, and whom He unceasingly "nourishes and cherishes," (Eph 5:29) [CCC §757] and whom, once purified, He willed to be cleansed and joined to Himself, subject to Him in love and fidelity (Eph 5:24), and whom, finally, He filled with heavenly gifts for all eternity, in order that we may know the love of God and of Christ for us, a love which surpasses all knowledge. (Eph 3:19) The Church, while on earth it journeys in a foreign land [peregrinatur] away from the Lord (2 Cor 5:6), is like in exile. It seeks and experiences those things which are above, where Christ is seated at the right-hand of God, where the life of the Church is hidden with Christ in God until it appears in glory with its Spouse. (Col 3:1-4)

§ 7

[L] In the human nature united to Himself the Son of God, by overcoming death through His own death and resurrection, redeemed man and re-molded him into a new creation. (Gal 6:15; 2 Cor 5:17) By communicating His Spirit, Christ made His brothers, called together from all nations, mystically the components of His own Body. [CCC §788]

§ 7b

[L] In that Body the life of Christ is poured into the believers who, through the sacraments, are united in a hidden and real way to Christ who suffered and was glorified.[6] [CCC §790] Through Baptism we are formed in the likeness of Christ: "For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body." (1 Cor 12:13) In this sacred rite a oneness with Christ's death and resurrection is both symbolized and brought about: "For we were buried with Him by means of Baptism into death"; and if "we have been united with Him in the likeness of His death, we shall be so in the likeness of His resurrection also." (Rom 6:4-5) Really partaking of the body of the Lord in the breaking of the Eucharistic bread, we are taken up into communion with Him and with one another. "Because the bread is one, we though many, are one body, all of us who partake of the one bread." (1 Cor 10:17) In this way all of us are made members of His Body (1 Cor 12:27), "but severally members one of another." (Rom 12:5)

§ 7c

[L] As all the members of the human body, though they are many, form one body, so also are the faithful in Christ. (1 Cor 12:12) Also, in the building up of Christ's Body various members and functions have their part to play. There is only one Spirit who, according to His own richness and the needs of the ministries, gives His different gifts for the welfare of the Church. (1 Cor 12:27) [CCC §791] What has a special place among these gifts is the grace of the apostles [CCC §798] to whose authority the Spirit Himself subjected even those who were endowed with charisms. (1 Cor 14) Giving the body unity through Himself and through His power and inner joining of the members, this same Spirit produces and urges love among the believers. From all this it follows that if one member endures anything, all the members co-endure it, and if one member is honored, all the members together rejoice. (1 Cor 12:26)

§ 7d

[L] The Head of this Body is Christ. He is the image of the invisible God and in Him all things came into being. He is before all creatures and in Him all things hold together. He is the head of the Body which is the Church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things He might have the first place. (Col 1:15-18) By the greatness of His power He rules the things in heaven and the things on earth, and with His all-surpassing perfection and way of acting He fills the whole body with the riches of His glory. (Eph 1:18-23)

§ 7e

[L] All the members ought to be molded in the likeness of Him, until Christ be formed in them. (Gal 4:19) For this reason we, who have been made to conform with Him, who have died with Him and risen with Him, are taken up into the mysteries of His life, until we will reign together with Him. (Cf. Phil 3:21; 2 Tim 2:11; Eph 2:6; Col 2:12) On earth, still as pilgrims in a strange land, tracing in trial and in oppression the paths He trod, we are made one with His sufferings like the body is one with the Head, suffering with Him, that with Him we may be glorified. (Rom 8:17) [CCC §562, §793]

§ 7f

[L] From Him "the whole body, supplied and built up by joints and ligaments, attains a growth that is of God." (Col 2:19) He continually distributes in His body, that is, in the Church, gifts of ministries in which, by His own power, we serve each other unto salvation so that, carrying out the truth in love, we might through all things grow unto Him who is our Head. (Eph 4:11-16)

§ 7g

[L] In order that we might be unceasingly renewed in Him (Eph 4:23), He has shared with us His Spirit who, existing as one and the same being in the Head and in the members, gives life to, unifies and moves through the whole body. This He does in such a way that His work could be compared by the holy Fathers with the function which the principle of life, that is, the soul, fulfills in the human body.[8]

§ 7h

[L] Christ loves the Church as His bride, having become the model of a man loving his wife as his body; (Eph 5:25-28) the Church, indeed, is subject to its Head. (Ibid. 23-24) "Because in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily" (Col 2:9), He fills the Church, which is His body and His fullness, with His divine gifts (Eph 1:22-23) so that it may expand and reach all the fullness of God. (Eph 3:19)

§ 8

[L] Christ, the one Mediator, established and continually sustains here on earth His holy Church, the community of faith, hope and charity, as an entity with visible delineation[9] through which He communicated truth and grace to all. [CCC §771] But, the society structured with hierarchical organs and the Mystical Body of Christ, are not to be considered as two realities, nor are the visible assembly and the spiritual community, nor the earthly Church and the Church enriched with heavenly things; rather they form one complex reality which coalesces from a divine and a human element.[10] For this reason, by no weak analogy, it is compared to the mystery of the incarnate Word. As the assumed nature inseparably united to Him, serves the divine Word as a living organ of salvation, so, in a similar way, does the visible social structure of the Church serve the Spirit of Christ, who vivifies it, in the building up of the body. (cf. Eph 4:16) [11]

§ 8b

[L] This is the one Church of Christ which in the Creed is professed as one, holy, catholic and apostolic[12] [CCC §811], which our Saviour, after His Resurrection, commissioned Peter to shepherd (Jn 21:17), and him and the other apostles to extend and direct with authority (Mt 28:18ff), which He erected for all ages as "the pillar and mainstay of the truth." (1 Tim 3:15) This Church constituted and organized in the world as a society, subsists in [subsistit in] the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him[13] [CCC §816], although many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside of its visible structure. [CCC §819, §870] These elements, as gifts belonging to the Church of Christ, are forces impelling toward catholic unity.

§ 8c

[L] Just as Christ carried out the work of redemption in poverty and persecution, so the Church is called to follow the same route that it might communicate the fruits of salvation to men. [CCC §853] Christ Jesus, "though He was by nature God ... emptied Himself, taking the nature of a slave," (Phil 2:6) and "being rich, became poor" (2 Cor 8:9) for our sakes. Thus, the Church, although it needs human resources to carry out its mission, is not set up to seek earthly glory, but to proclaim, even by its own example, humility and self-sacrifice. Christ was sent by the Father "to bring good news to the poor, to heal the contrite of heart," (Lk 4:18) "to seek and to save what was lost." (Lk 19:10) Similarly, the Church encompasses with love all who are afflicted with human suffering and in the poor and afflicted sees the image of its poor and suffering Founder. [CCC §786] It does all it can to relieve their need and in them it strives to serve Christ. While Christ, holy, innocent and undefiled (Heb 7:26) knew nothing of sin (2 Cor 5:21), but came to expiate only the sins of the people (Heb 2:17), the Church, embracing in its bosom sinners, at the same time holy and always in need of being purified, always follows the way of penance and renewal. [CCC §827, §1428]

§ 8d

[L] The Church, "like a stranger in a foreign land [peregrinando], presses forward amid the persecutions of the world and the consolations of God"[14] [CCC §769*], announcing the cross and death of the Lord until He comes." (1 Cor 11:26) By the power of the risen Lord it is given strength that it might, in patience and in love, overcome its sorrows and its challenges, both within itself and from without, and that it might reveal to the world, faithfully though darkly, the mystery of its Lord until, in the end, it will be manifested in full light.

CHAPTER II ON THE PEOPLE OF GOD

§ 9

[L] At all times and in every race God has given welcome to whomsoever fears Him and does what is right. (Acts 10:35) [CCC §761*] God, however, does not make men holy and save them merely as individuals, without bond or link between one another. Rather has it pleased Him to bring men together as one people, a people which acknowledges Him in truth and serves Him in holiness. He therefore chose the race of Israel as a people unto Himself. With it He set up a covenant. Step by step He taught and prepared this people, making known in its history both Himself and the decree of His will and making it holy unto Himself. All these things, however, were done by way of preparation and as a figure of that new and perfect covenant, which was to be ratified in Christ, and of that fuller revelation which was to be given through the Word of God Himself made flesh.

Behold the days shall come saith the Lord, and I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel, and with the house of Judah ... I will give my law in their bowels, and I will write it in their heart, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people ... For all of them shall know Me, from the least of them even to the greatest, saith the Lord. (Jer 31:31-34)
Christ instituted this new covenant, the new testament [CCC §762], that is to say, in His Blood (1 Cor 11:25), calling together a people made up of Jew and gentile, making them one, not according to the flesh but in the Spirit. [CCC §781] This was to be the new People of God. [CCC §782] For those who believe in Christ, who are reborn not from a perishable but from an imperishable seed through the word of the living God (1 Pet 1:23), not from the flesh but from water and the Holy Spirit (Jn 3:5-6), are finally established as "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a purchased people ... who in times past were not a people, but are now the people of God." (1 Pet 2:9-10)

§ 9b

[L] That messianic people has Christ for its head [CCC §753*], "Who was delivered up for our sins, and rose again for our justification" (Rom 4:25), and now, having won a name which is above all names, reigns in glory in heaven. The state of this people is that of the dignity and freedom of the sons of God, in whose hearts the Holy Spirit dwells as in His temple. Its law is the new commandment to love as Christ loved us. (Jn 13:34) Its end is the kingdom of God, which has been begun by God Himself on earth, and which is to be further extended until it is brought to perfection by Him at the end of time, when Christ, our life (Col 3:4), shall appear, and "creation itself will be delivered from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the sons of God." (Rom 8:21) So it is that that messianic people, although it does not actually include all men, and at times may look like a small flock, is nonetheless a lasting and sure seed of unity, hope and salvation for the whole human race. Established by Christ as a communion of life, charity and truth, it is also used by Him as an instrument for the redemption of all [CCC §776], and is sent forth into the whole world as the light of the world and the salt of the earth. (Mt 5:13-16)

§ 9c

[L] Israel according to the flesh, which wandered as an exile in the desert [peregrinabatur], was already called the Church of God. (Neh 13:1; Deut 23:1ff; Num 20:4) So likewise the new Israel which while living in this present age goes in search of a future and abiding city (Heb 13:14) is called the Church of Christ. (Mt 16:18) For He has bought it for Himself with His blood (Acts 20:28), has filled it with His Spirit and provided it with those means which befit it as a visible and social union. God gathered together as one all those who in faith look upon Jesus as the author of salvation and the source of unity and peace, and established them as the Church that for each and all it may be the visible sacrament of this saving unity.[15] While it transcends all limits of time and confines of race, the Church is destined to extend to all regions of the earth and so enters into the history of mankind. Moving forward through trial and tribulation, the Church is strengthened by the power of God's grace, which was promised to her by the Lord, so that in the weakness of the flesh she may not waver from perfect fidelity, but remain a bride worthy of her Lord, and moved by the Holy Spirit may never cease to renew herself, until through the Cross she arrives at the light which knows no setting.

§ 10

[L] Christ the Lord, High Priest taken from among men (Heb 5:1-5), made the new people "a kingdom and priests to God the Father." (Rev 6:1; cf. 5:9-10) The baptized, by regeneration and the anointing of the Holy Spirit, are consecrated as a spiritual house and a holy priesthood [CCC §784, §1141*, §1535*, §1546], in order that through all those works which are those of the Christian man they may offer spiritual sacrifices and proclaim the power of Him who has called them out of darkness into His marvelous light. (1 Pet 2:4-10) Therefore all the disciples of Christ, persevering in prayer and praising God (Acts 2:42-47), should present themselves as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God. (Rom 12:1) Everywhere on earth they must bear witness to Christ and give an answer to those who seek an account of that hope of eternal life which is in them. (1 Pet 3:15) [CCC §901*]

§ 10b

[L] Though they differ from one another in essence and not only in degree, the common priesthood of the faithful and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood are nonetheless interrelated: each of them in its own special way is a participation in the one priesthood of Christ.[16] [CCC §1547] The ministerial priest, by the sacred power [CCC §1538*] he enjoys, teaches and rules the priestly people; acting in the person of Christ [CCC §1548*], he makes present the Eucharistic sacrifice, and offers it to God in the name of all the people. [CCC §1120, §1552*] But the faithful, in virtue of their royal priesthood, join in the offering of the Eucharist.[17] They likewise exercise that priesthood in receiving the sacraments, in prayer and thanksgiving, in the witness of a holy life, and by self-denial and active charity. [CCC §1273*, §1657]

§ 11

[L] It is through the sacraments and the exercise of the virtues that the sacred nature and organic structure of the priestly community [CCC §1119] is brought into operation. Incorporated in the Church through baptism, the faithful are destined by the baptismal character for the worship of the Christian religion; reborn as sons of God they must confess before men the faith which they have received from God through the Church.[18] They are more perfectly bound to the Church by the sacrament of Confirmation, and the Holy Spirit endows them with special strength so that they are more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith, both by word and by deed, as true witnesses of Christ.[19] [CCC §1270, §1285] Taking part in the Eucharistic sacrifice, which is the fount and apex of the whole Christian life [CCC §1324], they offer the Divine Victim to God, and offer themselves along with It.[20] Thus both by reason of the offering and through Holy Communion all take part in this liturgical service [synaxi, Σύναξις: an assembly for liturgical purposes], not indeed, all in the same way but each in that way which is proper to himself. Strengthened in Holy Communion by the Body of Christ, they then manifest in a concrete way that unity of the people of God which is suitably signified and wondrously brought about by this most august sacrament.

§ 11b

[L] Those who approach the sacrament of Penance obtain pardon from the mercy of God for the offence committed against Him and are at the same time reconciled with the Church, which they have wounded by their sins, and which by charity, example, and prayer seeks their conversion. [CCC §1422] By the sacred anointing of the sick and the prayer of her priests the whole Church commends the sick to the suffering and glorified Lord, asking that He may lighten their suffering and save them (Jas 5:14-16); she exhorts them, moreover, to contribute to the welfare of the whole people of God by associating themselves freely with the passion and death of Christ. (Rom 8:17; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 2:11-12; 1 Pet 4:13) [CCC §1499, §1522] Those of the faithful who are consecrated by Holy Orders are appointed to feed the Church in Christ's name with the word and the grace of God. [CCC §1535] Finally, Christian spouses, in virtue of the sacrament of Matrimony, whereby they signify and partake of the mystery of that unity and fruitful love which exists between Christ and His Church (Eph 5:32), help each other to attain to holiness in their married life and in the rearing and education of their children. By reason of their state and rank in life they have their own special gift among the people of God. (1 Cor 7:7) [21] [CCC §1641] From the wedlock of Christians there comes the family, in which new citizens of human society are born, who by the grace of the Holy Spirit received in baptism are made children of God, thus perpetuating the people of God through the centuries. The family is, so to speak, the domestic church. [CCC §2204*] In it parents should, by their word and example, be the first preachers of the faith to their children; they should encourage them in the vocation which is proper to each of them, fostering with special care vocation to a sacred state. [CCC §1251*, §1656, §2225]

Fortified by so many and such powerful means of salvation, all the faithful, whatever their condition or state, are called by the Lord, each in his own way, to that perfect holiness whereby the Father Himself is perfect. [CCC §825]

§ 12

[L] The holy people of God [CCC §823] shares also in Christ's prophetic office [CCC §785]; it spreads abroad a living witness to Him, especially by means of a life of faith and charity and by offering to God a sacrifice of praise, the tribute of lips which give praise to His name. (Heb 13:15) The entire body of the faithful, anointed as they are by the Holy One (1 Jn 2:20,27), cannot err in matters of belief. [CCC §889*] They manifest this special property by means of the whole peoples' supernatural discernment in matters of faith when "from the Bishops down to the last of the lay faithful"[22] they show universal agreement in matters of faith and morals. [CCC §92] That discernment in matters of faith is aroused and sustained by the Spirit of truth. It is exercised under the guidance of the sacred teaching authority, in faithful and respectful obedience to which the people of God accepts that which is not just the word of men but truly the word of God. (1 Thess 2:13) Through it, the people of God adheres unwaveringly to the faith given once and for all to the saints (Jude 1:3), penetrates it more deeply with right thinking, and applies it more fully in its life. [CCC §93]

§ 12b

[L] It is not only through the sacraments and the ministries of the Church that the Holy Spirit sanctifies and leads the people of God and enriches it with virtues, but, "allotting his gifts to everyone according as He wills," (1 Cor 12:11) He distributes special graces among the faithful of every rank. By these gifts He makes them fit and ready to undertake the various tasks and offices which contribute toward the renewal and building up of the Church [CCC §798, §951, §2003*], according to the words of the Apostle: "The manifestation of the Spirit is given to everyone for profit." (1 Cor 12:7) These charisms, whether they be the more outstanding or the more simple and widely diffused, are to be received with thanksgiving and consolation for they are perfectly suited to and useful for the needs of the Church. Extraordinary gifts are not to be sought after, nor are the fruits of apostolic labor to be presumptuously expected from their use; but judgment as to their genuinity and proper use belongs to those who are appointed leaders in the Church, to whose special competence it belongs, not indeed to extinguish the Spirit, but to test all things and hold fast to that which is good. (1 Thess 5:12 and 19-21) [CCC §801]

§ 13

[L] All men are called to belong to the new people of God. [CCC §804] Wherefore this people, while remaining one and only one, is to be spread throughout the whole world and must exist in all ages, so that the decree of God's will may be fulfilled. In the beginning God made human nature one and decreed that all His children, scattered as they were, would finally be gathered together as one. (Jn 11:52) It was for this purpose that God sent His Son, whom He appointed heir of all things (Heb 1:2), that he might be teacher, king and priest of all, the head of the new and universal people of the sons of God. For this too God sent the Spirit of His Son as Lord and Life-giver. He it is who brings together the whole Church and each and every one of those who believe, and who is the well-spring of their unity in the teaching of the apostles and in fellowship, in the breaking of bread and in prayers. (Acts 2:42)

[L] It follows that though there are many nations there is but one people of God, which takes its citizens from every race, making them citizens of a kingdom which is of a heavenly rather than of an earthly nature. All the faithful, scattered though they be throughout the world, are in communion with each other in the Holy Spirit, and so, "he who dwells in Rome knows that the people of India are his members."[23]

§ 13b

[L] Since the kingdom of Christ is not of this world (Jn 18:36) the Church or people of God in establishing that kingdom takes nothing away from the temporal welfare of any people. On the contrary it fosters and takes to itself, insofar as they are good, the ability, riches and customs in which the genius of each people expresses itself. Taking them to itself it purifies, strengthens, elevates and ennobles them. The Church in this is mindful that she must bring together the nations for that king to whom they were given as an inheritance (Ps 2:8), and to whose city they bring gifts and offerings. (Ps 72(71):10; Is 60:4-7; Rev 21:24) This characteristic of universality which adorns the people of God is a gift from the Lord Himself. By reason of it, the Catholic Church strives constantly and with due effect to bring all humanity and all its possessions back to its source in Christ, with Him as its head and united in His Spirit.[24] [CCC §831]

§ 13c

[L] In virtue of this catholicity each individual part contributes through its special gifts to the good of the other parts and of the whole Church. Through the common sharing of gifts and through the common effort to attain fullness in unity, the whole and each of the parts receive increase. Not only, then, is the people of God made up of different peoples but in its inner structure also it is composed of various ranks. This diversity among its members arises either by reason of their duties, as is the case with those who exercise the sacred ministry for the good of their brethren, or by reason of their condition and state of life, as is the case with those many who enter the religious state and, tending toward holiness by a narrower path, stimulate their brethren by their example. Moreover, within the Church particular Churches hold a rightful place; these Churches retain their own traditions [CCC §814], without in any way opposing the primacy of the Chair of Peter, which presides over the whole assembly of charity[25] and protects legitimate differences, while at the same time assuring that such differences do not hinder unity but rather contribute toward it. Between all the parts of the Church there remains a bond of close communion whereby they share spiritual riches, apostolic workers and temporal resources. For the members of the people of God are called to share these goods in common, and of each of the Churches the words of the Apostle hold good: "According to the gift that each has received, administer it to one another as good stewards of the manifold grace of God." (1 Pet 4:10)

[L] All men are called to be part of this catholic unity of the people of God which in promoting universal peace presages it. And there belong to or are related to it in various ways, the Catholic faithful, all who believe in Christ, and indeed the whole of mankind, for all men are called by the grace of God to salvation. [CCC §836]

§ 14

[L] This Sacred Council wishes to turn its attention firstly to the Catholic faithful. Basing itself upon Sacred Scripture and Tradition, it teaches that the Church, now sojourning on earth as an exile [peregrinantem], is necessary for salvation. Christ, present to us in His Body, which is the Church, is the one Mediator and the unique way of salvation. In explicit terms He Himself affirmed the necessity of faith and baptism (Mk 16:16; Jn 3:5) and thereby affirmed also the necessity of the Church, for through baptism as through a door men enter the Church. [CCC §1257*] Whosoever, therefore, knowing that the Catholic Church was made necessary by Christ, would refuse to enter or to remain in it, could not be saved. [CCC §846]

§ 14b

[L] They are fully incorporated in the society of the Church who, possessing the Spirit of Christ accept her entire system and all the means of salvation given to her, and are united with her as part of her visible bodily structure and through her with Christ, who rules her through the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops. The bonds which bind men to the Church in a visible way are profession of faith, the sacraments, and ecclesiastical government and communion. He is not saved, however, who, though part of the body of the Church, does not persevere in charity. He remains indeed in the bosom of the Church, but, as it were, only in a "bodily" manner and not "in his heart."[26] [CCC §837] All the Church's children should remember that their exalted status is to be attributed not to their own merits but to the special grace of Christ. If they fail moreover to respond to that grace in thought, word and deed, not only shall they not be saved but they will be the more severely judged.[27]

Catechumens who, moved by the Holy Spirit, seek with explicit intention to be incorporated into the Church are by that very intention joined with her. With love and solicitude Mother Church already embraces them as her own. [CCC §1249]

§ 15

[L] The Church recognizes that in many ways she is linked with those who, being baptized, are honored with the name of Christian, though they do not profess the faith in its entirety or do not preserve unity of communion with the successor of Peter.[28] [CCC §838] For there are many who honor Sacred Scripture, taking it as a norm of belief and a pattern of life, and who show a sincere zeal. They lovingly believe in God the Father Almighty and in Christ, the Son of God and Saviour.[29] They are consecrated by baptism, in which they are united with Christ. They also recognize and accept other sacraments within their own Churches or ecclesiastical communities. Many of them rejoice in the episcopate, celebrate the Holy Eucharist and cultivate devotion toward the Virgin Mother of God.[30] They also share with us in prayer and other spiritual benefits. Likewise we can say that in some real way they are joined with us in the Holy Spirit, for to them too He gives His gifts and graces whereby He is operative among them with His sanctifying power. Some indeed He has strengthened to the extent of the shedding of their blood. In all of Christ's disciples the Spirit arouses the desire to be peacefully united, in the manner determined by Christ, as one flock under one shepherd, and He prompts them to pursue this end.[31] Mother Church never ceases to pray, hope and work that this may come about. She exhorts her children to purification and renewal so that the sign of Christ may shine more brightly over the face of the earth.

§ 16

[L] Finally, those who have not yet received the Gospel are related in various ways to the people of God.[32] [CCC §839, §1281*] In the first place we must recall the people to whom the testament and the promises were given and from whom Christ was born according to the flesh. (Rom 9:4-5) On account of their fathers this people remains most dear to God, for God does not repent of the gifts He makes nor of the calls He issues. (Rom 11-28-29) But the plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator. In the first place amongst these there are the Muslims, who, professing to hold the faith of Abraham, along with us adore the one and merciful God, who on the last day will judge mankind. [CCC §841] Nor is God far distant from those who in shadows and images seek the unknown God, for it is He who gives to all men life and breath and all things (Acts 17:25-28), and as Saviour wills that all men be saved. (1 Tim 2:4) Those also can attain to salvation who through no fault of their own do not know the Gospel of Christ or His Church, yet sincerely seek God and moved by grace strive by their deeds to do His will as it is known to them through the dictates of conscience.[33] [CCC §847, §1260*] Nor does Divine Providence deny the helps necessary for salvation to those who, without blame on their part, have not yet arrived at an explicit knowledge of God and with His grace strive to live a good life. Whatever good or truth is found amongst them is looked upon by the Church as a preparation for the Gospel.[34] She knows that it is given by Him who enlightens all men so that they may finally have life. [CCC §843] But often men, deceived by the Evil One, have become vain in their reasonings and have exchanged the truth of God for a lie, serving the creature rather than the Creator. (Rom 1:21 and 25) Or some there are who, living and dying in this world without God, are exposed to final despair. [CCC §844] Wherefore to promote the glory of God and procure the salvation of all of these, and mindful of the command of the Lord, "Preach the Gospel to every creature," (Mk 16:15) the Church fosters the missions with care and attention.

§ 17

[L] As the Son was sent by the Father (Jn 20:21), so He too sent the Apostles, saying:

Go, therefore, make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you. And behold I am with you all days even to the consummation of the world. (Mt 28:18-20)
The Church has received this solemn mandate of Christ to proclaim the saving truth [CCC §2032] from the apostles and must carry it out to the very ends of the earth. (Acts 1:8) Wherefore she makes the words of the Apostle her own: "Woe to me, if I do not preach the Gospel," (1 Cor 9:16) and continues unceasingly to send heralds of the Gospel until such time as the infant churches are fully established and can themselves continue the work of evangelizing. For the Church is compelled by the Holy Spirit to do her part that God's plan may be fully realized, whereby He has constituted Christ as the source of salvation for the whole world. By the proclamation of the Gospel she prepares her hearers to receive and profess the faith. She gives them the dispositions necessary for baptism, snatches them from the slavery of error and of idols and incorporates them in Christ so that through charity they may grow up into full maturity in Christ. Through her work, whatever good is in the minds and hearts of men, whatever good lies latent in the religious practices and cultures of diverse peoples, is not only saved from destruction but is also cleansed, raised up and perfected unto the glory of God, the confusion of the devil and the happiness of man. The obligation of spreading the faith is imposed on every disciple of Christ, according to his state.[35] Although, however, all the faithful can baptize, the priest alone can complete the building up of the Body in the eucharistic sacrifice. Thus are fulfilled the words of God, spoken through His prophet:
From the rising of the sun until the going down thereof my name is great among the gentiles, and in every place a clean oblation is sacrificed and offered up in my name. (Mal 1:11) [36]
In this way the Church both prays and labors in order that the entire world may become the People of God, the Body of the Lord and the Temple of the Holy Spirit, and that in Christ, the Head of all, all honor and glory may be rendered to the Creator and Father of the Universe. [CCC §776*, §1260*]

CHAPTER III ON THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE CHURCH AND IN PARTICULAR ON THE EPISCOPATE

§ 18

[L] [A] For the nurturing and constant growth of the People of God, Christ the Lord instituted in His Church a variety of ministries, which work for the good of the whole body. For those ministers, who are endowed with sacred power, serve their brethren, so that all who are of the People of God, and therefore enjoy a true Christian dignity, working toward a common goal freely and in an orderly way, may arrive at salvation. [CCC §874]

This Sacred Council, following closely in the footsteps of the First Vatican Council, with that Council teaches and declares that Jesus Christ, the eternal Shepherd, established His holy Church, having sent forth the apostles as He Himself had been sent by the Father (cf. Jn 20:21); and He willed that their successors, namely the bishops, should be shepherds in His Church even to the consummation of the world. And in order that the episcopate itself might be one and undivided, He placed Blessed Peter over the other apostles, and instituted in him a permanent and visible source and foundation of unity of faith and communion.[37] And all this teaching about the institution, the perpetuity, the meaning and reason [vi ac ratione] for the sacred primacy of the Roman Pontiff and of his infallible magisterium, this Sacred Council again proposes to be firmly believed by all the faithful. Continuing in that same undertaking, this Council is resolved to declare and proclaim before all men the doctrine concerning bishops, the successors of the apostles, who together with the successor of Peter, the Vicar of Christ[38], the visible Head of the whole Church, govern the house of the living God.

§ 19

[L] The Lord Jesus, after praying to the Father, calling to Himself those whom He [Himself] desired, appointed twelve to be with Him, and whom He would send to preach the Kingdom of God (cf. Mk 3:13-19; Mt 10:1-42); and these apostles (cf. Lk 6:13) He formed after the manner of a college or a stable group, over which He placed Peter chosen from among them. (Jn 21:15-17) [CCC §880] He sent them first to the children of Israel and then to all nations (Rom 1:16), so that as sharers in His power they might make all peoples His disciples, and sanctify and govern them (Mt 28:16-20; Mk 16:15; Lk 24:45-48; Jn 20:21-23), and thus spread His Church, and by ministering to it under the guidance of the Lord, direct it all days even to the consummation of the world. (cf. Mt 28:20) And in this mission they were fully confirmed on the day of Pentecost (cf. Acts 2:1-26) in accordance with the Lord's promise:

You shall receive power when the Holy Spirit comes upon you, and you shall be witnesses for me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and in Samaria, and even to the very ends of the earth. (Acts 1:8)
And the apostles, by preaching the Gospel everywhere (cf. Mk 16:20), and it being accepted by their hearers under the influence of the Holy Spirit, gather together the universal Church, which the Lord established on the apostles and built upon blessed Peter, their chief, Christ Jesus Himself being the supreme cornerstone. (cf. Rev 21:14; Mt 16:18; Mt 16:18) [39]

§ 20

[L] That divine mission, entrusted by Christ to the apostles, will last until the end of the world (cf. Mt 28:20), since the Gospel they are to teach is for all time the source of all life for the Church. [CCC §860] And for this reason the apostles, appointed as rulers in this society, took care to appoint successors.

For they not only had helpers in their ministry[40], but also, in order that the mission assigned to them might continue after their death, they passed on to their immediate cooperators, as it were, in the form of a testament, the duty of confirming and finishing the work begun by themselves[41], recommending to them that they attend to the whole flock in which the Holy Spirit placed them to shepherd the Church of God. (cf. Acts 20:28) They therefore appointed such men, and gave them the order that, when they should have died, other approved men would take up their ministry.[42] [CCC §861] Among those various ministries which, according to tradition, were exercised in the Church from the earliest times, the chief place belongs to the office of those who, appointed to the episcopate, by a succession running from the beginning[43], are passers-on of the apostolic seed.[44] [CCC §1555, §1576] Thus, as St. Irenaeus testifies, through those who were appointed bishops by the apostles, and through their successors down [to] our own time, the apostolic tradition is manifested[45] and preserved.[46]

§ 20b

[L] Bishops, therefore, with their helpers, the priests and deacons, have taken up the service of the community[47], presiding in place of God over the flock[48], whose shepherds they are, as teachers for doctrine, priests for sacred worship, and ministers for governing.[49] And just as the office granted individually to Peter, the first among the apostles, is permanent and is to be transmitted to his successors, so also the apostles' office of nurturing the Church is permanent, and is to be exercised without interruption by the sacred order of bishops.[50] [CCC §862] Therefore, the Sacred Council teaches that bishops by divine institution have succeeded to the place of the apostles[51], as shepherds of the Church, and he who hears them, hears Christ, and he who rejects them, rejects Christ and Him who sent Christ. (cf. Lk 10:16) [52] [CCC §87*]

§ 21

[L] In the bishops, therefore, for whom priests are assistants, Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Supreme High Priest, is present in the midst of those who believe. [CCC §1549*] For sitting at the right hand of God the Father, He is not absent from the gathering of His high priests[53], but above all through their excellent service He is preaching the word of God to all nations, and constantly administering the sacraments of faith to those who believe, by their paternal functioning. (cf. 1 Cor 4:15) He incorporates new members in His Body by a heavenly regeneration, and finally by their wisdom and prudence He directs and guides the People of the New Testament in their pilgrimage toward eternal happiness. These pastors, chosen to shepherd the Lord's flock of the elect, are servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God (cf. 1 Cor 4:1), to whom has been assigned the bearing of witness to the Gospel of the grace of God (cf. Rom 15:16; Acts 20:24), and the ministration of the Spirit and of justice in glory. (cf. 2 Cor 3:8-9)

§ 21b

[L] For the discharging of such great duties, the apostles were enriched by Christ with a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit coming upon them (cf. Acts 1:8; 2:4; Jn 20:22-23), and they passed on this spiritual gift to their helpers by the imposition of hands (cf. 1 Tim 4:14; 2 Tim 1:6-7) [CCC §1576], and it has been transmitted down to us in Episcopal consecration.[54] [CCC §1556] And the Sacred Council teaches that by Episcopal consecration the fullness of the sacrament of Orders is conferred, that fullness of power, namely, which both in the Church's liturgical practice and in the language of the Fathers of the Church is called the high priesthood, the supreme power of the sacred ministry [sacri ministerii summa].[55] [CCC §1557] But Episcopal consecration, together with the office of sanctifying, also confers the office of teaching and of governing, which, however, of its very nature, can be exercised only in hierarchical communion with the head and the members of the college. For from the tradition, which is expressed especially in liturgical rites and in the practice of both the Church of the East and of the West, it is clear that, by means of the imposition of hands and the words of consecration, the grace of the Holy Spirit is so conferred[56], and the sacred character so impressed[57], that bishops in an eminent and visible way sustain the roles of Christ Himself as Teacher, Shepherd and High Priest, and that they act in His person.[58] [CCC §1558, §1575*] Therefore it pertains to the bishops to admit newly elected members into the Episcopal body by means of the sacrament of Orders.

§ 22

[L] Just as in the Gospel, the Lord so disposing, St. Peter and the other apostles constitute one apostolic college, so in a similar way the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter, and the bishops, the successors of the apostles, are joined together. [CCC §880] Indeed, the very ancient practice whereby bishops duly established in all parts of the world were in communion with one another and with the Bishop of Rome in a bond of unity, charity and peace[59], and also the councils assembled together[60], in which more profound issues were settled in common[61], the opinion of the many having been prudently considered[62], both of these factors are already an indication of the collegiate character and aspect of the Episcopal order; and the ecumenical councils held in the course of centuries are also manifest proof of that same character. And it is intimated also in the practice, introduced in ancient times, of summoning several bishops to take part in the elevation of the newly elected to the ministry of the high priesthood. Hence, one is constituted a member of the Episcopal body in virtue of sacramental consecration and hierarchical communion with the head and members of the body. [CCC §1559]

§ 22b

[L] But the college or body of bishops has no authority unless it is understood together with the Roman Pontiff, the successor of Peter as its head. The pope's power of primacy over all, both pastors and faithful, remains whole and intact. In virtue of his office, that is as Vicar of Christ and pastor of the whole Church, the Roman Pontiff has full, supreme and universal power over the Church. And he is always free to exercise this power. [CCC §882] The order of bishops, which succeeds to the college of apostles and gives this apostolic body continued existence, is also the subject of supreme and full power over the universal Church, provided we understand this body together with its head the Roman Pontiff and never without this head.[63] This power can be exercised only with the consent of the Roman Pontiff. [CCC §883] For our Lord placed Simon alone as the rock and the bearer of the keys of the Church (cf. Mt 16:18-19), and made him shepherd of the whole flock (cf. Jn 21:15ff); it is evident, however, that the power of binding and loosing, which was given to Peter (Mt 16:19), was granted also to the college of apostles, joined with their head.[64] (cf. Mt 18:18; 28:16-20) [CCC §881, §1444] This college, insofar as it is composed of many, expresses the variety and universality of the People of God, but insofar as it is assembled under one head, it expresses the unity of the flock of Christ. [CCC §885] In it, the bishops, faithfully recognizing the primacy and pre-eminence of their head, exercise their own authority for the good of their own faithful, and indeed of the whole Church, the Holy Spirit supporting its organic structure and harmony with moderation. The supreme power in the universal Church, which this college enjoys, is exercised in a solemn way in an ecumenical council. A council is never ecumenical unless it is confirmed or at least accepted as such by the successor of Peter [CCC §884]; and it is [the] prerogative of the Roman Pontiff to convoke these councils, to preside over them and to confirm them.[65] This same collegiate power can be exercised together with the pope by the bishops living in all parts of the world, provided that the head of the college calls them to collegiate action, or at least approves of or freely accepts the united action of the scattered bishops, so that it is thereby made a collegiate act.

§ 23

[L] This collegial union is apparent also in the mutual relations of the individual bishops with particular churches and with the universal Church. The Roman Pontiff, as the successor of Peter, is the perpetual and visible principle and foundation of unity of both the bishops and of the faithful.[66] [CCC §882] The individual bishops, however, are the visible principle and foundation of unity in their particular churches[67] [CCC §886, §938], fashioned after the model of the universal Church, in and from which churches comes into being the one and only Catholic Church.[68] [CCC §833] For this reason the individual bishops represent each his own church, but all of them together and with the Pope represent the entire Church in the bond of peace, love and unity.

§ 23b

[L] The individual bishops, who are placed in charge of particular churches, exercise their pastoral government over the portion of the People of God committed to their care [CCC §886], and not over other churches nor over the universal Church. But each of them, as a member of the episcopal college and legitimate successor of the apostles, is obliged by Christ's institution and command to be solicitous for the whole Church[69] [CCC §1560*], and this solicitude, though it is not exercised by an act of jurisdiction, contributes greatly to the advantage of the universal Church. For it is the duty of all bishops to promote and to safeguard the unity of faith and the discipline common to the whole Church, to instruct the faithful to love for the whole mystical body of Christ, especially for its poor and sorrowing members and for those who are suffering persecution for justice's sake (Mt 5:10), and finally to promote every activity that is of interest to the whole Church, especially that the faith may take increase and the light of full truth appear to all men. And this also is important, that by governing well their own church as a portion of the universal Church, they themselves are effectively contributing to the welfare of the whole Mystical Body, which is also the body of the churches.[70]

§ 23c

[L] The task of proclaiming the Gospel everywhere on earth pertains to the body of pastors, to all of whom in common Christ gave His command, thereby imposing upon them a common duty, as Pope Celestine in his time recommended to the Fathers of the Council of Ephesus.[71] From this it follows that the individual bishops, insofar as their own discharge of their duty permits, are obliged to enter into a community of work among themselves and with the successor of Peter, upon whom was imposed in a special way the great duty of spreading the Christian name.[72] With all their energy, therefore, they must supply to the missions both workers for the harvest and also spiritual and material aid, both directly and on their own account, as well as by arousing the ardent cooperation of the faithful. And finally, the bishops, in a universal fellowship of charity, should gladly extend their fraternal aid to other churches, especially to neighboring and more needy dioceses in accordance with the venerable example of antiquity.

§ 23d

[L] By divine Providence it has come about that various churches, established in various places by the apostles and their successors, have in the course of time coalesced into several groups, organically united, which, preserving the unity of faith and the unique divine constitution of the universal Church, enjoy their own discipline, their own liturgical usage, and their own theological and spiritual heritage. Some of these churches, notably the ancient patriarchal churches, as parent-stocks [matrices] of the Faith, so to speak, have begotten others as daughter churches, with which they are connected down to our own time by a close bond of charity in their sacramental life and in their mutual respect for their rights and duties.[73] This variety of local churches with one common aspiration is splendid evidence of the catholicity of the undivided Church. [CCC §835] In like manner the Episcopal bodies of today are in a position to render a manifold and fruitful assistance, so that this collegiate feeling may be put into practical application. [CCC §887]

§ 24

[L] Bishops, as successors of the apostles, receive from the Lord, to whom was given all power in heaven and on earth, the mission to teach all nations and to preach the Gospel to every creature, so that all men may attain to salvation by faith, baptism and the fulfilment of the commandments. (Mt 28:18; Mk 16:15-16; Acts 26:17ff) [CCC §2068] To fulfill this mission, Christ the Lord promised the Holy Spirit to the Apostles, and on Pentecost day sent the Spirit from heaven, by whose power they would be witnesses to Him before the nations and peoples and kings even to the ends of the earth. (Cf. Acts 1:8-2:1ff; 9:15) And that duty, which the Lord committed to the shepherds of His people, is a true service [CCC §1551], which in sacred literature is significantly called "diakonia" or ministry. (Acts 1:17,25; 21:19; Rom 11:13; 1 Tim 1:12)

[L] The canonical mission of bishops can come about by legitimate customs[,] that have not been revoked by the supreme and universal authority of the Church, or by laws made or recognized [by that] authority, or directly through the successor of Peter himself; and if the latter refuses or denies apostolic communion, such bishops cannot assume any office.[74]

§ 25

[L] Among the principal duties of bishops the preaching of the Gospel occupies an eminent place.[75] For bishops are preachers of the faith, who lead new disciples to Christ, and they are authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ [CCC §888, §2034], who preach to the people committed to them the faith they must believe and put into practice, and by the light of the Holy Spirit illustrate that faith. They bring forth from the treasury of Revelation new things and old (cf. Mt 13:52), making it bear fruit and vigilantly warding off any errors that threaten their flock. (cf. 2 Tim 4:1-4) Bishops, teaching in communion with the Roman Pontiff, are to be respected by all as witnesses to divine and Catholic truth. In matters of faith and morals, the bishops speak in the name of Christ and the faithful are to accept their teaching and adhere to it with a religious assent. [CCC §892] This religious submission of mind and will must be shown in a special way to the authentic magisterium of the Roman Pontiff, even when he is not speaking ex cathedra; that is, it must be shown in such a way that his supreme magisterium is acknowledged with reverence, the judgments made by him are sincerely adhered to, according to his manifest mind and will. His mind and will in the matter may be known either from the character of the documents, from his frequent repetition of the same doctrine, or from his manner of speaking.

§ 25b

[L] Although the individual bishops do not enjoy the prerogative of infallibility, they nevertheless proclaim Christ's doctrine infallibly whenever, even though dispersed through the world, but still maintaining the bond of communion among themselves and with the successor of Peter, and authentically teaching matters of faith and morals, they are in agreement on one position as definitively to be held.[76] This is even more clearly verified when, gathered together in an ecumenical council, they are teachers and judges of faith and morals for the universal Church, whose definitions must be adhered to with the submission of faith.[77][CCC §891]

§ 25c

[L] And this infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed His Church to be endowed in defining doctrine of faith and morals, extends as far as the deposit of Revelation extends [CCC §90], which must be religiously guarded and faithfully expounded. And this is the infallibility which the Roman Pontiff, the head of the college of bishops, enjoys in virtue of his office, when, as the supreme shepherd and teacher of all the faithful, who confirms his brethren in their faith (cf Lk 22:32), by a definitive act he proclaims a doctrine of faith or morals.[78] And therefore his definitions, of themselves, and not from the consent of the Church, are justly styled irreformable, since they are pronounced with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, promised to him in blessed Peter, and therefore they need no approval of others, nor do they allow an appeal to any other judgment. For then the Roman Pontiff is not pronouncing judgment as a private person, but as the supreme teacher of the universal Church, in whom the charism of infallibility of the Church itself is individually present, he is expounding or defending a doctrine of Catholic faith.[79] The infallibility promised to the Church resides also in the body of Bishops, when that body exercises the supreme magisterium with the successor of Peter. To these definitions the assent of the Church can never be wanting, on account of the activity of that same Holy Spirit, by which the whole flock of Christ is preserved and progresses in unity of faith.[80]

§ 25d

[L] But when either the Roman Pontiff or the Body of Bishops together with him defines a judgment, they pronounce it in accordance with Revelation itself, which all are obliged to abide by and be in conformity with, that is, the Revelation which as written or orally handed down is transmitted in its entirety through the legitimate succession of bishops and especially in care of the Roman Pontiff himself, and which under the guiding light of the Spirit of truth is religiously preserved and faithfully expounded in the Church.[81] The Roman Pontiff and the bishops, in view of their office and the importance of the matter, by fitting means diligently strive to inquire properly into that revelation and to give apt expression to its contents[82]; but a new public revelation they do not accept as pertaining to the divine deposit of faith.[83]

§ 26

[L] A bishop marked with the fullness of the sacrament of Orders, is "the steward of the grace of the supreme priesthood,"[84] [CCC §893] especially in the Eucharist, which he offers or causes to be offered[85], and by which the Church continually lives and grows. This Church of Christ is truly present in all legitimate local congregations of the faithful which, united with their pastors, are themselves called churches in the New Testament.[86] For in their locality these are the new People called by God, in the Holy Spirit and in much fullness. (cf. 1 Thess 1:5) In them the faithful are gathered together by the preaching of the Gospel of Christ, and the mystery of the Lord's Supper is celebrated, that by the food and blood of the Lord's body the whole brotherhood may be joined together.[87] In any community of the altar, under the sacred ministry of the bishop[88], there is exhibited a symbol of that charity and "unity of the mystical Body, without which there can be no salvation."[89] In these communities, though frequently small and poor, or living in the Diaspora [in dispersione degentibus], Christ is present, and in virtue of His presence there is brought together one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church.[90] [CCC §832] For "the partaking of the body and blood of Christ does nothing other than make us be transformed into that which we consume."[91]

Every legitimate celebration of the Eucharist is regulated by the bishop, to whom is committed the office of offering the worship of Christian religion to the Divine Majesty and of administering it in accordance with the Lord's commandments and the Church's laws, as further defined by his particular judgment for his diocese.

§ 26b

[L] Bishops thus, by praying and laboring for the people, make outpourings in many ways and in great abundance from the fullness of Christ's holiness. By the ministry of the word they communicate God's power to those who believe unto salvation (cf. Rom 1:16) and through the sacraments, the regular and fruitful distribution of which they regulate by their authority[92], they sanctify the faithful. They direct the conferring [collationem] of baptism, by which a sharing in the kingly priesthood of Christ is granted. They are the original ministers of confirmation [CCC §1312], dispensers of sacred Orders and the moderators of penitential discipline [CCC §1462], and they earnestly exhort and instruct their people to carry out with faith and reverence their part in the liturgy and especially in the holy sacrifice of the Mass. And lastly, by the example of their way of life they must be an influence for good to those over whom they preside, refraining from all evil and, as far as they are able with God's help, exchanging evil for good, so that together with the flock committed to their care they may arrive at eternal life.[93]

§ 27

[L] Bishops, as vicars and ambassadors of Christ, govern the particular churches entrusted to them[94] by their counsel, exhortations, example, and even by their authority and sacred power, which indeed they use only for the edification of their flock in truth and holiness [CCC §894], remembering that he who is greater should become as the lesser and he who is the chief become as the servant. (cf. Lk 22:26-27) This power, which they personally exercise in Christ's name, is proper, ordinary and immediate [propria, ordinaria et immediata], although its exercise is ultimately regulated by the supreme authority of the Church [CCC §895], and can be circumscribed by certain limits, for the advantage of the Church or of the faithful. In virtue of this power, bishops have the sacred right and the duty before the Lord to make laws for their subjects, to pass judgment on them and to moderate everything pertaining to the ordering of worship and the apostolate.

§ 27b

[L] The pastoral office or the habitual and daily care of their sheep is entrusted to them completely; nor are they to be regarded as vicars of the Roman Pontiffs [CCC §895], for they exercise an authority that is proper to them, and are quite correctly called prelates, heads of the people whom they govern.[95] Their power, therefore, is not destroyed by the supreme and universal power, but on the contrary it is affirmed, strengthened and vindicated by it[96], since the Holy Spirit unfailingly preserves the form of government established by Christ the Lord in His Church.

§ 27c

[L] A bishop, since he is sent by the Father to govern his family, must keep before his eyes the example of the Good Shepherd, who came not to be ministered unto but to minister (cf. Mt 20:28; Mk 10:45), and to lay down his life for his sheep. (cf. Jn 10:11) Being taken from among men, and himself beset [circumdatus] with weakness, he is able to have compassion on the ignorant and erring. (cf. Heb 5:1-2) Let him not refuse to listen to his subjects, whom he cherishes as his true sons and exhorts to cooperate readily with him. As having one day to render an account for their souls (cf. Heb 13:17), he takes care of them by his prayer, preaching, and all the works of charity, and not only of them but also of those who are not yet of the one flock, who also are commended to him in the Lord. Since, like Paul the Apostle, he is debtor to all men, let him be ready to preach the Gospel to all (cf. Rom 1:14-15), and to urge his faithful to apostolic and missionary activity. But the faithful must cling to their bishop, as the Church does to Christ, and Jesus Christ to the Father [CCC §896], so that all may be of one mind through unity[97], and abound to the glory of God. (cf. 2 Cor 4:15)

§ 28

[L] Christ, whom the Father has sanctified and sent into the world (cf. Jn 10:36), has through His apostles, made their successors, the bishops, partakers of His consecration and His mission.[98] They have legitimately handed on to different individuals in the Church various degrees of participation in this ministry. [CCC §1562] Thus the divinely established ecclesiastical ministry is exercised on different levels by those who from antiquity have been called bishops, priests and deacons.[99] [CCC §1554] Priests, although they do not possess the highest degree of the priesthood, and although they are dependent on the bishops in the exercise of their power, nevertheless are united with the bishops in sacerdotal dignity.[100] By the power of the sacrament of Orders[101], in the image of Christ the eternal high Priest (Heb 5:1-10; 7:24; 9:11-28), they are consecrated to preach the Gospel and shepherd the faithful and to celebrate divine worship, so that they are true priests of the New Testament.[102] [CCC §1564] Partakers of the function of Christ the sole Mediator (cf. 1 Tim 2:5), on their level of ministry, they announce the divine word to all. They exercise their sacred function especially in the Eucharistic worship [synaxi, Σύναξις: an assembly for liturgical purposes] or the celebration of the Mass by which acting in the person of Christ[103] [CCC §1548*] and proclaiming His Mystery they unite the prayers of the faithful with the sacrifice of their Head and renew and apply[104] in the sacrifice of the Mass until the coming of the Lord (cf. 1 Cor 11:26) the only sacrifice of the New Testament namely that of Christ offering Himself once for all a spotless Victim to the Father. (cf. Heb 9:11-28) [CCC §1566] For the sick and the sinners among the faithful, they exercise the ministry of alleviation and reconciliation and they present the needs and the prayers of the faithful to God the Father. (cf. Heb 5:1-4) Exercising within the limits of their authority the function of Christ as Shepherd and Head[105], they gather together God's family as a brotherhood all of one mind[106], and lead them in the Spirit, through Christ, to God the Father. In the midst of the flock they adore Him in spirit and in truth. (cf. Jn 4:24) Finally, they labor in word and doctrine (cf. 1 Tim 5:17), believing what they have read and meditated upon in the law of God, teaching what they have believed, and putting in practice in their own lives what they have taught.[107]

§ 28b

[L] Priests, prudent [providi] cooperators with the Episcopal order[108], its aid and instrument, called to serve the people of God, constitute one priesthood[109] with their bishop although bound by a diversity of duties. Associated with their bishop in a spirit of trust and generosity, they make him present in a certain sense in the individual local congregations, and take upon themselves, as far as they are able, his duties and the burden of his care, and discharge them with a daily interest. [CCC §1567] And as they sanctify and govern under the bishop's authority, that part of the Lord's flock entrusted to them they make the universal Church visible in their own locality and bring an efficacious assistance to the building up of the whole body of Christ. (cf. Eph 4:12) intent always upon the welfare of God's children, they must strive to lend their effort to the pastoral work of the whole diocese, and even of the entire Church. On account of this sharing in their priesthood and mission, let priests sincerely look upon the bishop as their father and reverently obey him. And let the bishop regard his priests as his co-workers and as sons and friends, just as Christ called His disciples now not servants but friends. (cf. Jn 15:15) All priests, both diocesan and religious, by reason of Orders and ministry, fit into this body of bishops and priests, and serve the good of the whole Church according to their vocation and the grace given to them.

In virtue of their common sacred ordination and mission, all priests are bound together in intimate brotherhood, which naturally and freely manifests itself in mutual aid, spiritual as well as material, pastoral as well as personal, in their meetings and in communion of life, of labor and charity.

§ 28c

[L] Let them, as fathers in Christ, take care of the faithful whom they have begotten by baptism and their teaching. (cf. 1 Cor 4:15; 1 Pet 1:23) Becoming from the heart a pattern to the flock (cf. 1 Pet 5:3), let them so lead and serve their local community that it may worthily be called by that name, by which the one and entire people of God is signed, namely, the Church of God. (cf. 1 Cor 1:2; 2 Cor 1:1; etc.) Let them remember that by their daily life and interests [conversatione et sollicitudine] they are showing the face of a truly sacerdotal and pastoral ministry to the faithful and the infidel, to Catholics and non-Catholics, and that to all they bear witness to the truth and life, and as good shepherds go after those also (cf. Lk 15:4-7), who though baptized in the Catholic Church have fallen away from the use of the sacraments, or even from the faith.

[L] Because the human race today is joining more and more into a civic, economic and social unity, it is that much the more necessary that priests, by combined effort and aid, under the leadership of the bishops and the Supreme Pontiff, wipe out every kind of separateness, so that the whole human race may be brought into the unity of the family of God.

§ 29

[L] At a lower level of the hierarchy are deacons, upon whom hands are imposed "not unto the priesthood, but unto a ministry of service."[110] [CCC §1569] For strengthened by sacramental grace, in communion with the bishop and his group of priests they serve in the diaconate of the liturgy, of the word, and of charity to the people of God. It is the duty of the deacon, according as it shall have been assigned to him by competent authority, to administer baptism solemnly, to be custodian and dispenser of the Eucharist, to assist at and bless marriages in the name of the Church, to bring Viaticum to the dying, to read the Sacred Scripture to the faithful, to instruct and exhort the people, to preside over the worship and prayer of the faithful, to administer sacramentals, to officiate at funeral and burial services. [CCC §1570, §1588] Dedicated to duties of charity and of administration, let deacons be mindful of the admonition of Blessed Polycarp: "Be merciful, diligent, walking according to the truth of the Lord, who became the servant of all."[111]

§ 29b

[L] Since these duties, so very necessary to the life of the Church, can be fulfilled only with difficulty in many regions in accordance with the discipline of the Latin Church as it exists today, the diaconate can in the future be restored as a proper and permanent rank of the hierarchy. [CCC §1571] It pertains to the competent territorial bodies of bishops, of one kind or another, with the approval of the Supreme Pontiff, to decide whether and where it is opportune for such deacons to be established for the care of souls. With the consent of the Roman Pontiff, this diaconate can, in the future, be conferred upon men of more mature age, even upon those living in the married state. It may also be conferred upon suitable young men, for whom the law of celibacy must remain intact.

[Preliminary Note of Explanation :re Chapter 3]

CHAPTER IV THE LAITY

§ 30

[L] Having set forth the functions of the hierarchy, the Sacred Council gladly turns its attention to the state of those faithful called the laity. Everything that has been said above concerning the People of God is intended for the laity, religious and clergy alike. But there are certain things which pertain in a special way to the laity, both men and women, by reason of their condition and mission. Due to the special circumstances of our time the foundations of this doctrine must be more thoroughly examined [expendenda sunt]. For their pastors know how much the laity contribute to the welfare of the entire Church. They also know that they were not ordained by Christ to take upon themselves alone the entire salvific mission of the Church toward the world. On the contrary they understand that it is their noble duty to shepherd the faithful and to recognize their ministries and charisms, so that all according to their proper roles may cooperate in this common undertaking with one mind. For we must all

practice the truth in love, and so grow up in all things in Him who is head, Christ. For from Him the whole body, being closely joined and knit together through every joint of the system, according to the functioning in due measure of each single part, derives its increase to the building up of itself in love. (Eph 4:15-16)

§ 31

[L] The term laity is here understood to mean all the faithful except those in holy orders and those in the state of religious life specially approved by the Church. These faithful are by baptism made one body with Christ and are constituted among the People of God; they are in their own way made sharers in the priestly, prophetical, and kingly functions of Christ; and they carry out for their own part the mission of the whole Christian people in the Church and in the world. [CCC §897]

[L] What specifically characterizes the laity is their secular nature. It is true that those in holy orders can at times be engaged in secular activities, and even have a secular profession. But they are by reason of their particular vocation especially and professedly ordained to the sacred ministry. Similarly, by their state in life, religious give splendid and striking testimony that the world cannot be transformed and offered to God without the spirit of the beatitudes. But the laity, by their very vocation, seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to the plan of God. They live in the world, that is, in each and in all of the secular professions and occupations. They live in the ordinary circumstances of family and social life, from which the very web of their existence is woven. They are called there by God that by exercising their proper function and led by the spirit of the Gospel they may work for the sanctification of the world from within as a leaven [fermenti instar]. In this way they may make Christ known to others, especially by the testimony of a life resplendent in faith, hope and charity. Therefore, since they are tightly bound up in all types of temporal affairs it is their special task to order and to throw light upon these affairs in such a way that they may come into being and then continually increase according to Christ to the praise of the Creator and the Redeemer. [CCC §898]

§ 32

[L] By divine institution Holy Church is ordered and governed with a wonderful diversity.

For just as in one body we have many members, yet all the members have not the same function, so we, the many, are one body in Christ, but severally members one of another. (Rom 12:4-5)
Therefore, the chosen People of God is one: "one Lord, one faith, one baptism" (Eph 4:5); sharing a common dignity as members from their regeneration in Christ, having the same filial grace and the same vocation to perfection; possessing in common one salvation, one hope and one undivided charity. There is, therefore, in Christ and in the Church no inequality on the basis of race or nationality, social condition or sex, because
there is neither Jew nor Greek: there is neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female. For you are all 'one' in Christ Jesus. (Gal 3:28; cf. Col 3:11)

§ 32b

[L] If therefore in the Church everyone does not proceed by the same path, nevertheless all are called to sanctity and have received an equal privilege of [coaequalem sortiti sunt fidem] faith through the justice of God. (2 Pet 1:1) And if by the will of Christ some are made teachers, pastors and dispensers of mysteries on behalf of others, yet all share a true equality with regard to the dignity and to the activity common to all the faithful for the building up of the Body of Christ. For the distinction which the Lord made between sacred ministers and the rest of the People of God bears within it a certain union, since pastors and the other faithful are bound to each other by a mutual need. Pastors of the Church, following the example of the Lord, should minister to one another and to the other faithful. These in their turn should enthusiastically lend their joint assistance to their pastors and teachers. Thus in their diversity all bear witness to the wonderful unity in the Body of Christ. This very diversity of graces, ministries and works gathers the children of God into one, because "all these things are the work of one and the same Spirit." (1 Cor 12:11)

[L] Therefore, from divine choice the laity have Christ for their brother who though He is the Lord of all, came not to be served but to serve. (Mt 20:28) They also have for their brothers those in the sacred ministry who by teaching, by sanctifying and by ruling with the authority of Christ feed the family of God so that the new commandment of charity may be fulfilled by all. St. Augustine puts this very beautifully when he says:

What I am for you terrifies me; what I am with you consoles me. For you I am a bishop; but with you I am a Christian. The former is a duty; the latter a grace. The former is a danger; the latter, salvation.[112]

§ 33

[L] The laity are gathered together in the People of God and make up the Body of Christ under one head. Whoever they are they are called upon, as living members, to expend all their energy for the growth of the Church and its continuous sanctification, since this very energy is a gift of the Creator and a blessing of the Redeemer.

The lay apostolate, however, is a participation in the salvific mission of the Church itself. Through their baptism and confirmation all are commissioned to that apostolate by the Lord Himself. Moreover, by the sacraments, especially holy Eucharist, that charity toward God and man which is the soul of the apostolate is communicated and nourished. Now the laity are called in a special way to make the Church present and operative in those places and circumstances where only through them can it become the salt of the earth.[113] Thus every layman, in virtue of the very gifts bestowed upon him, is at the same time a witness and a living instrument of the mission of the Church itself "according to the measure of Christ's bestowal." (Eph 4:7) [CCC §913]

§ 33b

[L] Besides this apostolate which certainly pertains to all Christians, the laity can also be called in various ways to a more direct form of cooperation in the apostolate of the Hierarchy.[114] This was the way certain men and women assisted Paul the Apostle in the Gospel, laboring much in the Lord. (Phil 4:3; Rom 16:3) Further, they have the capacity to assume from the Hierarchy certain ecclesiastical functions, which are to be performed for a spiritual purpose.

Upon all the laity, therefore, rests the noble duty of working to extend the divine plan of salvation to all men of each epoch and in every land. Consequently, may every opportunity be given them so that, according to their abilities and the needs of the times, they may zealously participate in the saving work of the Church.

§ 34

[L] The supreme and eternal Priest, Christ Jesus, since he wills to continue his witness and service also through the laity, vivifies them in this Spirit and increasingly urges them on to every good and perfect work.

For besides intimately linking them to His life and His mission, He also gives them a sharing in His priestly function of offering spiritual worship for the glory of God and the salvation of men. For this reason the laity, dedicated to Christ and anointed by the Holy Spirit, are marvelously called and wonderfully prepared so that ever more abundant fruits of the Spirit may be produced in them. For all their works, prayers and apostolic endeavors, their ordinary married and family life, their daily occupations, their physical and mental relaxation, if carried out in the Spirit, and even the hardships of life, if patiently borne -- all these become "spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ." (cf. 1 Pet 2:5) Together with the offering of the Lord's body, they are most fittingly offered in the celebration of the Eucharist. Thus, as those everywhere who adore in holy activity, the laity consecrate the world itself to God. [CCC §901]

§ 35

[L] Christ, the great Prophet, who proclaimed the Kingdom of His Father both by the testimony of His life and the power of His words, continually fulfills His prophetic office until the complete manifestation of glory. He does this not only through the hierarchy who teach in His name and with His authority, but also through the laity whom He made His witnesses and to whom He gave understanding of the faith (sensu fidei) and an attractiveness in speech (cf. Acts 2:17-18; Rev 19:10) [CCC §904] so that the power of the Gospel might shine forth in their daily social and family life. They conduct themselves as children of the promise, and thus strong in faith and in hope they make the most of the present [praesens momentum redimunt] (Eph 5:16, Col 4:5), and with patience await the glory that is to come. (Rom 8:25) Let them not, then, hide this hope in the depths of their hearts, but even in the program of their secular life [per vitae saecularis structuras] let them express it by a continual conversion and by wrestling "against the world-rulers of this darkness, against the spiritual forces of wickedness. (Eph 6:12)

Just as the sacraments of the New Law, by which the life and the apostolate of the faithful are nourished, prefigure a new heaven and a new earth (cf. Rev 21:1), so too the laity go forth as powerful proclaimers of a faith in things to be hoped for (cf. Heb 11:1), when they courageously join to their profession of faith a life springing from faith. This evangelization, that is, this announcing of Christ by a living testimony as well as by the spoken word, takes on a specific quality and a special force in that it is carried out in the ordinary surroundings of the world. [CCC §905]

§ 35b

[L] In connection with the prophetic function is that state of life which is sanctified by a special sacrament obviously of great importance, namely, married and family life. For where Christianity pervades the entire mode of family life, and gradually transforms it, one will find there both the practice and an excellent school of the lay apostolate. In such a home husbands and wives find their proper vocation in being witnesses of the faith and love of Christ to one another and to their children. The Christian family loudly proclaims both the present virtues of the Kingdom of God and the hope of a blessed life to come. Thus by its example and its witness it accuses the world of sin and enlightens those who seek the truth.

Consequently, even when preoccupied with temporal cares, the laity can and must perform a work of great value for the evangelization of the world. For even if some of them have to fulfill their religious duties on their own, when there are no sacred ministers or in times of persecution; and even if many of them devote all their energies to apostolic work; still it remains for each one of them to cooperate in the external spread and the dynamic growth of the Kingdom of Christ in the world. Therefore, let the laity devotedly strive to acquire a more profound grasp of revealed truth, and let them insistently beg of God the gift of wisdom.

§ 36

[L] Christ, becoming obedient even unto death and because of this exalted by the Father (cf. Phil 2:8-9), entered into the glory of His kingdom. To Him all things are made subject until He subjects Himself and all created things to the Father that God may be all in all. (cf. 1 Cor 15:27-28) Now Christ has communicated this royal power to His disciples that they might be constituted in royal freedom and that by true penance and a holy life they might conquer the reign of sin in themselves. (cf. Rom 6:12) [CCC §908] Further, He has shared this power so that serving Christ in their fellow men they might by humility and patience lead their brethren to that King for whom to serve is to reign. But the Lord wishes to spread His kingdom also by means of the laity, namely, a kingdom of truth and life, a kingdom of holiness and grace, a kingdom of justice, love and peace.[115] In this kingdom creation itself will be delivered from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the sons of God. (cf. Rom 8:21) Clearly then a great promise and a great trust is committed to the disciples: "All things are yours, and you are Christ's, and Christ is God's." (1 Cor 3:23)

§ 36b

[L] The faithful, therefore, must learn the deepest meaning and the value of all creation[, as well as its role] in the harmonious praise of God. [CCC §337] They must assist each other to live holier lives even in their daily occupations. In this way the world may be permeated by the spirit of Christ and it may more effectively fulfill its purpose in justice, charity and peace. The laity have the principal role in the overall fulfillment of this duty. Therefore, by their competence in secular training and by their activity, elevated from within by the grace of Christ, let them vigorously contribute their effort, so that created goods may be perfected [excolantur] by human labor, technical skill and civic culture for the benefit of all men according to the design of the Creator and the light of His Word. May the goods of this world be more equitably [aptius] distributed among all men, and may they in their own way be conducive to universal progress in human and Christian freedom. In this manner, through the members of the Church, will Christ progressively illumine the whole of human society with His saving light.

§ 36c

[L] Moreover, let the laity also by their combined efforts remedy the customs and conditions of the world, if they are an inducement to sin, so that they all may be conformed to the norms of justice and may favor the practice of virtue rather than hinder it. By so doing they will imbue culture and human activity with genuine moral values [CCC §909]; they will better prepare the field of the world for the seed of the Word of God; and at the same time they will open wider the doors of the Church by which the message of peace may enter the world.

Because of the very economy of salvation the faithful should learn how to distinguish carefully between those rights and duties which are theirs as members of the Church, and those which they have as members of human society. Let them strive to reconcile the two, remembering that in every temporal affair they must be guided by a Christian conscience, since even in secular business there is no human activity which can be withdrawn from God's dominion. [CCC §912] In our own time, however, it is most urgent that this distinction and also this harmony should shine forth more clearly than ever in the lives of the faithful, so that the mission of the Church may correspond more fully to the special conditions of the world today. For it must be admitted that the temporal sphere is governed by its own principles, since it is rightly concerned with the interests of this world. But that ominous doctrine which attempts to build a society with no regard whatever for religion, and which attacks and destroys the religious liberty of its citizens, is rightly to be rejected.[116]

§ 37

[L] The laity have the right, as do all Christians, to receive in abundance from their spiritual shepherds the spiritual goods of the Church, especially the assistance of the word of God and of the sacraments.[117] They should openly reveal to them their needs and desires with that freedom and confidence which is fitting for children of God and brothers in Christ. They are, by reason of the knowledge, competence or outstanding ability which they may enjoy, permitted and sometimes even obliged to express their opinion on those things which concern the good of the Church.[118] When occasions arise, let this be done through the organs erected by the Church for this purpose. Let it always be done in truth, in courage and in prudence, with reverence and charity toward those who by reason of their sacred office represent the person of Christ.

The laity should, as all Christians, promptly accept in Christian obedience decisions of their spiritual shepherds, since they are representatives of Christ as well as teachers and rulers in the Church. Let them follow the example of Christ, who by His obedience even unto death, opened to all men the blessed way of the liberty of the children of God. Nor should they omit to pray for those placed over them, for they keep watch as having to render an account of their souls, so that they may do this with joy and not with grief. (cf. Heb 13:17)

§ 37b

[L] Let the spiritual shepherds recognize and promote the dignity as well as the responsibility of the laity in the Church. Let them willingly employ their prudent advice. Let them confidently assign duties to them in the service of the Church, allowing them freedom and room for action. Further, let them encourage lay people so that they may undertake tasks on their own initiative. Attentively in Christ, let them consider with fatherly love the projects, suggestions and desires proposed by the laity.[119] However, let the shepherds respectfully acknowledge that just freedom which belongs to everyone in this earthly city

A great many wonderful things are to be hoped for from this familiar dialogue between the laity and their spiritual leaders: in the laity a strengthened sense of personal responsibility; a renewed enthusiasm; a more ready application of their talents to the projects of their spiritual leaders. The latter, on the other hand, aided by the experience of the laity, can more clearly and more incisively come to decisions regarding both spiritual and temporal matters. In this way, the whole Church, strengthened by each one of its members, may more effectively fulfill is mission for the life of the world.

§ 38

[L] Each individual layman must stand before the world as a witness to the resurrection and life of the Lord Jesus and a symbol of the living God. All the laity as a community and each one according to his ability must nourish the world with spiritual fruits. (cf. Gal 5:22) They must diffuse in the world that spirit which animates the poor, the meek, the peace makers -- whom the Lord in the Gospel proclaimed as blessed. (Mt 5:3-9) In a word, "Christians must be to the world what the soul is to the body."[120]

CHAPTER V THE UNIVERSAL CALL TO HOLINESS IN THE CHURCH

§ 39

[L] The Church, whose mystery is being set forth by this Sacred Synod, is believed to be indefectibly holy. Indeed Christ, the Son of God, who with the Father and the Spirit is praised as "uniquely holy,"[121] loved the Church as His bride, delivering Himself up for her. He did this that He might sanctify her. (cf. Eph 5:25-26) He united her to Himself as His own body and brought it to perfection by the gift of the Holy Spirit for God's glory. [CCC §823] Therefore in the Church, everyone whether belonging to the hierarchy or being cared for by it, is called to holiness, according to the saying of the Apostle: "For this is the will of God, your sanctification." (1 Thess 4:3; cf. Eph 1:4) However, this holiness of the Church is unceasingly manifested, and must be manifested, in the fruits of grace which the Spirit produces in the faithful; it is expressed in many ways in individuals, who in their walk of life, tend toward the perfection of charity, thus causing the edification of others; in a very special way this (holiness) appears in the practice of the counsels, customarily called evangelical. This practice of the counsels, under the impulsion of the Holy Spirit, undertaken by many Christians, either privately or in a Church-approved condition or state of life, gives and must give in the world an outstanding witness and example of this same holiness.

§ 40

[L] The Lord Jesus, the divine Teacher and Model of all perfection, preached holiness of life to each and every one of His disciples of every condition. [CCC §2013] He Himself stands as the author and consumator of this holiness of life: "Be you therefore perfect, even as your heavenly Father is perfect." (Mt 5:48) [122] Indeed He sent the Holy Spirit upon all men that He might move them inwardly to love God with their whole heart and their whole soul, with all their mind and all their strength (Mk 12:30) and that they might love each other as Christ loves them. (cf. Jn 13:34; 15:12) The followers of Christ are called by God, not because of their works, but according to His own purpose and grace. They are justified in the Lord Jesus, because in the baptism of faith they truly become sons of God and sharers in the divine nature. In this way they are really made holy. Then too, by God's gift, they must hold on to and complete in their lives this holiness they have received. They are warned by the Apostle to live "as becomes saints" (Eph 5:3), and to put on "as God's chosen ones, holy and beloved a heart of mercy, kindness, humility, meekness, patience" (Col 3:12), and to possess the fruit of the Spirit in holiness. (cf. Gal 5:22; Rom 6:22) Since truly we all offend in many things (Jas 3:2) we all need God's mercies continually and we all must daily pray: "Forgive us our debts." (Mt 6:12) [123]

§ 40b

[L] Thus it is evident to everyone, that all the faithful of Christ of whatever rank or status, are called to the fullness of the Christian life and to the perfection of charity[124] [CCC §2028]; by this holiness as such a more human manner of living is promoted in this earthly society. In order that the faithful may reach this perfection, they must use their strength accordingly as they have received it, as a gift from Christ. They must follow in His footsteps and conform themselves to His image seeking the will of the Father in all things. They must devote themselves with all their being to the glory of God and the service of their neighbor. In this way, the holiness of the People of God will grow into an abundant harvest of good, as is admirably shown by the life of so many saints in Church history. [CCC §2013]

§ 41

[L] The classes and duties of life are many, but holiness is one -- that sanctity which is cultivated by all who are moved by the Spirit of God, and who obey the voice of the Father and worship God the Father in spirit and in truth. These people follow the poor Christ, the humble and cross-bearing Christ in order to be worthy of being sharers in His glory. Every person must walk unhesitatingly according to his own personal gifts and duties in the path of living faith, which arouses hope and works through charity.

§ 41b

[L] In the first place, the shepherds of Christ's flock must holily and eagerly, humbly and courageously carry out their ministry, in imitation of the eternal high Priest, the Shepherd and Guardian [Episcopi] of our souls. They ought to fulfill this duty in such a way that it will be the principal means also of their own sanctification. Those chosen for the fullness of the priesthood are granted the ability of exercising the perfect duty of pastoral charity by the grace of the sacrament of Orders. This perfect duty of pastoral charity[125] is exercised in every form of episcopal care and service, prayer, sacrifice and preaching. By this same sacramental grace, they are given the courage necessary to lay down their lives for their sheep, and the ability of promoting greater holiness in the Church by their daily example, having become a pattern for their flock. (1 Pet 5:3)

§ 41c

[L] Priests, who resemble bishops [to a certain degree] in their participation of the sacrament of Orders, form the spiritual crown of the bishops.[126] They participate in the grace of their office and they should grow daily in their love of God and their neighbor by the exercise of their office through Christ, the eternal and unique Mediator. They should preserve the bond of priestly communion, and they should abound in every spiritual good and thus present to all men a living witness to God.[127] All this they should do in emulation of those priests who often, down through the course of the centuries, left an outstanding example of the holiness of humble and hidden service. Their praise lives on in the Church of God. By their very office of praying and offering sacrifice for their own people and the entire people of God, they should rise to greater holiness. Keeping in mind what they are doing and imitating what they are handling[128], these priests, in their apostolic labors, rather than being ensnared by perils and hardships, should rather rise to greater holiness through these perils and hardships. They should ever nourish and strengthen their action from an abundance of contemplation, doing all this for the comfort of the entire Church of God. All priests, and especially those who are called diocesan priests, due to the special title of their ordination, should keep continually before their minds the fact that their faithful loyalty toward and their generous cooperation with their bishop is of the greatest value in their growth in holiness.

§ 41d

[L] Ministers of lesser rank are also sharers in the mission and grace of the Supreme Priest. In the first place among these ministers are deacons, who, in as much as they are dispensers of Christ's mysteries and servants of the Church[129], should keep themselves free from every vice and stand before men as personifications of goodness and friends of God. (1 Tim 3:8-10 and 12-13) Clerics, who are called by the Lord and are set aside as His portion in order to prepare themselves for the various ministerial offices under the watchful eye of spiritual shepherds, are bound to bring their hearts and minds into accord with this special election (which is theirs). They will accomplish this by their constancy in prayer, by their burning love, and by their unremitting recollection of whatever is true, just and of good repute. They will accomplish all this for the glory and honor of God. Besides these already named, there are also laymen, chosen of God and called by the bishop. These laymen spend themselves completely in apostolic labors, working the Lord's field with much success.[130].

§ 41e

[L] Furthermore, married couples and Christian parents should follow their own proper path (to holiness) by faithful love. They should sustain one another in grace throughout the entire length of their lives. They should embue their offspring, lovingly welcomed as God's gift, with Christian doctrine and the evangelical virtues. In this manner, they offer all men the example of unwearying and generous love; in this way they build up the brotherhood of charity; in so doing, they stand as the witnesses and cooperators in the fruitfulness of Holy Mother Church; by such lives, they are a sign and a participation in that very love, with which Christ loved His Bride and for which He delivered Himself up for her.[131] A like example, but one given in a different way, is that offered by widows and single people, who are able to make great contributions toward holiness and apostolic endeavor in the Church. Finally, those who engage in labor -- and frequently it is of a heavy nature -- should better themselves by their human labors. They should be of aid to their fellow citizens. They should raise all of society, and even creation itself, to a better mode of existence. Indeed, they should imitate by their lively charity, in their joyous hope and by their voluntary sharing of each others' burdens, the very Christ who plied His hands with carpenter's tools and Who in union with His Father, is continually working for the salvation of all men. In this, then, their daily work they should climb to the heights of holiness and apostolic activity.

§ 41f

[L] May all those who are weighed down with poverty, infirmity and sickness, as well as those who must bear various hardships or who suffer persecution for justice sake -- may they all know they are united with the suffering Christ in a special way for the salvation of the world. The Lord called them blessed in His Gospel and they are those whom

the God of all graces, who has called us unto His eternal glory in Christ Jesus, will Himself, after we have suffered a little while, perfect, strengthen and establish. (1 Pet 5:10)

Finally all Christ's faithful, whatever be the conditions, duties and circumstances of their lives -- and indeed through all these, will daily increase in holiness, if they receive all things with faith from the hand of their heavenly Father and if they cooperate with the divine will. In this temporal service, they will manifest to all men the love with which God loved the world.

§ 42

[L] "God is love, and he who abides in love, abides in God and God in Him." (1 Jn 4:16) But, God pours out his love into our hearts through the Holy Spirit, Who has been given to us (cf. Rom 5:5); thus the first and most necessary gift is love, by which we love God above all things and our neighbor because of God. Indeed, in order that love, as good seed may grow and bring forth fruit in the soul, each one of the faithful must willingly hear the Word of God and accept His Will, and must complete what God has begun by their own actions with the help of God's grace. These actions consist in the use of the sacraments and in a special way the Eucharist, frequent participation in the sacred action of the Liturgy, application of oneself to prayer, self-abnegation, lively fraternal service and the constant exercise of all the virtues. For charity, as the bond of perfection and the fullness of the law (cf. Col 3:14, Rom 13:10), rules over all the means of attaining holiness and gives life to these same means.[132] It is charity which guides us to our final end. [CCC §826] It is the love of God and the love of one's neighbor which points out the true disciple of Christ.

§ 42b

[L] Since Jesus, the Son of God, manifested His charity by laying down His life for us, so too no one has greater love than he who lays down his life for Christ and His brothers. (cf. 1 Jn 3:16; Jn 15:13) From the earliest times, then, some Christians have been called upon -- and some will always be called upon -- to give the supreme testimony of this love to all men, but especially to persecutors. The Church, then, considers martyrdom as an exceptional gift and as the fullest proof of love. By martyrdom a disciple is transformed into an image of his Master by freely accepting death for the salvation of the world -- as well as his conformity to Christ in the shedding of his blood. Though few are presented such an opportunity, nevertheless all must be prepared to confess Christ before men. They must be prepared to make this profession of faith even in the midst of persecutions, which will never be lacking to the Church, in following the way of the cross. [CCC §1816]

§ 42c

[L] Likewise, the holiness of the Church is fostered in a special way by the observance of the counsels proposed in the Gospel by Our Lord to His disciples.[133] [CCC §1986] An eminent position among these is held by virginity or the celibate state. (1 Cor 7:32-34) This is a precious gift of divine grace given by the Father to certain souls (cf. Mt 19:11; 1 Cor 7:7), whereby they may devote themselves to God alone the more easily, due to an undivided heart.[134] This perfect continency, out of desire for the kingdom of heaven, has always been held in particular honor in the Church. The reason for this was and is that perfect continency for the love of God is an incentive to charity, and is certainly a particular source of spiritual fecundity in the world.

§ 42d

[L] The Church continually keeps before it the warning of the Apostle which moved the faithful to charity, exhorting them to experience personally what Christ Jesus had known within Himself. This was the same Christ Jesus, who "emptied Himself, taking the nature of a slave ... becoming obedient to death" (Phil 2:7-8), and because of us "being rich, he became poor." (2 Cor 8:9) Because the disciples must always offer an imitation of and a testimony to the charity and humility of Christ, Mother Church rejoices at finding within her bosom men and women who very closely follow their Saviour who debased Himself to our comprehension. There are some who, in their freedom as sons of God, renounce their own wills and take upon themselves the state of poverty. Still further, some become subject of their own accord to another man, in the matter of perfection for love of God. This is beyond the measure of the commandments, but is done in order to become more fully like the obedient Christ.[135] [CCC §2103]

§ 42e

[L] Therefore, all the faithful of Christ are invited to strive for the holiness and perfection of their own proper state. Indeed they have an obligation to so strive. Let all then have care that they guide aright their own deepest sentiments of soul. Let neither the use of the things of this world nor attachment to riches, which is against the spirit of evangelical poverty, hinder them in their quest for perfect love. [CCC §2545] Let them heed the admonition of the Apostle to those who use this world; let them not come to terms with this world; for this world, as we see it, is passing away.[136] (cf. 1 Cor 7:31ff.)

CHAPTER VI RELIGIOUS

§ 43

[L] The evangelical counsels of chastity dedicated to God, poverty and obedience are based upon the words and examples of the Lord. They were further commanded [commendata] by the apostles and Fathers of the Church, as well as by the doctors and pastors of souls. The counsels are a divine gift, which the Church received from its Lord and which it always safeguards with the help of His grace. Church authority has the duty, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, of interpreting these evangelical counsels, of regulating their practice and finally to build on them stable forms of living. Thus it has come about, that, as if on a tree which has grown in the field of the Lord, various forms of solidarity and community life, as well as various religious families have branched out in a marvelous and multiple way from this divinely given seed. Such a multiple and miraculous growth augments both the progress of the members of these various religious families themselves and the welfare of the entire Body of Christ.[137] [CCC §917] These religious families give their members the support of a more firm stability in their way of life and a proven doctrine of acquiring perfection. They further offer their members the support of fraternal association in the militia of Christ and of liberty strengthened by obedience. Thus these religious are able to tranquilly fulfill and faithfully observe their religious profession and so spiritually rejoicing make progress on the road of charity.[138]

[L] From the point of view of the divine and hierarchical structure of the Church, the religious state of life is not an intermediate state between the clerical and lay states. But, rather, the faithful of Christ are called by God from both these states of life so that they might enjoy this particular gift in the life of the Church and thus each in [his or her] own way, may be of some advantage to the salvific mission of the Church.[139]

§ 44

[L] The faithful of Christ bind themselves to the three aforesaid counsels either by vows, or by other sacred bonds, which are like vows in their purpose. By such a bond, a person is totally dedicated to God, loved beyond all things. In this way, that person is ordained to the honor and service of God under a new and special title. Indeed through Baptism a person dies to sin and is consecrated to God. However, in order that he may be capable of deriving more abundant fruit from this baptismal grace, he intends, by the profession of the evangelical counsels in the Church, to free himself from those obstacles, which might draw him away from the fervor of charity and the perfection of divine worship. By his profession of the evangelical counsels, then, he is more intimately consecrated to divine service.[140] This consecration will be the more perfect, in as much as the indissoluble bond of the union of Christ and His bride, the Church, is represented by firm and more stable bonds.

[L] The evangelical counsels which lead to charity[141] join their followers to the Church and its mystery in a special way. Since this is so, the spiritual life of these people should then be devoted to the welfare of the whole Church. From this arises their duty of working to implant and strengthen the Kingdom of Christ in souls and to extend that Kingdom to every clime. This duty is to be undertaken to the extent of their capacities and in keeping with the proper type of their own vocation. This can be realized through prayer or active works of the apostolate. It is for this reason that the Church preserves and fosters the special character of her various religious institutes.

§ 44b

[L] The profession of the evangelical counsels, then, appears as a sign which can and ought to attract all the members of the Church to an effective and prompt fulfillment of the duties of their Christian vocation. The people of God have no lasting city here below, but look forward to one that is to come. Since this is so, the religious state, whose purpose is to free its members from earthly cares, more fully manifests to all believers the presence of heavenly goods already possessed here below. Furthermore, it not only witnesses to the fact of a new and eternal life acquired by the redemption of Christ, but it foretells the future resurrection and the glory of the heavenly kingdom. [CCC §933] Christ proposed to His disciples this form of life, which He, as the Son of God, accepted in entering this world to do the will of the Father. This same state of life is accurately exemplified and perpetually made present in the Church. The religious state clearly manifests that the Kingdom of God and its needs, in a very special way, are raised above all earthly considerations. Finally it clearly shows all men both the unsurpassed breadth of the strength of Christ the King and the infinite power of the Holy Spirit marvelously working in the Church.

Thus, the state which is constituted by the profession of the evangelical counsels, though it is not the hierarchical structure of the Church, nevertheless, undeniably belongs to its life and holiness. [CCC §914]

§ 45

[L] It is the duty of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to regulate the practice of the evangelical counsels by law, since it is the duty of the same hierarchy to care for the People of God and to lead them to most fruitful pastures. (cf. Ez 34:11ff.) The importance of the profession of the evangelical counsels is seen in the fact that it fosters the perfection of love of God and love of neighbor in an outstanding manner and that this profession is strengthened by vows.[142] Furthermore, the hierarchy, following with docility the prompting of the Holy Spirit, accepts the rules presented by outstanding men and women and authentically approves these rules after further adjustments. It also aids by its vigilant and safeguarding authority those institutes variously established for the building up of Christ's Body in order that these same institutes may grow and flourish according to the spirit of the founders.

§ 45b

[L] Any institute of perfection and its individual members may be removed from the jurisdiction of the local Ordinaries by the Supreme Pontiff and subjected to himself alone. This is done in virtue of his primacy over the entire Church in order to more fully provide for the necessities of the entire flock of the Lord and in consideration of the common good.[143] In like manner, these institutes may be left or committed to the charge of the proper patriarchical authority. The members of these institutes, in fulfilling their obligation to the Church due to their particular form of life, ought to show reverence and obedience to bishops according to the sacred canons. The bishops are owed this respect because of their pastoral authority in their own churches and because of the need of unity and harmony in the apostolate.[144]

[L] The Church not only raises the religious profession to the dignity of a canonical state by her approval, but even manifests that this profession is a state consecrated to God by the liturgical setting of that profession. The Church itself, by the authority given to it by God, accepts the vows of the newly professed. It begs aid and grace from God for them by its public prayer. It commends them to God, imparts a spiritual blessing on them and accompanies [adsocians] their self-offering by the Eucharistic sacrifice.

§ 46

[L] Religious should carefully keep before their minds [attendant] the fact that the Church presents Christ to believers and non-believers alike in a striking manner daily through them [melius commonstret]. The Church thus portrays Christ in contemplation on the mountain, in His proclamation of the kingdom of God to the multitudes, in His healing of the sick and maimed, in His work of converting sinners to a better life, in His solicitude for youth and His goodness to all men, always obedient to the will of the Father who sent Him.[145]

§ 46b

[L] All men should take note that the profession of the evangelical counsels, though entailing the renunciation of certain values which are to be undoubtedly esteemed, does not detract from a genuine development of the human persons, but rather by its very nature is most beneficial to that development. Indeed the counsels, voluntarily undertaken according to each one's personal vocation, contribute a great deal to the purification of heart and spiritual liberty. They continually stir up the fervor of charity. But especially they are able to more fully mold the Christian man to that type of chaste and detached [virginalis ac pauperis] life, which Christ the Lord chose for Himself and which His Mother also embraced. This is clearly proven by the example of so many holy founders. Let no one think that religious have become strangers to their fellowmen or useless citizens of this earthly city by their consecration. For even though it sometimes happens that religious do not directly mingle with their contemporaries, yet in a more profound sense these same religious are united with them in the heart of Christ and spiritually cooperate with them. In this way the building up of the earthly city may have its foundation in the Lord and may tend toward Him, lest perhaps those who build this city shall have labored in vain.[146]

[L] Therefore, this Sacred Synod encourages and praises the men and women, Brothers and Sisters, who in monasteries, or in schools and hospitals, or in the missions, adorn the Bride of Christ by their unswerving and humble faithfulness in their chosen consecration and render generous services of all kinds to mankind.

§ 47

[L] Let each of the faithful called to the profession of the evangelical counsels, therefore, carefully see to it that he persevere and ever grow in that vocation God has given him. Let him do this for the increased holiness of the Church, for the greater glory of the one and undivided Trinity, which in and through Christ is the fount and the source of all holiness.

CHAPTER VII THE ESCHATOLOGICAL NATURE OF THE PILGRIM CHURCH AND ITS UNION WITH THE CHURCH IN HEAVEN

§ 48

[L] The Church, to which we are all called in Christ Jesus, and in which we acquire sanctity through the grace of God [CCC §824], will attain its full perfection only in the glory of heaven [CCC §769], when there will come the time of the restoration of all things. (cf. Acts 3:21) At that time the human race as well as the entire world, which is intimately related to man and attains to its end through him, will be perfectly reestablished in Christ. (cf. Eph 1:10; Col 1:20; 2 Pet 3:10-13) [CCC §1042]

§ 48b

[L] Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself. (cf. Jn 12:32) Rising from the dead (cf. Rom 6:9) He sent His life-giving Spirit upon His disciples and through Him has established His Body which is the Church as the universal sacrament of salvation. Sitting at the right hand of the Father, He is continually active in the world that He might lead men to the Church and through it join them to Himself and that He might make them partakers of His glorious life by nourishing them with His own Body and Blood. Therefore the promised restoration which we are awaiting has already begun in Christ, is carried forward in the mission of the Holy Spirit and through Him continues in the Church in which we learn the meaning of our terrestrial life through our faith, while we perform with hope in the future the work committed to us in this world by the Father, and thus work out our salvation. (Cf. Phil 2:12)

§ 48c

[L] Already the final age of the world has come upon us (1 Cor 10:11) and the renovation of the world is irrevocably decreed and is already anticipated in some kind of a real way; for the Church already on this earth is signed with a sanctity which is real although imperfect. [CCC §670, §825] However, until there shall be new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells (Cf. 2 Pet 3:13), the pilgrim Church in her sacraments and institutions, which pertain to this present time, has the appearance of this world which is passing and she herself dwells among creatures who groan and travail in pain until now and await the revelation of the sons of God. (cf. Rom 8:19-22) [CCC §671]

§ 48d

[L] Joined with Christ in the Church and signed with the Holy Spirit "who is the pledge of our inheritance" (Eph 1:14), truly we are called and we are sons of God (cf. 1 Jn 3:1) but we have not yet appeared with Christ in glory (cf. Col 3:4), in which we shall be like to God, since we shall see Him as He is. (cf. 1 Jn 3:2) And therefore "while we are in the body, we are exiled from the Lord (2 Cor 5:6) and having the first-fruits of the Spirit we groan within ourselves (cf. Rom 8:23) and we desire to be with Christ." (cf. Phil 1:23) By that same charity however, we are urged to live more for Him, who died for us and rose again. (cf. 2 Cor 5:15)

§ 48e

[L] We strive therefore to please God in all things (cf. 2 Cor 5:9) and we put on the armor of God, that we may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil and resist in the evil day. (cf. Eph 6:11-13) Since however we know not the day nor the hour, on Our Lord's advice we must be constantly vigilant so that, having finished the course of our [single, unico] earthly life (cf. Heb 9:27) [CCC §1013], we may merit to enter into the marriage feast with Him and to be numbered among the blessed (cf. Mt 25:31-46) and that we may not be ordered to go into eternal fire (cf. Mt 25:41) like the wicked and slothful servant (cf. Mt 25:26), into the exterior darkness where "there will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth." (Mt 22:13; cf. Mt 25:30) [CCC §1036] For before we reign with Christ in glory, all of us will be made manifest "before the tribunal of Christ, so that each one may receive what he has won through the body, according to his works, whether good or evil" (2 Cor 5:10) and at the end of the world "they who have done good shall come forth unto resurrection of life; but those who have done evil unto resurrection of judgment." (Jn 5:29; Mt 25:46) [CCC §1001]

§ 48f

[L] Reckoning therefore that "the sufferings of the present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come that will be revealed in us," (Rom 8:18; 2 Tim 2:11-12) strong in faith we look for the "blessed hope and the glorious coming of our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ" (Tit 2:13) "who will refashion the body of our lowliness, conforming it to the body of His glory" (Phil 3:21), and who will come "to be glorified in His saints and to be marveled at in all those who have believed". (2 Thess 1:10)

§ 49

[L] Until the Lord shall come in His majesty, and all the angels with Him (cf. Mt 25:31) and death being destroyed, all things are subject to Him (cf. 1 Cor 15:26-27), some of His disciples are exiles on earth, some having died are purified, and others are in glory beholding "clearly God Himself triune and one, as He is"[147] [CCC §954]; but all in various ways and degrees are in communion in the same charity of God and neighbor and all sing the same hymn of glory to our God. For all who are in Christ, having His Spirit, form one Church and cleave together in Him. (cf. Eph 4:16) Therefore the union of the wayfarers with the brethren who have gone to sleep in the peace of Christ is not in the least weakened or interrupted, but on the contrary, according to the perpetual faith of the Church, is strengthened by communication of spiritual goods.[148] [CCC §955] For by reason of the fact that those in heaven are more closely united with Christ, they establish the whole Church more firmly in holiness, lend nobility to the worship which the Church offers to God here on earth and in many ways contribute to its greater edification. (1 Cor 12:12-27) [149] For after they have been received into their heavenly home and are present to the Lord (cf. 2 Cor 5:8), through Him and with Him and in Him they do not cease to intercede with the Father for us[150], showing forth the merits which they won on earth through the one Mediator between God and man (cf. 1 Tim 2:5), serving God in all things and filling up in their flesh those things which are lacking of the sufferings of Christ for His Body which is the Church. (cf. Col 1:24) [151] Thus by their brotherly interest our weakness is greatly strengthened. [CCC §956]

§ 50

[L] Fully conscious of this communion of the whole Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, the pilgrim Church from the very first ages of the Christian religion has cultivated with great piety the memory of the dead[152], and "because it is a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead that they may be loosed from their sins" (2 Mac 12:46), also offers suffrages for them. [CCC §958] The Church has always believed that the apostles and Christ's martyrs who had given the supreme witness of faith and charity by the shedding of their blood, are closely joined with us in Christ, and she has always venerated them with special devotion, together with the Blessed Virgin Mary and the holy angels.[153] The Church has piously implored the aid of their intercession. To these were soon added also those who had more closely imitated Christ's virginity and poverty[154], and finally others whom the outstanding practice of the Christian virtues[155] and the divine charisms recommended to the pious devotion and imitation of the faithful.[155a]

§ 50b

[L] When we look at the lives of those who have faithfully followed Christ, we are inspired with a new reason for seeking the City that is to come (cf. Heb 13:14; 11:10) and at the same time we are shown a most safe path by which among the vicissitudes of this world, in keeping with the state in life and condition proper to each of us, we will be able to arrive at perfect union with Christ, that is, perfect holiness.[156] In the lives of those who, sharing in our humanity, are however more perfectly transformed into the image of Christ (cf. 2 Cor 3:18), God vividly manifests His presence and His face to men. He speaks to us in them, and gives us a sign of His Kingdom[157], to which we are strongly drawn, having so great a cloud of witnesses over us (cf. Heb 12:1) and such a witness to the truth of the Gospel.

§ 50c

[L] Nor is it by the title of example only that we cherish the memory of those in heaven, but still more in order that the union of the whole Church may be strengthened in the Spirit by the practice of fraternal charity. (cf. Eph 4:1-6) For just as Christian communion among wayfarers brings us closer to Christ, so our companionship with the saints joins us to Christ, from Whom as from its Fountain and Head issues every grace and the very life of the people of God.[158] [CCC §957] It is supremely fitting, therefore, that we love those friends and coheirs of Jesus Christ, who are also our brothers and extraordinary benefactors, that we render due thanks to God for them[159] and "suppliantly invoke them and have recourse to their prayers, their power and help in obtaining benefits from God through His Son, Jesus Christ, who is our Redeemer and Saviour."[160] For every genuine testimony of love shown by us to those in heaven, by its very nature tends toward and terminates in Christ who is the "crown of all saints,"[161] and through Him, in God Who is wonderful in his saints and is magnified in them.[162]

§ 50d

[L] Our union with the Church in heaven is put into effect in its noblest manner especially in the sacred Liturgy, wherein the power of the Holy Spirit acts upon us through sacramental signs. Then, with combined rejoicing we celebrate together the praise of the divine majesty;[163] then all those from every tribe and tongue and people and nation (cf. Rev 5:9) who have been redeemed by the blood of Christ and gathered together into one Church, with one song of praise magnify the one and triune God. Celebrating the Eucharistic sacrifice therefore, we are most closely united to the Church in heaven in communion with and venerating the memory first of all of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, of Blessed Joseph and the blessed apostles and martyrs and of all the saints.[164]

§ 51

[L] This Sacred Council accepts with great devotion this venerable faith of our ancestors regarding this vital fellowship with our brethren who are in heavenly glory or who having died are still being purified; and it proposes again the decrees of the Second Council of Nicea[165], the Council of Florence[166] and the Council of Trent.[167] And at the same time, in conformity with our own pastoral interests, we urge all concerned, if any abuses, excesses or defects have crept in here or there, to do what is in their power to remove or correct them, and to restore all things to a fuller praise of Christ and of God. Let them therefore teach the faithful that the authentic cult of the saints consists not so much in the multiplying of external acts, but rather in the greater intensity of our love, whereby, for our own greater good and that of the whole Church, we seek from the saints "example in their way of life, fellowship in their communion, and aid by their intercession."[168] On the other hand, let them teach the faithful that our communion with those in heaven, provided that it is understood in the fuller light of faith according to its genuine nature, in no way weakens, but conversely, more thoroughly enriches the latreutic worship we give to God the Father, through Christ, in the Spirit.[169]

§ 51b

[L] For all of us, who are sons of God and constitute one family in Christ (cf. Heb 3:6), as long as we remain in communion with one another in mutual charity and in one praise of the most holy Trinity, are corresponding with the intimate vocation of the Church and partaking in foretaste the liturgy of consummate glory.[170] [CCC §959] For when Christ shall appear and the glorious resurrection of the dead will take place, the glory of God will light up the heavenly City and the Lamb will be the lamp thereof. (cf. Rev 21:24) Then the whole Church of the saints in the supreme happiness of charity will adore God and "the Lamb who was slain," (Rev 5:12) proclaiming with one voice: "To Him who sits upon the throne, and to the Lamb blessing, and honor, and glory, and dominion forever and ever." (Rev 5:13-14)

CHAPTER VIII THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY, MOTHER OF GOD IN THE MYSTERY OF CHRIST AND THE CHURCH

I. Introduction

§ 52

[L] Wishing in His supreme goodness and wisdom to effect the redemption of the world, "when the fullness of time came, God sent His Son, born of a woman ... that we might receive the adoption of sons." (Gal 4:4-5) "He for us men, and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit from the Virgin Mary."[171] This divine mystery of salvation is revealed to us and continued in the Church, which the Lord established as His body. Joined to Christ the Head and in the unity of fellowship with all His saints, the faithful must in the first place reverence the memory "of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ."[172]

§ 53

[L] The Virgin Mary, who at the message of the angel received the Word of God in her heart and in her body and gave Life to the world, is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and Mother of the Redeemer. [CCC §963] Redeemed by reason of the merits of her Son [Intuitu meritorum Filii sui sublimiore modo redempta] [CCC §492] and united to Him by a close and indissoluble tie, she is endowed with the high office and dignity of being the Mother of the Son of God, by which account she is also the beloved daughter of the Father and the temple of the Holy Spirit. Because of this gift of sublime grace she far surpasses all creatures, both in heaven and on earth. At the same time, however, because she belongs to the offspring of Adam she is one with all those who are to be saved. She is "the mother of the members of Christ ... having cooperated by charity that faithful might be born in the Church, who are members of that Head."[173] Wherefore she is hailed as a pre-eminent and singular member of the Church, and as its type and excellent exemplar in faith and charity. [CCC §967] The Catholic Church, taught by the Holy Spirit, honors her with filial affection and piety as a most beloved mother.

§ 54

[L] Wherefore this Holy Synod, in expounding the doctrine on the Church, in which the divine Redeemer works salvation, intends to describe with diligence both the role of the Blessed Virgin in the mystery of the Incarnate Word and the Mystical Body, and the duties of redeemed mankind toward the Mother of God, who is mother of Christ and mother of men, particularly of the faithful. It does not, however, have it in mind to give a complete doctrine on Mary, nor does it wish to decide those questions which the work of theologians has not yet fully clarified. Those opinions therefore may be lawfully retained which are propounded in Catholic schools concerning her, who occupies a place in the Church which is the highest after Christ and yet very close to us.[174]

II. The Role of the Blessed Mother in the Economy of Salvation

§ 55

[L] The Sacred Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament, as well as ancient [veneranda] Tradition show the role of the Mother of the Saviour in the economy of salvation in an ever clearer light and draw attention to it. The books of the Old Testament describe the history of salvation, by which the coming of Christ into the world was slowly prepared. These earliest documents, as they are read in the Church and are understood in the light of a further and full revelation, bring the figure of the woman, Mother of the Redeemer, into a gradually clearer light. When it is looked at in this way, she is already prophetically foreshadowed in the promise of victory over the serpent which was given to our first parents after their fall into sin. (cf. Gen 3:15) Likewise she is the Virgin who shall conceive and bear a son, whose name will be called Emmanuel. (cf. Is 7:14; Mic 5:2-3; Mt 1:22-23) She stands out among the poor and humble of the Lord, who confidently hope for and receive salvation from Him. With her the exalted Daughter of Sion, and after a long expectation of the promise, the times are fulfilled and the new Economy established, when the Son of God took a human nature from her, that He might in the mysteries of His flesh free man from sin. [CCC §489]

§ 56

[L] The Father of mercies willed that the incarnation should be preceded by the acceptance of her who was predestined to be the mother of His Son, so that just as a woman contributed to death, so also a woman should contribute to life. [CCC §488] That is true in outstanding fashion of the mother of Jesus, who gave to the world Him who is Life itself and who renews all things, and who was enriched by God with the gifts which befit such a role. [CCC §490] It is no wonder therefore that the usage prevailed among the Fathers whereby they called the mother of God entirely holy [Παναγία] and free from all stain of sin, as though fashioned by the Holy Spirit and formed as a new creature.[175] [CCC §493] Adorned from the first instant of her conception with the radiance of an entirely unique holiness [CCC §492], the Virgin of Nazareth is greeted, on God's command, by an angel messenger as "full of grace" (cf. Lk 1:28), and to the heavenly messenger she replies: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it done unto me according to thy word." (Lk 1:38) Thus Mary, a daughter of Adam, consenting to the divine Word, became the mother of Jesus, the one and only Mediator. Embracing God's salvific will with a full heart and impeded by no sin, she devoted herself totally as a handmaid of the Lord to the person and work of her Son, under Him and with Him, by the grace of almighty God, serving the mystery of redemption. [CCC §494] Rightly therefore the holy Fathers see her as used by God not merely in a passive way, but as freely cooperating in the work of human salvation through faith and obedience. [CCC §511] For, as St. Irenaeus says, she "being obedient, became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race."[176] Hence not a few of the early Fathers gladly assert in their preaching, "The knot of Eve's disobedience was untied by Mary's obedience; what the virgin Eve bound through her unbelief, the Virgin Mary loosened by her faith."[177] Comparing Mary with Eve, they call her "the Mother of the living,"[178] and still more often they say: "death through Eve, life through Mary."[179]

§ 57

[L] This union of the Mother with the Son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ's virginal conception up to His death. [CCC §964] It is shown first of all when Mary, arising in haste to go to visit Elizabeth, is greeted by her as blessed because of her belief in the promise of salvation and the precursor leaped with joy in the womb of his mother. (cf. Lk 1:41-45) This union is manifest also at the birth of Our Lord, who did not diminish His mother's virginal integrity but sanctified it[180] [CCC §499], when the Mother of God joyfully showed her firstborn Son to the shepherds and Magi. When she presented Him to the Lord in the temple, making the offering of the poor, she heard Simeon foretelling at the same time that her Son would be a sign of contradiction and that a sword would pierce the mother's soul, that out of many hearts thoughts might be revealed. (cf. Lk 2:34-35) When the Child Jesus was lost and they had sought Him sorrowing, His parents found Him in the temple, taken up with the things that were His Father's business; and they did not understand the word of their Son. His Mother indeed kept these things to be pondered over in her heart. (cf. Lk 2:41-51)

§ 58

[L] In the public life of Jesus, Mary makes significant appearances. This is so even at the very beginning, when at the marriage feast of Cana, moved with pity, she brought about by her intercession the beginning of miracles of Jesus the Messiah. (cf. Jn 2:1-11) In the course of her Son's preaching she received the words whereby in extolling a kingdom beyond the calculations and bonds of flesh and blood, He declared blessed (cf. Mk 3:35; Lk 11:27-28) those who heard and kept the word of God, as she was faithfully doing. (cf. Lk 2:19,51) After this manner the Blessed Virgin advanced in her pilgrimage of faith [CCC §165], and faithfully persevered in her union with her Son unto the cross, where she stood, in keeping with the divine plan (cf. Jn 19:25), grieving exceedingly with her only begotten Son, uniting herself with a maternal heart with His sacrifice, and lovingly consenting to the immolation of this Victim which she herself had brought forth. Finally, she was given by the same Christ Jesus dying on the cross as a mother to His disciple with these words: "Woman, behold thy son." (cf. Jn 19:26-27) [181] [CCC §964]

§ 59

[L] But since it has pleased God not to manifest solemnly the mystery of the salvation of the human race before He would pour forth the Spirit promised by Christ, we see the apostles before the day of Pentecost "persevering with one mind in prayer with the women and Mary the Mother of Jesus, and with His brethren" (Acts 1:14), and Mary by her prayers imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation. [CCC §965] Finally, the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all guilt of original sin[182], on the completion of her earthly sojourn, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory[183], and exalted by the Lord as Queen of the universe, that she might be the more fully conformed to her Son, the Lord of lords (cf. Rev 19:16) and the conqueror of sin and death.[184]

III. On the Blessed Virgin and the Church

§ 60

[L] There is but one Mediator as we know from the words of the apostle, "for there is one God and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a redemption for all." (1 Tim 2:5-6) The maternal duty of Mary toward men in no wise obscures or diminishes this unique mediation of Christ, but rather shows His power. For all the salvific influence of the Blessed Virgin on men originates, not from some inner necessity, but from the divine pleasure. It flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on His mediation, depends entirely on it and draws all its power from it. [CCC §970] In no way does it impede, but rather does it foster the immediate union of the faithful with Christ.

§ 61

[L] Predestined from eternity by that decree of divine providence, which determined the incarnation of the Word, to be the Mother of God, the Blessed Virgin was on this earth the virgin Mother of the Redeemer, and above all others and in a singular way the generous associate and humble handmaid of the Lord. She conceived, brought forth and nourished Christ. She presented Him to the Father in the temple, and was united with Him by compassion as He died on the Cross. In this singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope and burning charity in the work of the Saviour in giving back supernatural life to souls. Wherefore she is our mother in the order of grace. [CCC §968]

§ 62

[L] This maternity of Mary in the order of grace began with the consent which she gave in faith at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, and lasts until the eternal fulfillment of all the elect. Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this salvific duty, but by her constant intercession continued to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation.[185] By her maternal charity, she cares for the brethren of her Son, who still journey on earth surrounded by dangers and difficulties [CCC §2674], until they are led into the happiness of their true home. Therefore the Blessed Virgin is invoked by the Church under the titles of Advocate, Auxiliatrix, Adjutrix, and Mediatrix.[186] [CCC §969] This, however, is to be so understood that it neither takes away from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficaciousness of Christ the one Mediator.[187]

§ 62b

[L] For no creature could ever be counted as equal with the Incarnate Word and Redeemer. Just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by the ministers and by the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is really communicated in different ways to His creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold cooperation which is but a sharing in this one source. [CCC §970]

The Church does not hesitate to profess this subordinate role of Mary. It knows it through unfailing experience of it and commends it to the hearts of the faithful, so that encouraged by this maternal help they may the more intimately adhere to the Mediator and Redeemer.

§ 63

[L] By reason of the gift and role of divine maternity, by which she is united with her Son, the Redeemer, and with His singular graces and functions, the Blessed Virgin is also intimately united with the Church. As St. Ambrose taught, the Mother of God is a type of the Church [CCC §967] in the order of faith, charity and perfect union with Christ.[188] For in the mystery of the Church, which is itself rightly called mother and virgin, the Blessed Virgin stands out in eminent and singular fashion as exemplar both of virgin and mother.[189] By her belief and obedience, not knowing man but overshadowed by the Holy Spirit, as the new Eve she brought forth on earth the very Son of the Father, showing an undefiled faith [fidem nullo dubio adulteratam] [CCC §506], not in the word of the ancient serpent, but in that of God's messenger. The Son whom she brought forth is He whom God placed as the first-born among many brethren (cf. Rom 8:29), namely the faithful, in whose birth and education she cooperates with a maternal love. [CCC §501]

§ 64

[L] The Church indeed, contemplating her hidden sanctity, imitating her charity and faithfully fulfilling the Father's will, by receiving the word of God in faith becomes herself a mother. By her preaching she brings forth to a new and immortal life the sons who are born to her in baptism, conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of God. She herself is a virgin, who keeps the faith given to her by her Spouse whole and entire. [CCC §507] Imitating the mother of her Lord, and by the power of the Holy Spirit, she keeps with virginal purity an entire faith, a firm hope and a sincere charity.[190]

§ 65

[L] But while in the most holy Virgin the Church has already reached that perfection whereby she is without spot or wrinkle, the followers of Christ still strive to increase in holiness by conquering sin. (cf. Eph 5:27) And so they turn their eyes to Mary who shines forth to the whole community of the elect as the model of virtues. [CCC §829] Piously meditating on her and contemplating her in the light of the Word made man, the Church with reverence enters more intimately into the great mystery of the Incarnation and becomes more and more like her Spouse. For Mary, who since her entry into salvation history unites in herself and re-echoes the greatest teachings of the faith as she is proclaimed and venerated, calls the faithful to her Son and His sacrifice and to the love of the Father. Seeking after the glory of Christ, the Church becomes more like her exalted Type, and continually progresses in faith, hope and charity, seeking and doing the will of God in all things. Hence the Church, in her apostolic work also, justly looks to her, who, conceived of the Holy Spirit, brought forth Christ, who was born of the Virgin that through the Church He may be born and may increase in the hearts of the faithful also. The Virgin in her own life lived an example of that maternal love, by which it behooves that all should be animated who cooperate in the apostolic mission of the Church for the regeneration of men.

IV. The Cult of the Blessed Virgin in the Church

§ 66

[L] Placed by the grace of God, as God's Mother, next to her Son, and exalted above all angels and men, Mary intervened in the mysteries of Christ and is justly honored by a special cult in the Church. Clearly from earliest times the Blessed Virgin is honored under the title of Mother of God, under whose protection the faithful took refuge in all their dangers and necessities.[191] Hence after the Synod of Ephesus the cult of the people of God toward Mary wonderfully increased in veneration and love, in invocation and imitation, according to her own prophetic words: "All generations shall call me blessed, because He that is mighty hath done great things to me." (Lk 1:48) This cult, as it always existed, although it is altogether singular, differs essentially from the cult of adoration which is offered to the Incarnate Word, as well to the Father and the Holy Spirit, and it is most favorable to it. [CCC §971] The various forms of piety toward the Mother of God, which the Church within the limits of sound and orthodox doctrine, according to the conditions of time and place, and the nature and ingenuity of the faithful has approved, bring it about that while the Mother is honored, the Son, through whom all things have their being (cf. Col 1:15-16) and in whom it has pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell (Col 1:19), is rightly known, loved and glorified and that all His commands are observed.

§ 67

[L] This most Holy Synod deliberately teaches this Catholic doctrine and at the same time admonishes all the sons of the Church that the cult, especially the liturgical cult, of the Blessed Virgin, be generously fostered, and the practices and exercises of piety, recommended by the magisterium of the Church toward her in the course of centuries be made of great moment, and those decrees, which have been given in the early days regarding the cult of images of Christ, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, be religiously observed.[192] But it exhorts theologians and preachers of the divine word to abstain zealously both from all gross exaggerations as well as from petty narrow-mindedness in considering the singular dignity of the Mother of God.[193] Following the study of Sacred Scripture, the Holy Fathers, the doctors and liturgy of the Church, and under the guidance of the Church's magisterium, let them rightly illustrate the duties and privileges of the Blessed Virgin which always look to Christ, the source of all truth, sanctity and piety. Let them assiduously keep away from whatever, either by word or deed, could lead separated brethren or any other into error regarding the true doctrine of the Church. Let the faithful remember moreover that true devotion consists neither in sterile or transitory affection, nor in a certain vain credulity, but proceeds from true faith, by which we are led to know the excellence of the Mother of God, and we are moved to a filial love toward our mother and to the imitation of her virtues.

V. Mary the sign of created hope and solace to the wandering people of God

§ 68

[L] In the interim just as the Mother of Jesus, glorified in body and soul in heaven, is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected is the world to come, so too does she shine forth on earth, until the day of the Lord shall come (Cf. 2 Pet 3:10), as a sign of sure hope and solace to the people of God during its sojourn on earth. [CCC §972]

§ 69

[L] It gives great joy and comfort to this holy and general Synod that even among the separated brethren there are some who give due honor to the Mother of our Lord and Saviour, especially among the Orientals, who with devout mind and fervent impulse give honor to the Mother of God, ever virgin.[194] The entire body of the faithful pours forth instant supplications to the Mother of God and Mother of men that she, who aided the beginnings of the Church by her prayers [CCC §965], may now, exalted as she is above all the angels and saints, intercede before her Son in the fellowship of all the saints [CCC §972], until all families of people, whether they are honored with the title of Christian or whether they still do not know the Saviour, may be happily gathered together in peace and harmony into one people of God, for the glory of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.


Each and all these items which are set forth in this dogmatic Constitution have met with the approval of the Council Fathers. And We by the apostolic power given Us by Christ together with the Venerable Fathers in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and establish it and command that what has thus been decided in the Council be promulgated for the glory of God.

Given in Rome at St. Peter's on November 21, 1964.


APPENDIX From the Acts of the Council

NOTIFICATIONES GIVEN BY THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE COUNCIL AT THE 123rd GENERAL CONGREGATION, NOVEMBER 16, 1964

[L] A question has arisen regarding the precise theological note which should be attached to the doctrine that is set forth in the Schema de Ecclesia and is being put to a vote.

The Theological Commission has given the following response regarding the Modi that have to do with Chapter III of the de Ecclesia Schema [ON THE HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE CHURCH AND IN PARTICULAR ON THE EPISCOPATE]:

As is self-evident, the Council's text must always be interpreted in accordance with the general rules that are known to all.

On this occasion the Theological Commission makes reference to its Declaration of March 6, 1964, the text of which we transcribe here:

[L] Taking conciliar custom into consideration and also the pastoral purpose of the present Council, the sacred Council defines as binding on the Church only those things in matters of faith and morals which it shall openly declare to be binding.

The rest of the things which the sacred Council sets forth, inasmuch as they are the teaching of the Church's supreme magisterium, ought to be accepted and embraced by each and every one of Christ's faithful according to the mind of the sacred Council. The mind of the Council becomes known either from the matter treated or from its manner of speaking, in accordance with the norms of theological interpretation.

The following was published as an appendix to the official Latin version of the Constitution on the Church.

[L] A preliminary note of explanation is being given to the Council Fathers from higher-authority, regarding the Modi bearing on Chapter III of the Schema de Ecclesia; the doctrine set forth in Chapter III ought to be explained and understood in accordance with the meaning and intent of this explanatory note.

Preliminary Note of Explanation

The Commission has decided to preface the assessment of the Modi with the following general observations.

  1. [L] College is not understood in a strictly juridical sense, that is as a group of equals who entrust their power to their president, but as a stable group whose structure and authority must be learned from Revelation. For this reason, in reply to Modus 12 it is expressly said of the Twelve that the Lord set them up "as a college or stable group." Cf. also Modus 53, c. [Cf. §19] For the same reason, the words Ordo or Corpus are used throughout with reference to the College of bishops. The parallel between Peter and the rest of the Apostles on the one hand, and between the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops on the other hand, does not imply the transmission of the Apostles' extraordinary power to their successors; nor does it imply, as is obvious, equality between the head of the College and its members, but only a proportionality between the first relationship (Peter-Apostles) and the second (Pope-bishops). Thus the Commission decided to write pari ratione, not eadem ratione, in n. 22. Cf. Modus 57.
  2. [L] A person becomes a member of the College by virtue of Episcopal consecration and by hierarchical communion with the head of the College and with its members. Cf. n. 22 end of 1 1.
  3. [L] The College, which does not exist without the head, is said "to exist also as the subject of supreme and full power in the universal Church." This must be admitted of necessity so that the fullness of power belonging to the Roman Pontiff is not called into question. For the College, always and of necessity, includes its head, because in the college he preserves unhindered his function as Christ's Vicar and as Pastor of the universal Church. In other words, it is not a distinction between the Roman Pontiff and the bishops taken collectively, but a distinction between the Roman Pontiff taken separately and the Roman Pontiff together with the bishops. Since the Supreme Pontiff is head of the College, he alone is able to perform certain actions which are not at all within the competence of the bishops, e.g., convoking the College and directing it, approving norms of action, etc. Cf. Modus 81. It is up to the judgment of the Supreme Pontiff, to whose care Christ's whole flock has been entrusted, to determine, according to the needs of the Church as they change over the course of centuries, the way in which this care may best be exercised -- whether in a personal or a collegial way. The Roman Pontiff, taking account of the Church's welfare, proceeds according to his own discretion in arranging, promoting and approving the exercise of collegial activity.
  4. [L] As Supreme Pastor of the Church, the Supreme Pontiff can always exercise his power at will, as his very office demands. Though it is always in existence, the College is not as a result permanently engaged in strictly collegial activity; the Church's Tradition makes this clear. In other words, the College is not always "fully active [in actu pleno]"; rather, it acts as a college in the strict sense only from time to time and only with the consent of its head. The phrase "with the consent of its head" is used to avoid the idea of dependence on some kind of outsider; the term "consent" suggests rather communion between the head and the members, and implies the need for an act which belongs properly to the competence of the head. This is explicitly affirmed in n. 22, 12, and is explained at the end of that section. The word "only" takes in all cases. It is evident from this that the norms approved by the supreme authority must always be observed. Cf. Modus 84.

+ PERICLE FELICI
Titular Archbishop of Samosata Secretary General of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council


Scripture Citations from Nova Vulgata & New American Bible

[1] Cf. Mc 16,15: 14 Novissime recumbentibus illis Undecim apparuit, et exprobravit incredulitatem illorum et duritiam cordis, quia his, qui viderant eum resuscitatum, non crediderant. 15 Et dixit eis: « Euntes in mundum universum praedicate evangelium omni creaturae. 16 Qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit; qui vero non crediderit, condemnabitur. 17 Signa autem eos, qui crediderint, haec sequentur: in nomine meo daemonia eicient, linguis loquentur novis, 18 serpentes tollent, et, si mortiferum quid biberint, non eos nocebit, super aegrotos manus imponent, et bene habebunt ». 19 Et Dominus quidem Iesus, postquam locutus est eis, assumptus est in caelum et sedit a dextris Dei. 20 Illi autem profecti praedicaverunt ubique, Domino cooperante et sermonem confirmante, sequentibus signis.

[1] Cf. Mk 16:15: 14 (But) later, as the eleven were at table, he appeared to them and rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart because they had not believed those who saw him after he had been raised. 15 He said to them, "Go into the whole world and proclaim the gospel to every creature. 16 Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved; whoever does not believe will be condemned. 17 These signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will drive out demons, they will speak new languages. 18 They will pick up serpents (with their hands), and if they drink any deadly thing, it will not harm them. They will lay hands on the sick, and they will recover." 19 So then the Lord Jesus, after he spoke to them, was taken up into heaven and took his seat at the right hand of God. 20 But they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through accompanying signs.)

[2] Col 1,15: 11 [Vos] in omni virtute confortati secundum potentiam claritatis eius in omnem patientiam et longanimitatem, cum gaudio

12 gratias agentes Patri, qui idoneos vos fecit in partem sortis sanctorum in lumine; 13 qui eripuit nos de potestate tenebrarum et transtulit in regnum Filii dilectionis suae, 14 in quo habemus redemptionem, remissionem peccatorum; 15 qui est imago Dei invisibilis, primogenitus omnis creaturae, 16 quia in ipso condita sunt universa in caelis et in terra, visibilia et invisibilia, sive throni sive dominationes sive principatus sive potestates. Omnia per ipsum et in ipsum creata sunt, 17 et ipse est ante omnia, et omnia in ipso constant. 18 Et ipse est caput corporis ecclesiae; qui est principium, primogenitus ex mortuis, ut sit in omnibus ipse primatum tenens, 19 quia in ipso complacuit omnem plenitudinem habitare 20 et per eum reconciliare omnia in ipsum, pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius, sive quae in terris sive quae in caelis sunt.

21 Et vos, cum essetis aliquando alienati et inimici sensu in operibus malis, 22 nunc autem reconciliavit in corpore carnis eius per mortem exhibere vos sanctos et immaculatos et irreprehensibiles coram ipso; 23 si tamen permanetis in fide fundati et stabiles et immobiles a spe evangelii, quod audistis, quod praedicatum est in universa creatura, quae sub caelo est, cuius factus sum ego Paulus minister. 24 Nunc gaudeo in passionibus pro vobis et adimpleo, ea quae desunt passionum Christi in carne mea pro corpore eius, quod est ecclesia, 25 cuius factus sum ego minister secundum dispensationem Dei, quae data est mihi in vos, ut impleam verbum Dei; 26 mysterium, quod absconditum fuit a saeculis et generationibus, nunc autem manifestatum est sanctis eius, 27 quibus voluit Deus notas facere divitias gloriae mysterii huius in gentibus, quod est Christus in vobis, spes gloriae;

[2] Col 1:15: 13 He delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved Son, 14 in whom we have redemption, the forgiveness of sins. 15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 16 For in him were created all things in heaven and on earth, the visible and the invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things were created through him and for him. 17 He is before all things, and in him all things hold together. 18 He is the head of the body, the church. He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, that in all things he himself might be preeminent. 19 For in him all the fullness was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him to reconcile all things for him, making peace by the blood of his cross (through him), whether those on earth or those in heaven. 21 And you who once were alienated and hostile in mind because of evil deeds 22 he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through his death, to present you holy, without blemish, and irreproachable before him, 23 provided that you persevere in the faith, firmly grounded, stable, and not shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard, which has been preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, am a minister. 24 Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I am filling up what is lacking in the afflictions of Christ on behalf of his body, which is the church, 25 of which I am a minister in accordance with God's stewardship given to me to bring to completion for you the word of God, 26 the mystery hidden from ages and from generations past. But now it has been manifested to his holy ones, 27 to whom God chose to make known the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; it is Christ in you, the hope for glory.

[3] Rom 8,29: 10 Si autem Christus in vobis est, corpus quidem mortuum est propter peccatum, Spiritus vero vita propter iustitiam. 11 Quod si Spiritus eius, qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis, habitat in vobis, qui suscitavit Christum a mortuis vivificabit et mortalia corpora vestra per inhabitantem Spiritum suum in vobis. 12 Ergo, fratres, debitores sumus non carni, ut secundum carnem vivamus. 13 Si enim secundum carnem vixeritis, moriemini; si autem Spiritu opera corporis mortificatis, vivetis. 14 Quicumque enim Spiritu Dei aguntur, hi filii Dei sunt. 15 Non enim accepistis spiritum servitutis iterum in timorem, sed accepistis Spiritum adoptionis filiorum, in quo clamamus: «Abba, Pater!». 16 Ipse Spiritus testimonium reddit una cum spiritu nostro, quod sumus filii Dei. 17 Si autem filii, et heredes: heredes quidem Dei, coheredes autem Christi, si tamen compatimur, ut et conglorificemur. 18 Existimo enim quod non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam, quae revelanda est in nobis. 19 Nam exspectatio creaturae revelationem filiorum Dei exspectat; 20 vanitati enim creatura subiecta est, non volens sed propter eum, qui subiecit, in spem, 21 quia et ipsa creatura liberabitur a servitute corruptionis in libertatem gloriae filiorum Dei. 22 Scimus enim quod omnis creatura congemiscit et comparturit usque adhuc; 23 non solum autem, sed et nos ipsi primitias Spiritus habentes, et ipsi intra nos gemimus adoptionem filiorum exspectantes, redemptionem corporis nostri. 24 Spe enim salvi facti sumus; spes autem, quae videtur, non est spes; nam, quod videt, quis sperat? 25 Si autem, quod non videmus, speramus, per patientiam exspectamus. 26 Similiter autem et Spiritus adiuvat infirmitatem nostram; nam quid oremus, sicut oportet, nescimus, sed ipse Spiritus interpellat gemitibus inenarrabilibus; 27 qui autem scrutatur corda, scit quid desideret Spiritus, quia secundum Deum postulat pro sanctis. 28 Scimus autem quoniam diligentibus Deum omnia cooperantur in bonum, his, qui secundum propositum vocati sunt. 29 Nam, quos praescivit, et praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis Filii eius, ut sit ipse primogenitus in multis fratribus;

[3] Rom 8:29: 10 But if Christ is in you, although the body is dead because of sin, the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 11 If the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, the one who raised Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also, through his Spirit that dwells in you. 12 Consequently, brothers, we are not debtors to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. 13 For if you live according to the flesh, you will die, but if by the spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. 14 For those who are led by the Spirit of God are children of God. 15 For you did not receive a spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you received a spirit of adoption, through which we cry, "Abba, Father!" 16 The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if only we suffer with him so that we may also be glorified with him. 18 I consider that the sufferings of this present time are as nothing compared with the glory to be revealed for us. 19 For creation awaits with eager expectation the revelation of the children of God; 20 for creation was made subject to futility, not of its own accord but because of the one who subjected it, in hope 21 that creation itself would be set free from slavery to corruption and share in the glorious freedom of the children of God. 22 We know that all creation is groaning in labor pains even until now; 23 and not only that, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, we also groan within ourselves as we wait for adoption, the redemption of our bodies. 24 For in hope we were saved. Now hope that sees for itself is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees? 25 But if we hope for what we do not see, we wait with endurance. 26 In the same way, the Spirit too comes to the aid of our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit itself intercedes with inexpressible groanings. 27 And the one who searches hearts knows what is the intention of the Spirit, because it intercedes for the holy ones according to God's will. 28 We know that all things work for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose. 29 For those he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, so that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.

[4] Cf. Eph 1,4-5 et 10: 3 Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spiritali in caelestibus in Christo, 4 sicut elegit nos in ipso ante mundi constitutionem, ut essemus sancti et immaculati in conspectu eius in caritate; 5 qui praedestinavit nos in adoptionem filiorum per Iesum Christum in ipsum, secundum beneplacitum voluntatis suae, 6 in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, in qua gratificavit nos in Dilecto, 7 in quo habemus redemptionem per sanguinem eius, remissionem peccatorum, secundum divitias gratiae eius, 8 quam superabundare fecit in nobis in omni sapientia et prudentia, 9 notum faciens nobis mysterium voluntatis suae, secundum beneplacitum eius, quod proposuit in eo, 10 in dispensationem plenitudinis temporum: recapitulare omnia in Christo, quae in caelis et quae in terra, in ipso;

[4] Cf. Eph 1:4-5 and 10: 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavens, 4 as he chose us in him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and without blemish before him. In love 5 he destined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, in accord with the favor of his will, 6 for the praise of the glory of his grace that he granted us in the beloved. 7 In him we have redemption by his blood, the forgiveness of transgressions, in accord with the riches of his grace 8 that he lavished upon us. In all wisdom and insight, 9 he has made known to us the mystery of his will in accord with his favor that he set forth in him 10 as a plan for the fullness of times, to sum up all things in Christ, in heaven and on earth.

[5] Cf. Io 19,34: 25 Stabant autem iuxta crucem Iesu mater eius et soror matris eius, Maria Cleopae, et Maria Magdalene. 26 Cum vidisset ergo Iesus matrem et discipulum stantem, quem diligebat, dicit matri: «Mulier, ecce filius tuus». 27 Deinde dicit discipulo: «Ecce mater tua». Et ex illa hora accepit eam discipulus in sua. 28 Post hoc sciens Iesus quia iam omnia consummata sunt, ut consummaretur Scriptura, dicit: «Sitio». 29 Vas positum erat aceto plenum; spongiam ergo plenam aceto hyssopo circumponentes, obtulerunt ori eius. 30 Cum ergo accepisset acetum, Iesus dixit: «Consummatum est!». Et inclinato capite tradidit spiritum. 31 Iudaei ergo, quoniam Parasceve erat, ut non remanerent in cruce corpora sabbato, erat enim magnus dies illius sabbati, rogaverunt Pilatum, ut frangerentur eorum crura, et tollerentur. 32 Venerunt ergo milites et primi quidem fregerunt crura et alterius, qui crucifixus est cum eo; 33 ad Iesum autem cum venissent, ut viderunt eum iam mortuum, non fregerunt eius crura, 34 sed unus militum lancea latus eius aperuit, et continuo exivit sanguis et aqua.

[5] Cf. Jn 19:34: 25 Standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary of Magdala. 26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple there whom he loved, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold, your son." 27 Then he said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother." And from that hour the disciple took her into his home. 28 After this, aware that everything was now finished, in order that the scripture might be fulfilled, Jesus said, "I thirst." 29 There was a vessel filled with common wine. So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop and put it up to his mouth. 30 When Jesus had taken the wine, he said, "It is finished." And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit. 31 Now since it was preparation day, in order that the bodies might not remain on the cross on the sabbath, for the sabbath day of that week was a solemn one, the Jews asked Pilate that their legs be broken and they be taken down. 32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first and then of the other one who was crucified with Jesus. 33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs, 34 but one soldier thrust his lance into his side, and immediately blood and water flowed out.

[6] Io 12,32: 30 Respondit Iesus et dixit: «Non propter me vox haec facta est sed propter vos. 31 Nunc iudicium est huius mundi, nunc princeps huius mundi eicietur foras; 32 et ego, si exaltatus fuero a terra, omnes traham ad meipsum». 33 Hoc autem dicebat significans, qua morte esset moriturus.

[6] Jn 12:32: 30 Jesus answered and said, "This voice did not come for my sake but for yours. 31 Now is the time of judgment on this world; now the ruler of this world will be driven out. 32 And when I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to myself." 33 He said this indicating the kind of death he would die.

[7] I Cor 5,7: 7 Expurgate vetus fermentum, ut sitis nova consparsio, sicut estis azymi. Etenim Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus!

[7] 1 Cor 5:7: 7 Clear out the old yeast, so that you may become a fresh batch of dough, inasmuch as you are unleavened. For our paschal lamb, Christ, has been sacrificed.

[8] Cf. I Cor 10,17: 16 Calix benedictionis, cui benedicimus, nonne communicatio sanguinis Christi est? Et panis, quem frangimus, nonne communicatio corporis Christi est? 17 Quoniam unus panis, unum corpus multi sumus, omnes enim de uno pane participamur.

[8] Cf. 1 Cor 10:17: 16 The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? 17 Because the loaf of bread is one, we, though many, are one body, for we all partake of the one loaf.

[9] Cf. Io 17,4: 1 Haec locutus est Iesus; et, sublevatis oculis suis in caelum, dixit: «Pater, venit hora: clarifica Filium tuum, ut Filius clarificet te, 2 sicut dedisti ei potestatem omnis carnis, ut omne, quod dedisti ei, det eis vitam aeternam. 3 Haec est autem vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum verum Deum et, quem misisti, Iesum Christum. 4 Ego te clarificavi super terram; opus consummavi, quod dedisti mihi, ut faciam; 5 et nunc clarifica me tu, Pater, apud temetipsum claritate, quam habebam, priusquam mundus esset, apud te. ...»

[9] Cf. Jn 17:4: 1 When Jesus had said this, he raised his eyes to heaven and said, "Father, the hour has come. Give glory to your son, so that your son may glorify you, 2 just as you gave him authority over all people, so that he may give eternal life to all you gave him. 3 Now this is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and the one whom you sent, Jesus Christ. 4 I glorified you on earth by accomplishing the work that you gave me to do. 5 Now glorify me, Father, with you, with the glory that I had with you before the world began. ..."

[10] Cf. Eph 2,18: 4 Deus autem, qui dives est in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem suam, qua dilexit nos, 5 et cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos Christo -- gratia estis salvati -- 6 et conresuscitavit et consedere fecit in caelestibus in Christo Iesu, 7 ut ostenderet in saeculis supervenientibus abundantes divitias gratiae suae in bonitate super nos in Christo Iesu. 8 Gratia enim estis salvati per fidem; et hoc non ex vobis, Dei donum est: 9 non ex operibus, ut ne quis glorietur. 10 Ipsius enim sumus factura, creati in Christo Iesu in opera bona, quae praeparavit Deus, ut in illis ambulemus. 11 Propter quod memores estote, quod aliquando vos gentes in carne, qui dicimini praeputium ab ea, quae dicitur circumcisio in carne manufacta, 12 quia eratis illo in tempore sine Christo, alienati a conversatione Israel et extranei testamentorum promissionis, spem non habentes et sine Deo in mundo. 13 Nunc autem in Christo Iesu vos, qui aliquando eratis longe, facti estis prope in sanguine Christi. 14 Ipse est enim pax nostra, qui fecit utraque unum et medium parietem maceriae solvit, inimicitiam, in carne sua, 15 legem mandatorum in decretis evacuans, ut duos condat in semetipso in unum novum hominem, faciens pacem, 16 et reconciliet ambos in uno corpore Deo per crucem, interficiens inimicitiam in semetipso. 17 Et veniens evangelizavit pacem vobis, qui longe fuistis, et pacem his, qui prope; 18 quoniam per ipsum habemus accessum ambo in uno Spiritu ad Patrem. 19 Ergo iam non estis extranei et advenae, sed estis concives sanctorum et domestici Dei, 20 superaedificati super fundamentum apostolorum et prophetarum, ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Iesu, 21 in quo omnis aedificatio compacta crescit in templum sanctum in Domino, 22 in quo et vos coaedificamini in habitaculum Dei in Spiritu.

[10] Cf. Eph 2:18: 4 But God, who is rich in mercy, because of the great love he had for us, 5 even when we were dead in our transgressions, brought us to life with Christ (by grace you have been saved), 6 raised us up with him, and seated us with him in the heavens in Christ Jesus, 7 that in the ages to come he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in his kindness to us in Christ Jesus. 8 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and this is not from you; it is the gift of God; 9 it is not from works, so no one may boast. 10 For we are his handiwork, created in Christ Jesus for the good works that God has prepared in advance, that we should live in them. 11 6 Therefore, remember that at one time you, Gentiles in the flesh, called the uncircumcision by those called the circumcision, which is done in the flesh by human hands, 12 were at that time without Christ, alienated from the community of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise, without hope and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have become near by the blood of Christ. 14 For he is our peace, he who made both one and broke down the dividing wall of enmity, through his flesh, 15 abolishing the law with its commandments and legal claims, that he might create in himself one new person in place of the two, thus establishing peace, 16 and might reconcile both with God, in one body, through the cross, putting that enmity to death by it. 17 He came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near, 18 for through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. 19 So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the holy ones and members of the household of God, 20 built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the capstone. 21 Through him the whole structure is held together and grows into a temple sacred in the Lord; 22 in him you also are being built together into a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

[11] Cf. Io 4,14: 11 Dicit ei mulier: «Domine, neque in quo haurias habes, et puteus altus est; unde ergo habes aquam vivam? 12 Numquid tu maior es patre nostro Iacob, qui dedit nobis puteum, et ipse ex eo bibit et filii eius et pecora eius?». 13 Respondit Iesus et dixit ei: «Omnis, qui bibit ex aqua hac, sitiet iterum; 14 qui autem biberit ex aqua, quam ego dabo ei, non sitiet in aeternum; sed aqua, quam dabo ei, fiet in eo fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam». 15 Dicit ad eum mulier: «Domine, da mihi hanc aquam, ut non sitiam neque veniam huc haurire». 16 Dicit ei: «Vade, voca virum tuum et veni huc». 17 Respondit mulier et dixit ei: «Non habeo virum». Dicit ei Iesus: «Bene dixisti: “Non habeo virum”; 18 quinque enim viros habuisti, et nunc, quem habes, non est tuus vir. Hoc vere dixisti». 19 Dicit ei mulier: «Domine, video quia propheta es tu. 20 Patres nostri in monte hoc adoraverunt, et vos dicitis quia in Hierosolymis est locus, ubi adorare oportet». 21 Dicit ei Iesus: «Crede mihi, mulier, quia venit hora, quando neque in monte hoc neque in Hierosolymis adorabitis Patrem. 22 Vos adoratis, quod nescitis; nos adoramus, quod scimus, quia salus ex Iudaeis est. 23 Sed venit hora, et nunc est, quando veri adoratores adorabunt Patrem in Spiritu et veritate; nam et Pater tales quaerit, qui adorent eum. 24 Spiritus est Deus, et eos, qui adorant eum, in Spiritu et veritate oportet adorare». 25 Dicit ei mulier: «Scio quia Messias venit -- qui dicitur Christus; cum venerit ille, nobis annuntiabit omnia». 26 Dicit ei Iesus: «Ego sum, qui loquor tecum».

[11] Cf. Jn 4:14: 11 (The woman) said to him, "Sir, you do not even have a bucket and the cistern is deep; where then can you get this living water? 12 Are you greater than our father Jacob, who gave us this cistern and drank from it himself with his children and his flocks?" 13 Jesus answered and said to her, "Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again; 14 but whoever drinks the water I shall give will never thirst; the water I shall give will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life." 15 The woman said to him, "Sir, give me this water, so that I may not be thirsty or have to keep coming here to draw water." 16 Jesus said to her, "Go call your husband and come back." 17 The woman answered and said to him, "I do not have a husband." Jesus answered her, "You are right in saying, 'I do not have a husband.' 18 For you have had five husbands, and the one you have now is not your husband. What you have said is true." 19 The woman said to him, "Sir, I can see that you are a prophet. 20 Our ancestors worshiped on this mountain; but you people say that the place to worship is in Jerusalem." 21 Jesus said to her, "Believe me, woman, the hour is coming when you will worship the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You people worship what you do not understand; we worship what we understand, because salvation is from the Jews. 23 But the hour is coming, and is now here, when true worshipers will worship the Father in Spirit and truth; and indeed the Father seeks such people to worship him. 24 God is Spirit, and those who worship him must worship in Spirit and truth." 25 The woman said to him, "I know that the Messiah is coming, the one called the Anointed; when he comes, he will tell us everything." 26 Jesus said to her, "I am he, the one who is speaking with you."

[11b] Io 7,38-39: 37 In novissimo autem die magno festivitatis stabat Iesus et clamavit dicens: «Si quis sitit, veniat ad me et bibat, 38 qui credit in me. Sicut dixit Scriptura, flumina de ventre eius fluent aquae vivae». 39 Hoc autem dixit de Spiritu, quem accepturi erant qui crediderant in eum. Nondum enim erat Spiritus, quia Iesus nondum fuerat glorificatus.

[11b] Jn 7:38-39: 37 On the last and greatest day of the feast, Jesus stood up and exclaimed, "Let anyone who thirsts come to me and drink. 38 Whoever believes in me, as scripture says: 'Rivers of living water will flow from within him.'" 39 He said this in reference to the Spirit that those who came to believe in him were to receive. There was, of course, no Spirit yet, because Jesus had not yet been glorified.

[12] Cf. Rom 8,10-11*

[12] Cf. Rom 8:10-11*

[13] Cf. I Cor 3,16: 9 Dei enim sumus adiutores: Dei agricultura estis, Dei aedificatio estis. 10 Secundum gratiam Dei, quae data est mihi, ut sapiens architectus fundamentum posui; alius autem superaedificat. Unusquisque autem videat quomodo superaedificet; 11 fundamentum enim aliud nemo potest ponere praeter id, quod positum est, qui est Iesus Christus. 12 Si quis autem superaedificat supra fundamentum aurum, argentum, lapides pretiosos, ligna, fenum, stipulam, 13 uniuscuiusque opus manifestum erit; dies enim declarabit: quia in igne revelatur, et uniuscuiusque opus quale sit ignis probabit. 14 Si cuius opus manserit, quod superaedificavit, mercedem accipiet; 15 si cuius opus arserit, detrimentum patietur, ipse autem salvus erit, sic tamen quasi per ignem. 16 Nescitis quia templum Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis? 17 Si quis autem templum Dei everterit, evertet illum Deus; templum enim Dei sanctum est, quod estis vos. 18 Nemo se seducat; si quis videtur sapiens esse inter vos in hoc saeculo, stultus fiat, ut sit sapiens. 19 Sapientia enim huius mundi stultitia est apud Deum. Scriptum est enim: «Qui apprehendit sapientes in astutia eorum»; 20 et iterum: «Dominus novit cogitationes sapientium, quoniam vanae sunt». 21 Itaque nemo glorietur in hominibus. Omnia enim vestra sunt, 22 sive Paulus sive Apollo sive Cephas sive mundus sive vita sive mors sive praesentia sive futura, omnia enim vestra sunt, 23 vos autem Christi, Christus autem Dei.

[13] Cf. 1 Cor 3:16: 9 For we are God's co-workers; you are God's field, God's building. 10 According to the grace of God given to me, like a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another is building upon it. But each one must be careful how he builds upon it, 11 for no one can lay a foundation other than the one that is there, namely, Jesus Christ. 12 If anyone builds on this foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, or straw, 13 the work of each will come to light, for the Day will disclose it. It will be revealed with fire, and the fire (itself) will test the quality of each one's work. 14 If the work stands that someone built upon the foundation, that person will receive a wage. 15 But if someone's work is burned up, that one will suffer loss; the person will be saved, but only as through fire. 16 Do you not know that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? 17 If anyone destroys God's temple, God will destroy that person; for the temple of God, which you are, is holy. 18 Let no one deceive himself. If any one among you considers himself wise in this age, let him become a fool so as to become wise. 19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness in the eyes of God, for it is written: "He catches the wise in their own ruses," 20 and again: "The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain." 21 So let no one boast about human beings, for everything belongs to you, 22 Paul or Apollos or Kephas, or the world or life or death, or the present or the future: all belong to you, 23 and you to Christ, and Christ to God.

[13b] I Cor 6,19: 19 An nescitis quoniam corpus vestrum templum est Spiritus Sancti, qui in vobis est, quem habetis a Deo, et non estis vestri?

[13b] 1 Cor 6:19: 19 Do you not know that your body is a temple of the holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?

[14] Cf. Gal 4,6: 1 Dico autem: Quanto tempore heres parvulus est, nihil differt a servo, cum sit dominus omnium, 2 sed sub tutoribus est et actoribus usque ad praefinitum tempus a patre. 3 Ita et nos, cum essemus parvuli, sub elementis mundi eramus servientes; 4 at ubi venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus Filium suum, factum ex muliere, factum sub lege, 5 ut eos, qui sub lege erant, redimeret, ut adoptionem filiorum reciperemus. 6 Quoniam autem estis filii, misit Deus Spiritum Filii sui in corda nostra clamantem: «Abba, Pater!».

[14] Cf. Gal 4:6: 1 I mean that as long as the heir is not of age, he is no different from a slave, although he is the owner of everything, 2 but he is under the supervision of guardians and administrators until the date set by his father. 3 In the same way we also, when we were not of age, were enslaved to the elemental powers of the world. 4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 5 to ransom those under the law, so that we might receive adoption. 6 As proof that you are children, God sent the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!"

[14b] Rom 8,15-16 and 26*

[14b] Rom 8:15-16 and 26*

[15] Cf. Io 16,13: 13 Cum autem venerit ille, Spiritus veritatis, deducet vos in omnem veritatem; non enim loquetur a semetipso, sed quaecumque audiet, loquetur et, quae ventura sunt, annuntiabit vobis.

[15] Cf. Jn 16:13: 13 But when he comes, the Spirit of truth, he will guide you to all truth. He will not speak on his own, but he will speak what he hears, and will declare to you the things that are coming.

[16] Cf. Eph 4,11-12: 10 Qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, ut impleret omnia. 11 Et ipse dedit quosdam quidem apostolos, quosdam autem prophetas, alios vero evangelistas, alios autem pastores et doctores 12 ad instructionem sanctorum in opus ministerii, in aedificationem corporis Christi, 13 donec occurramus omnes in unitatem fidei et agnitionis Filii Dei, in virum perfectum, in mensuram aetatis plenitudinis Christi, 14 ut iam non simus parvuli fluctuantes et circumacti omni vento doctrinae in fallacia hominum, in astutia ad circumventionem erroris; 15 veritatem autem facientes in caritate crescamus in illum per omnia, qui est caput Christus, 16 ex quo totum corpus compactum et conexum per omnem iuncturam subministrationis secundum operationem in mensura uniuscuiusque partis augmentum corporis facit in aedificationem sui in caritate. 17 Hoc igitur dico et testificor in Domino, ut iam non ambuletis, sicut et gentes ambulant in vanitate sensus sui 18 tenebris obscuratum habentes intellectum, alienati a vita Dei propter ignorantiam, quae est in illis propter caecitatem cordis ipsorum; 19 qui indolentes semetipsos tradiderunt impudicitiae in operationem immunditiae omnis in avaritia. 20 Vos autem non ita didicistis Christum, 21 si tamen illum audistis et in ipso edocti estis, sicut est veritas in Iesu: 22 deponere vos secundum pristinam conversationem veterem hominem, qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris, 23 renovari autem spiritu mentis vestrae 24 et induere novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est in iustitia et sanctitate veritatis.

[16] Cf. Eph 4:11-12: 10 The one who descended is also the one who ascended far above all the heavens, that he might fill all things. 11 And he gave some as apostles, others as prophets, others as evangelists, others as pastors and teachers, 12 to equip the holy ones for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, 13 until we all attain to the unity of faith and knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the extent of the full stature of Christ, 14 so that we may no longer be infants, tossed by waves and swept along by every wind of teaching arising from human trickery, from their cunning in the interests of deceitful scheming. 15 Rather, living the truth in love, we should grow in every way into him who is the head, Christ, 16 from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every supporting ligament, with the proper functioning of each part, brings about the body's growth and builds itself up in love. 17 So I declare and testify in the Lord that you must no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their minds; 18 darkened in understanding, alienated from the life of God because of their ignorance, because of their hardness of heart, 19 they have become callous and have handed themselves over to licentiousness for the practice of every kind of impurity to excess. 20 That is not how you learned Christ, 21 assuming that you have heard of him and were taught in him, as truth is in Jesus, 22 that you should put away the old self of your former way of life, corrupted through deceitful desires, 23 and be renewed in the spirit of your minds, 24 and put on the new self, created in God's way in righteousness and holiness of truth.

[16b] Cf. I Cor 12,4: 1 De spiritalibus autem, fratres, nolo vos ignorare. 2 Scitis quoniam, cum gentes essetis, ad simulacra muta, prout ducebamini, euntes. 3 Ideo notum vobis facio quod nemo in Spiritu Dei loquens dicit: «Anathema Iesus!»; et nemo potest dicere: «Dominus Iesus», nisi in Spiritu Sancto. 4 Divisiones vero gratiarum sunt, idem autem Spiritus; 5 et divisiones ministrationum sunt, idem autem Dominus; 6 et divisiones operationum sunt, idem vero Deus, qui operatur omnia in omnibus. 7 Unicuique autem datur manifestatio Spiritus ad utilitatem. 8 Alii quidem per Spiritum datur sermo sapientiae, alii autem sermo scientiae secundum eundem Spiritum, 9 alteri fides in eodem Spiritu, alii donationes sanitatum in uno Spiritu, 10 alii operationes virtutum, alii prophetatio, alii discretio spirituum, alii genera linguarum, alii interpretatio linguarum; 11 haec autem omnia operatur unus et idem Spiritus, dividens singulis prout vult. 12 Sicut enim corpus unum est et membra habet multa, omnia autem membra corporis, cum sint multa, unum corpus sunt, ita et Christus; 13 etenim in uno Spiritu omnes nos in unum corpus baptizati sumus, sive Iudaei sive Graeci sive servi sive liberi, et omnes unum Spiritum potati sumus. 14 Nam et corpus non est unum membrum sed multa. 15 Si dixerit pes: «Non sum manus, non sum de corpore», non ideo non est de corpore; 16 et si dixerit auris: «Non sum oculus, non sum de corpore», non ideo non est de corpore. 17 Si totum corpus oculus est, ubi auditus? Si totum auditus, ubi odoratus? 18 Nunc autem posuit Deus membra, unumquodque eorum in corpore, sicut voluit. 19 Quod si essent omnia unum membrum, ubi corpus? 20 Nunc autem multa quidem membra, unum autem corpus. 21 Non potest dicere oculus manui: «Non es mihi necessaria!»; aut iterum caput pedibus: «Non estis mihi necessarii!». 22 Sed multo magis, quae videntur membra corporis infirmiora esse, necessaria sunt; 23 et, quae putamus ignobiliora membra esse corporis, his honorem abundantiorem circumdamus; et, quae inhonesta sunt nostra, abundantiorem honestatem habent, 24 honesta autem nostra nullius egent. Sed Deus temperavit corpus, ei, cui deerat, abundantiorem tribuendo honorem, 25 ut non sit schisma in corpore, sed idipsum pro invicem sollicita sint membra. 26 Et sive patitur unum membrum, compatiuntur omnia membra; sive glorificatur unum membrum, congaudent omnia membra. 27 Vos autem estis corpus Christi et membra ex parte. 28 Et quosdam quidem posuit Deus in ecclesia primum apostolos, secundo prophetas, tertio doctores, deinde virtutes, exinde donationes curationum, opitulationes, gubernationes, genera linguarum. 29 Numquid omnes apostoli? Numquid omnes prophetae? Numquid omnes doctores? Numquid omnes virtutes? 30 Numquid omnes donationes habent curationum? Numquid omnes linguis loquuntur? Numquid omnes interpretantur? 31 Aemulamini autem charismata maiora. Et adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro.

[16b] Cf. 1 Cor 12:4: 1 Now in regard to spiritual gifts, brothers, I do not want you to be unaware. 2 You know how, when you were pagans, you were constantly attracted and led away to mute idols. 3 Therefore, I tell you that nobody speaking by the spirit of God says, "Jesus be accursed." And no one can say, "Jesus is Lord," except by the holy Spirit. 4 There are different kinds of spiritual gifts but the same Spirit; 5 there are different forms of service but the same Lord; 6 there are different workings but the same God who produces all of them in everyone. 7 To each individual the manifestation of the Spirit is given for some benefit. 8 To one is given through the Spirit the expression of wisdom; to another the expression of knowledge according to the same Spirit; 9 to another faith by the same Spirit; to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit; 10 to another mighty deeds; to another prophecy; to another discernment of spirits; to another varieties of tongues; to another interpretation of tongues. 11 But one and the same Spirit produces all of these, distributing them individually to each person as he wishes. 12 As a body is one though it has many parts, and all the parts of the body, though many, are one body, so also Christ. 13 For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, slaves or free persons, and we were all given to drink of one Spirit. 14 Now the body is not a single part, but many. 15 If a foot should say, "Because I am not a hand I do not belong to the body," it does not for this reason belong any less to the body. 16 Or if an ear should say, "Because I am not an eye I do not belong to the body," it does not for this reason belong any less to the body. 17 If the whole body were an eye, where would the hearing be? If the whole body were hearing, where would the sense of smell be? 18 But as it is, God placed the parts, each one of them, in the body as he intended. 19 If they were all one part, where would the body be? 20 But as it is, there are many parts, yet one body. 21 The eye cannot say to the hand, "I do not need you," nor again the head to the feet, "I do not need you." 22 Indeed, the parts of the body that seem to be weaker are all the more necessary, 23 and those parts of the body that we consider less honorable we surround with greater honor, and our less presentable parts are treated with greater propriety, 24 whereas our more presentable parts do not need this. But God has so constructed the body as to give greater honor to a part that is without it, 25 so that there may be no division in the body, but that the parts may have the same concern for one another. 26 If (one) part suffers, all the parts suffer with it; if one part is honored, all the parts share its joy. 27 Now you are Christ's body, and individually parts of it. 28 Some people God has designated in the church to be, first, apostles; second, prophets; third, teachers; then, mighty deeds; then, gifts of healing, assistance, administration, and varieties of tongues. 29 Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work mighty deeds? 30 Do all have gifts of healing? Do all speak in tongues? Do all interpret? 31 Strive eagerly for the greatest spiritual gifts. But I shall show you a still more excellent way.

[16c] Cf. Gal 5,22: 22 Fructus autem Spiritus est caritas, gaudium, pax, longanimitas, benignitas, bonitas, fides, 23 mansuetudo, continentia; adversus huiusmodi non est lex.

[16c] Cf. Gal 5:22: 22 In contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.

[17] Apoc 22,17: 17 Et Spiritus et sponsa dicunt: «Veni!». Et, qui audit, dicat: «Veni!». Et, qui sitit, veniat; qui vult, accipiat aquam vitae gratis.

[17] Rev 22:17: 17 The Spirit and the bride say, "Come." Let the hearer say, "Come." Let the one who thirsts come forward, and the one who wants it receive the gift of life-giving water.

[18] Mc 1,15: 14 Postquam autem traditus est Ioannes, venit Iesus in Galilaeam praedicans evangelium Dei 15 et dicens: «Impletum est tempus, et appropinquavit regnum Dei; paenitemini et credite evangelio».

[18] Mk 1:15: 14 After John had been arrested, Jesus came to Galilee proclaiming the gospel of God: 15 "This is the time of fulfillment. The kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel."

[18b] Cf. Mt 4,17: 17 Exinde coepit Iesus praedicare et dicere: «Paenitentiam agite; appropinquavit enim regnum caelorum».

[18b] Cf. Mt 4:17: 17 From that time on, Jesus began to preach and say, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand."

[19] Mc 4,14: 13 Et ait illis: «Nescitis parabolam hanc, et quomodo omnes parabolas cognoscetis? 14 Qui seminat, verbum seminat. 15 Hi autem sunt, qui circa viam, ubi seminatur verbum: et cum audierint, confestim venit Satanas et aufert verbum, quod seminatum est in eos. 16 Et hi sunt, qui super petrosa seminantur: qui cum audierint verbum, statim cum gaudio accipiunt illud 17 et non habent radicem in se, sed temporales sunt; deinde orta tribulatione vel persecutione propter verbum, confestim scandalizantur. 18 Et alii sunt, qui in spinis seminantur: hi sunt, qui verbum audierunt, 19 et aerumnae saeculi et deceptio divitiarum et circa reliqua concupiscentiae introeuntes suffocant verbum, et sine fructu efficitur. 20 Et hi sunt, qui super terram bonam seminati sunt: qui audiunt verbum et suscipiunt et fructificant unum triginta et unum sexaginta et unum centum». 21 Et dicebat illis: «Numquid venit lucerna, ut sub modio ponatur aut sub lecto? Nonne ut super candelabrum ponatur? 22 Non enim est aliquid absconditum, nisi ut manifestetur, nec factum est occultum, nisi ut in palam veniat. 23 Si quis habet aures audiendi, audiat». 24 Et dicebat illis: “ Videte quid audiatis. In qua mensura mensi fueritis, remetietur vobis et adicietur vobis. 25 Qui enim habet, dabitur illi; et, qui non habet, etiam quod habet, auferetur ab illo ”. 26 Et dicebat: «Sic est regnum Dei, quemadmodum si homo iaciat sementem in terram 27 et dormiat et exsurgat nocte ac die, et semen germinet et increscat, dum nescit ille. 28 Ultro terra fructificat primum herbam, deinde spicam, deinde plenum frumentum in spica. 29 Et cum se produxerit fructus, statim mittit falcem, quoniam adest messis».

[19] Mk 4:14: 13 Jesus said to them, "Do you not understand this parable? Then how will you understand any of the parables? 14 The sower sows the word. 15 These are the ones on the path where the word is sown. As soon as they hear, Satan comes at once and takes away the word sown in them. 16 And these are the ones sown on rocky ground who, when they hear the word, receive it at once with joy. 17 But they have no root; they last only for a time. Then when tribulation or persecution comes because of the word, they quickly fall away. 18 Those sown among thorns are another sort. They are the people who hear the word, 19 but worldly anxiety, the lure of riches, and the craving for other things intrude and choke the word, and it bears no fruit. 20 But those sown on rich soil are the ones who hear the word and accept it and bear fruit thirty and sixty and a hundredfold." 21 He said to them, "Is a lamp brought in to be placed under a bushel basket or under a bed, and not to be placed on a lampstand? 22 For there is nothing hidden except to be made visible; nothing is secret except to come to light. 23 Anyone who has ears to hear ought to hear." 24 He also told them, "Take care what you hear. The measure with which you measure will be measured out to you, and still more will be given to you. 25 To the one who has, more will be given; from the one who has not, even what he has will be taken away." 26 He said,"This is how it is with the kingdom of God; it is as if a man were to scatter seed on the land 27 and would sleep and rise night and day and the seed would sprout and grow, he knows not how. 28 Of its own accord the land yields fruit, first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear. 29 And when the grain is ripe, he wields the sickle at once, for the harvest has come."

[20] Lc 12,32: 32 Noli timere, pusillus grex, quia complacuit Patri vestro dare vobis regnum.

[20] Lk 12:32: 32 Do not be afraid any longer, little flock, for your Father is pleased to give you the kingdom.

[21] Cf. Mc 4:26-29*

[21] Cf. Mk 4:26-29*

[22] Lc 11,20: 17 Ipse autem sciens cogitationes eorum dixit eis: «Omne regnum in seipsum divisum desolatur, et domus supra domum cadit. 18 Si autem et Satanas in seipsum divisus est, quomodo stabit regnum ipsius? Quia dicitis in Beelzebul eicere me daemonia. 19 Si autem ego in Beelzebul eicio daemonia, filii vestri in quo eiciunt? Ideo ipsi iudices vestri erunt. 20 Porro si in digito Dei eicio daemonia, profecto pervenit in vos regnum Dei. ...»

[22] Lk 11:20: 17 But he knew their thoughts and said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself will be laid waste and house will fall against house. 18 And if Satan is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? For you say that it is by Beelzebul that I drive out demons. 19 If I, then, drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people drive them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 20 But if it is by the finger of God that (I) drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. ..."

[22b] Cf. Mt 12,28: 26 Et si Satanas Satanam eicit, adversus se divisus est; quomodo ergo stabit regnum eius? 27 Et si ego in Beelzebul eicio daemones, filii vestri in quo eiciunt? Ideo ipsi iudices erunt vestri. 28 Si autem in Spiritu Dei ego eicio daemones, igitur pervenit in vos regnum Dei.

[22b] Cf. Mt 12:28: 26 And if Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself; how, then, will his kingdom stand? 27 And if I drive out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your own people drive them out? Therefore they will be your judges. 28 But if it is by the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.

[23] Mc 10,45: 41 Et audientes decem coeperunt indignari de Iacobo et Ioanne. 42 Et vocans eos Iesus ait illis: «Scitis quia hi, qui videntur principari gentibus, dominantur eis, et principes eorum potestatem habent ipsorum. 43 Non ita est autem in vobis, sed quicumque voluerit fieri maior inter vos, erit vester minister; 44 et, quicumque voluerit in vobis primus esse, erit omnium servus; 45 nam et Filius hominis non venit, ut ministraretur ei, sed ut ministraret et daret animam suam redemptionem pro multis».

[23] Mk 10:45: 41 When the ten heard this, they became indignant at James and John. 42 Jesus summoned them and said to them, "You know that those who are recognized as rulers over the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones make their authority over them felt. 43 But it shall not be so among you. Rather, whoever wishes to be great among you will be your servant; 44 whoever wishes to be first among you will be the slave of all. 45 For the Son of Man did not come to be served but to serve and to give his life as a ransom for many."

[24] Cf. Act 2,36: 1 Et cum compleretur dies Pentecostes, erant omnes pariter in eodem loco. 2 Et factus est repente de caelo sonus tamquam advenientis spiritus vehementis et replevit totam domum, ubi erant sedentes. 3 Et apparuerunt illis dispertitae linguae tamquam ignis, seditque supra singulos eorum; 4 et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis, prout Spiritus dabat eloqui illis. 5 Erant autem in Ierusalem habitantes Iudaei, viri religiosi ex omni natione, quae sub caelo est; 6 facta autem hac voce, convenit multitudo et confusa est, quoniam audiebat unusquisque lingua sua illos loquentes. 7 Stupebant autem et mirabantur dicentes: «Nonne ecce omnes isti, qui loquuntur, Galilaei sunt? 8 Et quomodo nos audimus unusquisque propria lingua nostra, in qua nati sumus? 9 Parthi et Medi et Elamitae et qui habitant Mesopotamiam, Iudaeam quoque et Cappadociam, Pontum et Asiam, 10 Phrygiam quoque et Pamphyliam, Aegyptum et partes Libyae, quae est circa Cyrenem, et advenae Romani, 11 Iudaei quoque et proselyti, Cretes et Arabes, audimus loquentes eos nostris linguis magnalia Dei». 12 Stupebant autem omnes et haesitabant ad invicem dicentes: «Quidnam hoc vult esse?»; 13 alii autem irridentes dicebant: «Musto pleni sunt isti». 14 Stans autem Petrus cum Undecim levavit vocem suam et locutus est eis: «Viri Iudaei et qui habitatis Ierusalem universi, hoc vobis notum sit, et auribus percipite verba mea. 15 Non enim, sicut vos aestimatis, hi ebrii sunt, est enim hora diei tertia; 16 sed hoc est, quod dictum est per prophetam Ioel:

17Et erit: in novissimis diebus, dicit Deus, effundam de Spiritu meo super omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filii vestri et filiae vestrae, et iuvenes vestri visiones videbunt, et seniores vestri somnia somniabunt; 18 et quidem super servos meos et super ancillas meas in diebus illis effundam de Spiritu meo, et prophetabunt. 19 Et dabo prodigia in caelo sursum et signa in terra deorsum, sanguinem et ignem et vaporem fumi; 20 sol convertetur in tenebras, et luna in sanguinem, antequam veniat dies Domini magnus et manifestus. 21 Et erit: omnis quicumque invocaverit nomen Domini, salvus erit”.

22 Viri Israelitae, audite verba haec: Iesum Nazarenum, virum approbatum a Deo apud vos virtutibus et prodigiis et signis, quae fecit per illum Deus in medio vestri, sicut ipsi scitis, 23 hunc definito consilio et praescientia Dei traditum per manum iniquorum affigentes interemistis, 24 quem Deus suscitavit, solutis doloribus mortis, iuxta quod impossibile erat teneri illum ab ea. 25 David enim dicit circa eum: “Providebam Dominum coram me semper, quoniam a dextris meis est, ne commovear. 26 Propter hoc laetatum est cor meum, et exsultavit lingua mea; insuper et caro mea requiescet in spe. 27 Quoniam non derelinques animam meam in inferno neque dabis Sanctum tuum videre corruptionem. 28 Notas fecisti mihi vias vitae, replebis me iucunditate cum facie tua”. 29 Viri fratres, liceat audenter dicere ad vos de patriarcha David, quoniam et defunctus est et sepultus est, et sepulcrum eius est apud nos usque in hodiernum diem; 30 propheta igitur cum esset et sciret quia iure iurando iurasset illi Deus de fructu lumbi eius sedere super sedem eius, 31 providens locutus est de resurrectione Christi, quia neque derelictus est in inferno, neque caro eius vidit corruptionem. 32 Hunc Iesum resuscitavit Deus, cuius omnes nos testes sumus. 33 Dextera igitur Dei exaltatus, et promissione Spiritus Sancti accepta a Patre, effudit hunc, quem vos videtis et auditis. 34 Non enim David ascendit in caelos; dicit autem ipse: “Dixit Dominus Domino meo: Sede a dextris meis, 35 donec ponam inimicos tuos scabellum pedum tuorum”. 36 Certissime ergo sciat omnis domus Israel quia et Dominum eum et Christum Deus fecit, hunc Iesum, quem vos crucifixistis». 37 His auditis, compuncti sunt corde et dixerunt ad Petrum et reliquos apostolos: «Quid faciemus, viri fratres?». 38 Petrus vero ad illos: «Paenitentiam, inquit, agite, et baptizetur unusquisque vestrum in nomine Iesu Christi in remissionem peccatorum vestrorum, et accipietis donum Sancti Spiritus; 39 vobis enim est repromissio et filiis vestris et omnibus, qui longe sunt, quoscumque advocaverit Dominus Deus noster». 40 Aliis etiam verbis pluribus testificatus est et exhortabatur eos dicens: «Salvamini a generatione ista prava». 41 Qui ergo, recepto sermone eius, baptizati sunt; et appositae sunt in il la die animae circiter tria milia. 42 Erant autem perseverantes in doctrina apostolorum et communicatione, in fractione panis et orationibus. 43 Fiebat autem omni animae timor; multa quoque prodigia et signa per apostolos fiebant. 44 Omnes autem, qui crediderant, erant pariter et habebant omnia communia; 45 et possessiones et substantias vendebant et dividebant illas omnibus, prout cuique opus erat; 46 cotidie quoque perdurantes unanimiter in templo et frangentes circa domos panem, sumebant cibum cum exsultatione et simplicitate cordis, 47 collaudantes Deum et habentes gratiam ad omnem plebem. Dominus autem augebat, qui salvi fierent cotidie in idipsum.

[24] Cf. Acts 2:36: 1 When the time for Pentecost was fulfilled, they were all in one place together. 2 And suddenly there came from the sky a noise like a strong driving wind, and it filled the entire house in which they were. 3 Then there appeared to them tongues as of fire, which parted and came to rest on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the holy Spirit and began to speak in different tongues, as the Spirit enabled them to proclaim. 5 Now there were devout Jews from every nation under heaven staying in Jerusalem. 6 At this sound, they gathered in a large crowd, but they were confused because each one heard them speaking in his own language. 7 They were astounded, and in amazement they asked, "Are not all these people who are speaking Galileans? 8 Then how does each of us hear them in his own native language? 9 We are Parthians, Medes, and Elamites, inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, 10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya near Cyrene, as well as travelers from Rome, 11 both Jews and converts to Judaism, Cretans and Arabs, yet we hear them speaking in our own tongues of the mighty acts of God." 12 They were all astounded and bewildered, and said to one another, "What does this mean?" 13 But others said, scoffing, "They have had too much new wine." 14 Then Peter stood up with the Eleven, raised his voice, and proclaimed to them, "You who are Jews, indeed all of you staying in Jerusalem. Let this be known to you, and listen to my words. 15 These people are not drunk, as you suppose, for it is only nine o'clock in the morning. 16 No, this is what was spoken through the prophet Joel: 17 'It will come to pass in the last days,' God says, 'that I will pour out a portion of my spirit upon all flesh. Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your young men shall see visions, your old men shall dream dreams. 18 Indeed, upon my servants and my handmaids I will pour out a portion of my spirit in those days, and they shall prophesy. 19 And I will work wonders in the heavens above and signs on the earth below: blood, fire, and a cloud of smoke. 20 The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the coming of the great and splendid day of the Lord, 21 and it shall be that everyone shall be saved who calls on the name of the Lord.' 22 You who are Israelites, hear these words. Jesus the Nazorean was a man commended to you by God with mighty deeds, wonders, and signs, which God worked through him in your midst, as you yourselves know. 23 This man, delivered up by the set plan and foreknowledge of God, you killed, using lawless men to crucify him. 24 But God raised him up, releasing him from the throes of death, because it was impossible for him to be held by it. 25 For David says of him: 'I saw the Lord ever before me, with him at my right hand I shall not be disturbed. 26 Therefore my heart has been glad and my tongue has exulted; my flesh, too, will dwell in hope, 27 because you will not abandon my soul to the netherworld, nor will you suffer your holy one to see corruption. 28 You have made known to me the paths of life; you will fill me with joy in your presence.' 29 My brothers, one can confidently say to you about the patriarch David that he died and was buried, and his tomb is in our midst to this day. 30 But since he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn an oath to him that he would set one of his descendants upon his throne, 31 he foresaw and spoke of the resurrection of the Messiah, that neither was he abandoned to the netherworld nor did his flesh see corruption. 32 God raised this Jesus; of this we are all witnesses. 33 Exalted at the right hand of God, he received the promise of the holy Spirit from the Father and poured it forth, as you (both) see and hear. 34 For David did not go up into heaven, but he himself said: 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand 35 until I make your enemies your footstool."' 36 Therefore let the whole house of Israel know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Messiah, this Jesus whom you crucified." 37 Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and they asked Peter and the other apostles, "What are we to do, my brothers?" 38 Peter (said) to them, "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the holy Spirit. 39 For the promise is made to you and to your children and to all those far off, whomever the Lord our God will call." 40 He testified with many other arguments, and was exhorting them, "Save yourselves from this corrupt generation." 41 Those who accepted his message were baptized, and about three thousand persons were added that day. 42 They devoted themselves to the teaching of the apostles and to the communal life, to the breaking of the bread and to the prayers. 43 Awe came upon everyone, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles. 44 All who believed were together and had all things in common; 45 they would sell their property and possessions and divide them among all according to each one's need. 46 Every day they devoted themselves to meeting together in the temple area and to breaking bread in their homes. They ate their meals with exultation and sincerity of heart, 47 praising God and enjoying favor with all the people. And every day the Lord added to their number those who were being saved.

[24b] Cf. Hebr 5,6: 1 Omnis namque pontifex ex hominibus assumptus pro hominibus constituitur in his, quae sunt ad Deum, ut offerat dona et sacrificia pro peccatis; 2 qui aeque condolere possit his, qui ignorant et errant, quoniam et ipse circumdatus est infirmitate 3 et propter eam debet, quemadmodum et pro populo, ita etiam pro semetipso offerre pro peccatis. 4 Nec quisquam sumit sibi illum honorem, sed qui vocatur a Deo tamquam et Aaron. 5 Sic et Christus non semetipsum glorificavit, ut pontifex fieret, sed qui locutus est ad eum: «Filius meus es tu; ego hodie genui te»; 6 quemadmodum et in alio dicit: «Tu es sacerdos in aeternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech». 7 Qui in diebus carnis suae, preces supplicationesque ad eum, qui possit salvum illum a morte facere, cum clamore valido et lacrimis offerens et exauditus pro sua reverentia, 8 et quidem cum esset Filius, didicit ex his, quae passus est, oboedientiam; 9 et, consummatus, factus est omnibus oboedientibus sibi auctor salutis aeternae, 10 appellatus a Deo pontifex iuxta ordinem Melchisedech.

[24b] Cf. Heb 5:6: 1 Every high priest is taken from among men and made their representative before God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. 2 He is able to deal patiently with the ignorant and erring, for he himself is beset by weakness 3 and so, for this reason, must make sin offerings for himself as well as for the people. 4 No one takes this honor upon himself but only when called by God, just as Aaron was. 5 In the same way, it was not Christ who glorified himself in becoming high priest, but rather the one who said to him: "You are my son; this day I have begotten you"; 6 just as he says in another place: "You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek." 7 In the days when he was in the flesh, he offered prayers and supplications with loud cries and tears to the one who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Son though he was, he learned obedience from what he suffered; 9 and when he was made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him, 10 declared by God high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.

[24c] Cf. Hebr 7,17-21: 15 Et amplius adhuc manifestum est, si secundum similitudinem Melchisedech exsurgit alius sacerdos, 16 qui non secundum legem mandati carnalis factus est sed secundum virtutem vitae insolubilis, 17 testimonium enim accipit: «Tu es sacerdos in aeternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech». 18 Reprobatio quidem fit praecedentis mandati propter infirmitatem eius et inutilitatem, 19 nihil enim ad perfectum adduxit lex; introductio vero melioris spei, per quam proximamus ad Deum. 20 Et quantum non est sine iure iurando; illi quidem sine iure iurando sacerdotes facti sunt, 21 hic autem cum iure iurando per eum, qui dicit ad illum: «Iuravit Dominus et non paenitebit eum: Tu es sacerdos in aeternum», 22 in tantum et melioris testamenti sponsor factus est Iesus. 23 Et illi quidem plures facti sunt sacerdotes, idcirco quod morte prohibebantur permanere; 24 hic autem eo quod manet in aeternum, intransgressibile habet sacerdotium; 25 unde et salvare in perpetuum potest accedentes per semetipsum ad Deum, semper vivens ad interpellandum pro eis. 26 Talis enim et decebat ut nobis esset pontifex, sanctus, innocens, impollutus, segregatus a peccatoribus et excelsior caelis factus;

[24c] Cf. Heb 7:17-21: 15 It is even more obvious if another priest is raised up after the likeness of Melchizedek, 16 who has become so, not by a law expressed in a commandment concerning physical descent but by the power of a life that cannot be destroyed. 17 For it is testified: "You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek." 18 On the one hand, a former commandment is annulled because of its weakness and uselessness, 19 for the law brought nothing to perfection; on the other hand, a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God. 20 And to the degree that this happened not without the taking of an oath -- for others became priests without an oath, 21 but he with an oath, through the one who said to him: "The Lord has sworn, and he will not repent: 'You are a priest forever'" - 22 to that same degree has Jesus (also) become the guarantee of an (even) better covenant. 23 Those priests were many because they were prevented by death from remaining in office, 24 but he, because he remains forever, has a priesthood that does not pass away. 25 Therefore, he is always able to save those who approach God through him, since he lives forever to make intercession for them. 26 It was fitting that we should have such a high priest: 18 holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners, higher than the heavens.

[25] Cf. Acts 2,33*

[25] Cf. Acts 2:33*

[26] Io 10,1-10: 1 «Amen, amen dico vobis: Qui non intrat per ostium in ovile ovium, sed ascendit aliunde, ille fur est et latro; 2 qui autem intrat per ostium, pastor est ovium. 3 Huic ostiarius aperit, et oves vocem eius audiunt, et proprias oves vocat nominatim et educit eas. 4 Cum proprias omnes emiserit, ante eas vadit, et oves illum sequuntur, quia sciunt vocem eius; 5 alienum autem non sequentur, sed fugient ab eo, quia non noverunt vocem alienorum». 6 Hoc proverbium dixit eis Iesus; illi autem non cognoverunt quid esset, quod loquebatur eis. 7 Dixit ergo iterum Iesus: «Amen, amen dico vobis: Ego sum ostium ovium. 8 Omnes, quotquot venerunt ante me, fures sunt et latrones, sed non audierunt eos oves. 9 Ego sum ostium; per me, si quis introierit, salvabitur et ingredietur et egredietur et pascua inveniet. 10 Fur non venit, nisi ut furetur et mactet et perdat; ego veni, ut vitam habeant et abundantius habeant. 11 Ego sum pastor bonus; bonus pastor animam suam ponit pro ovibus; 12 mercennarius et, qui non est pastor, cuius non sunt oves propriae, videt lupum venientem et dimittit oves et fugit -- et lupus rapit eas et dispergit -- 13 quia mercennarius est et non pertinet ad eum de ovibus. 14 Ego sum pastor bonus et cognosco meas, et cognoscunt me meae, 15 sicut cognoscit me Pater, et ego cognosco Patrem; et animam meam pono pro ovibus. ...»

[26] Jn 10:1-10: 1 "Amen, amen, I say to you, whoever does not enter a sheepfold through the gate but climbs over elsewhere is a thief and a robber. 2 But whoever enters through the gate is the shepherd of the sheep. 3 The gatekeeper opens it for him, and the sheep hear his voice, as he calls his own sheep by name and leads them out. 4 When he has driven out all his own, he walks ahead of them, and the sheep follow him, because they recognize his voice. 5 But they will not follow a stranger; they will run away from him, because they do not recognize the voice of strangers." 6 Although Jesus used this figure of speech, they did not realize what he was trying to tell them. 7 So Jesus said again, "Amen, amen, I say to you, I am the gate for the sheep. 8 All who came [before me] are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them. 9 I am the gate. Whoever enters through me will be saved, and will come in and go out and find pasture. 10 A thief comes only to steal and slaughter and destroy; I came so that they might have life and have it more abundantly. 11 I am the good shepherd. A good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. 12 A hired man, who is not a shepherd and whose sheep are not his own, sees a wolf coming and leaves the sheep and runs away, and the wolf catches and scatters them. 13 This is because he works for pay and has no concern for the sheep. 14 I am the good shepherd, and I know mine and mine know me, 15 just as the Father knows me and I know the Father; and I will lay down my life for the sheep.

[27] Cf. Is 40,11: 11 Sicut pastor gregem suum pascit, in brachio suo congregat agnos et in sinu suo levat; fetas ipse portat.

[27] Cf. Is 40:11: 11 Like a shepherd he feeds his flock; in his arms he gathers the lambs, Carrying them in his bosom, and leading the ewes with care.

[27b] Cf. Ez 34,11ss.: 1 Et factum est verbum Domini ad me dicens: 2 Fili hominis, propheta de pastoribus Israel, propheta et dices pastoribus: Haec dicit Dominus Deus: Vae pastoribus Israel, qui pascebant semetipsos! Nonne greges pascuntur a pastoribus? 3 Lac comedebatis et lana operiebamini et, quod crassum erat, occidebatis, gregem autem non pascebatis; 4 quod infirmum fuit, non consolidastis et, quod aegrotum, non sanastis; quod fractum est, non alligastis et, quod eiectum est, non reduxistis et, quod perierat, non quaesistis et super forte imperabatis cum violentia. 5 Et dispersae sunt oves meae, eo quod non esset pastor; et factae sunt in devorationem omnium bestiarum agri et dispersae sunt. 6 Erraverunt greges mei in cunctis montibus et in universo colle excelso, et super omnem faciem terrae dispersi sunt greges mei; et non erat qui requireret, non erat qui requireret. 7 Propterea, pastores, audite verbum Domini: 8 Vivo ego, dicit Dominus Deus, pro eo quod factus est grex meus in rapinam et oves meae in devorationem omnium bestiarum agri, eo quod non esset pastor, neque enim quaesierunt pastores mei gregem meum, sed pascebant pastores semetipsos et gregem meum non pascebant, 9 propterea, pastores, audite verbum Domini. 10 Haec dicit Dominus Deus: Ecce ego ipse super pastores requiram gregem meum de manu eorum et cessare eos faciam, ut ultra non pascant gregem nec pascant amplius pastores semetipsos; et liberabo gregem meum de ore eorum, et non erit ultra eis in escam. 11 Quia haec dicit Dominus Deus: Ecce ego ipse requiram oves meas et visitabo eas. 12 Sicut visitat pastor gregem suum in die, quando fuerit in medio ovium suarum dissipatarum, sic visitabo oves meas et liberabo eas de omnibus locis, in quibus dispersae fuerant in die nubis et caliginis. 13 Et educam eas de populis et congregabo eas de terris et inducam eas in terram suam et pascam eas in montibus Israel, in rivis et in cunctis sedibus terrae. 14 In pascuis uberrimis pascam eas, et in montibus excelsis Israel erunt pascua earum; ibi requiescent in herbis virentibus et in pascuis pinguibus pascentur super montes Israel. 15 Ego pascam oves meas et ego eas accubare faciam, dicit Dominus Deus.

[27b] Cf. Ez 34:11ff.: 1 Thus the word of the LORD came to me: 2 Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, in these words prophesy to them (to the shepherds): Thus says the Lord GOD: Woe to the shepherds of Israel who have been pasturing themselves! Should not shepherds, rather, pasture sheep? 3 You have fed off their milk, worn their wool, and slaughtered the fatlings, but the sheep you have not pastured. 4 You did not strengthen the weak nor heal the sick nor bind up the injured. You did not bring back the strayed nor seek the lost, but you lorded it over them harshly and brutally. 5 So they were scattered for lack of a shepherd, and became food for all the wild beasts. My sheep were scattered 6 and wandered over all the mountains and high hills; my sheep were scattered over the whole earth, with no one to look after them or to search for them. 7 Therefore, shepherds, hear the word of the LORD: 8 As I live, says the Lord GOD, because my sheep have been given over to pillage, and because my sheep have become food for every wild beast, for lack of a shepherd; because my shepherds did not look after my sheep, but pastured themselves and did not pasture my sheep; 9 because of this, shepherds, hear the word of the LORD: 10 Thus says the Lord GOD: I swear I am coming against these shepherds. I will claim my sheep from them and put a stop to their shepherding my sheep so that they may no longer pasture themselves. I will save my sheep, that they may no longer be food for their mouths. 11 For thus says the Lord GOD: I myself will look after and tend my sheep. 12 As a shepherd tends his flock when he finds himself among his scattered sheep, so will I tend my sheep. I will rescue them from every place where they were scattered when it was cloudy and dark. 13 I will lead them out from among the peoples and gather them from the foreign lands; I will bring them back to their own country and pasture them upon the mountains of Israel (in the land's ravines and all its inhabited places). 14 In good pastures will I pasture them, and on the mountain heights of Israel shall be their grazing ground. There they shall lie down on good grazing ground, and in rich pastures shall they be pastured on the mountains of Israel. 15 I myself will pasture my sheep; I myself will give them rest, says the Lord GOD.

[28] Cf. Io 10,11*

[28] Cf. Jn 10:11*

[28b] Cf. I Pt 5,4: 1 Seniores ergo, qui in vobis sunt, obsecro, consenior et testis Christi passionum, qui et eius, quae in futuro revelanda est, gloriae communicator: 2 Pascite, qui est in vobis, gregem Dei, providentes non coacto sed spontanee secundum Deum, neque turpis lucri gratia sed voluntarie, 3 neque ut dominantes in cleris sed formae facti gregis. 4 Et cum apparuerit Princeps pastorum, percipietis immarcescibilem gloriae coronam.

[28b] Cf. 1 Pet 5:4: 1 So I exhort the presbyters among you, as a fellow presbyter and witness to the sufferings of Christ and one who has a share in the glory to be revealed. 2 Tend the flock of God in your midst, (overseeing) not by constraint but willingly, as God would have it, not for shameful profit but eagerly. 3 Do not lord it over those assigned to you, but be examples to the flock. 4 And when the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.

[29] Cf. Io 10,11-15*

[29] Cf. Jn 10:11-15*

[30] I Cor 3,9*

[30] 1 Cor 3:9*

[31] Rom 11,13-26: 12 Quod si casus illorum divitiae sunt mundi, et deminutio eorum divitiae gentium, quanto magis plenitudo eorum! 13 Vobis autem dico gentibus: Quantum quidem ego sum gentium apostolus, ministerium meum honorifico, 14 si quo modo ad aemulandum provocem carnem meam et salvos faciam aliquos ex illis. 15 Si enim amissio eorum reconciliatio est mundi, quae assumptio, nisi vita ex mortuis? 16 Quod si primitiae sanctae sunt, et massa; et si radix sancta, et rami. 17 Quod si aliqui ex ramis fracti sunt, tu autem, cum oleaster esses, insertus es in illis et consocius radicis pinguedinis olivae factus es, 18 noli gloriari adversus ramos; quod si gloriaris, non tu radicem portas, sed radix te. 19 Dices ergo: «Fracti sunt rami, ut ego inserar». 20 Bene; incredulitate fracti sunt, tu autem fide stas. Noli altum sapere, sed time: 21 si enim Deus naturalibus ramis non pepercit, ne forte nec tibi parcat. 22 Vide ergo bonitatem et severitatem Dei: in eos quidem, qui ceciderunt, severitatem; in te autem bonitatem Dei, si permanseris in bonitate, alioquin et tu excideris. 23 Sed et illi, si non permanserint in incredulitate, inserentur; potens est enim Deus iterum inserere illos! 24 Nam si tu ex naturali excisus es oleastro et contra naturam insertus es in bonam olivam, quanto magis hi, qui secundum naturam sunt, inserentur suae olivae. 25 Nolo enim vos ignorare, fratres, mysterium hoc, ut non sitis vobis ipsis sapientes, quia caecitas ex parte contigit in Israel, donec plenitudo gentium intraret, 26 et sic omnis Israel salvus fiet, sicut scriptum est: «Veniet ex Sion, qui eripiat, avertet impietates ab Iacob; 27 et hoc illis a me testamentum, cum abstulero peccata eorum». 28 Secundum evangelium quidem inimici propter vos, secundum electionem autem carissimi propter patres; 29 sine paenitentia enim sunt dona et vocatio Dei!

[31] Rom 11:13-26: 12 Now if [the] transgression [of the Jews] is enrichment for the world, and if their diminished number is enrichment for the Gentiles, how much more their full number. 13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch then as I am the apostle to the Gentiles, I glory in my ministry 14 in order to make my race jealous and thus save some of them. 15 For if their rejection is the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead? 16 If the firstfruits are holy, so is the whole batch of dough; and if the root is holy, so are the branches. 17 But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, a wild olive shoot, were grafted in their place and have come to share in the rich root of the olive tree, 18 do not boast against the branches. If you do boast, consider that you do not support the root; the root supports you. 19 Indeed you will say, "Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in." 20 That is so. They were broken off because of unbelief, but you are there because of faith. So do not become haughty, but stand in awe. 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, (perhaps) he will not spare you either. 22 See, then, the kindness and severity of God: severity toward those who fell, but God's kindness to you, provided you remain in his kindness; otherwise you too will be cut off. 23 And they also, if they do not remain in unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and grafted, contrary to nature, into a cultivated one, how much more will they who belong to it by nature be grafted back into their own olive tree. 25 I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers, so that you will not become wise (in) your own estimation: a hardening has come upon Israel in part, until the full number of the Gentiles comes in, 26 and thus all Israel will be saved, as it is written: "The deliverer will come out of Zion, he will turn away godlessness from Jacob; 27 and this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins." 28 In respect to the gospel, they are enemies on your account; but in respect to election, they are beloved because of the patriarchs. 29 For the gifts and the call of God are irrevocable.

[32] Mt 21,33-43: 33 «Aliam parabolam audite. Homo erat pater familias, qui plantavit vineam et saepem circumdedit ei et fodit in ea torcular et aedificavit turrim et locavit eam agricolis et peregre profectus est. 34 Cum autem tempus fructuum appropinquasset, misit servos suos ad agricolas, ut acciperent fructus eius. 35 Et agricolae, apprehensis servis eius, alium ceciderunt, alium occiderunt, alium vero lapidaverunt. 36 Iterum misit alios servos plures prioribus, et fecerunt illis similiter. 37 Novissime autem misit ad eos filium suum dicens: "Verebuntur filium meum." 38 Agricolae autem videntes filium dixerunt intra se: "Hic est heres. Venite, occidamus eum et habebimus hereditatem eius." 39 Et apprehensum eum eiecerunt extra vineam et occiderunt. 40 Cum ergo venerit dominus vineae, quid faciet agricolis illis?» 41 Aiunt illi: «Malos male perdet et vineam locabit aliis agricolis, qui reddant ei fructum temporibus suis». 42 Dicit illis Iesus: «Numquam legistis in Scripturis: "Lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli; a Domino factum est istud et est mirabile in oculis nostris?" 43 Ideo dico vobis quia auferetur a vobis regnum Dei et dabitur genti facienti fructus eius. 44 Et, qui ceciderit super lapidem istum confringetur; super quem vero ceciderit, conteret eum».

[32] Mt 21:33-43: 33 "Hear another parable. There was a landowner who planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a wine press in it, and built a tower. Then he leased it to tenants and went on a journey. 34 When vintage time drew near, he sent his servants to the tenants to obtain his produce. 35 But the tenants seized the servants and one they beat, another they killed, and a third they stoned. 36 Again he sent other servants, more numerous than the first ones, but they treated them in the same way. 37 Finally, he sent his son to them, thinking, 'They will respect my son.' 38 But when the tenants saw the son, they said to one another, 'This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and acquire his inheritance.' 39 They seized him, threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 40 What will the owner of the vineyard do to those tenants when he comes?" 41 They answered him, "He will put those wretched men to a wretched death and lease his vineyard to other tenants who will give him the produce at the proper times." 42 Jesus said to them, "Did you never read in the scriptures: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; by the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes'? 43 Therefore, I say to you, the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people that will produce its fruit. 44 (The one who falls on this stone will be dashed to pieces; and it will crush anyone on whom it falls.)"

[32b] Cf. Is 5,1ss.: 1 Cantabo dilecto meo canticum amici mei de vinea sua: Vinea facta est dilecto meo in colle pingui; 2 et saepivit eam et lapides elegit ex illa et plantavit in ea vites electas et aedificavit turrim in medio eius et torcular exstruxit in ea; et exspectavit, ut faceret uvas, et fecit labruscas. 3 Nunc ergo, habitator Ierusalem et vir Iudae, iudicate inter me et vineam meam. 4 Quid est quod debui ultra facere vineae meae et non feci ei? Cur exspectavi, ut faceret uvas, et fecit labruscas? 5 Et nunc ostendam vobis quid ego faciam vineae meae: auferam saepem eius, et erit in direptionem; diruam maceriam eius, et erit in conculcationem. 6 Et ponam eam desertam: non putabitur et non fodietur, et ascendent vepres et spinae; et nubibus mandabo, ne pluant super eam imbrem. 7 Vinea enim Domini exercituum domus Israel est, et vir Iudae germen eius delectabile; et exspectavi, ut faceret iudicium, et ecce iniquitas, et iustitiam, et ecce nequitia. 8 Vae, qui coniungunt domum ad domum et agrum agro copulant usque ad terminum loci! Numquid habitabitis vos soli in medio terrae?

[32b] Cf. Is 5:1ff: 1 Let me now sing of my friend, my friend's song concerning his vineyard. My friend had a vineyard on a fertile hillside; 2 He spaded it, cleared it of stones, and planted the choicest vines; Within it he built a watchtower, and hewed out a wine press. Then he looked for the crop of grapes, but what it yielded was wild grapes. 3 Now, inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, judge between me and my vineyard: 4 What more was there to do for my vineyard that I had not done? Why, when I looked for the crop of grapes, did it bring forth wild grapes? 5 Now, I will let you know what I mean to do to my vineyard: Take away its hedge, give it to grazing, break through its wall, let it be trampled! 6 Yes, I will make it a ruin: it shall not be pruned or hoed, but overgrown with thorns and briers; I will command the clouds not to send rain upon it. 7 The vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah are his cherished plant; He looked for judgment, but see, bloodshed! for justice, but hark, the outcry! 8 Woe to you who join house to house, who connect field with field, Till no room remains, and you are left to dwell alone in the midst of the land!

[33] Io 15,1-5: 1 Ego sum vitis vera, et Pater meus agricola est. 2 Omnem palmitem in me non ferentem fructum tollit eum; et omnem, qui fert fructum, purgat eum, ut fructum plus afferat. 3 Iam vos mundi estis propter sermonem, quem locutus sum vobis. 4 Manete in me, et ego in vobis. Sicut palmes non potest ferre fructum a semetipso, nisi manserit in vite, sic nec vos, nisi in me manseritis. 5 Ego sum vitis, vos palmites. Qui manet in me, et ego in eo, hic fert fructum multum, quia sine me nihil potestis facere. 6 Si quis in me non manserit, missus est foras sicut palmes et aruit; et colligunt eos et in ignem mittunt, et ardent. 7 Si manseritis in me, et verba mea in vobis manserint, quodcumque volueritis, petite, et fiet vobis. 8 In hoc clarificatus est Pater meus, ut fructum multum afferatis et efficiamini mei discipuli. 9 Sicut dilexit me Pater, et ego dilexi vos; manete in dilectione mea. 10 Si praecepta mea servaveritis, manebitis in dilectione mea, sicut ego Patris mei praecepta servavi et maneo in eius dilectione. 11 Haec locutus sum vobis, ut gaudium meum in vobis sit, et gaudium vestrum impleatur. 12 Hoc est praeceptum meum, ut diligatis invicem, sicut dilexi vos; 13 maiorem hac dilectionem nemo habet, ut animam suam quis ponat pro amicis suis. 14 Vos amici mei estis, si feceritis, quae ego praecipio vobis. 15 Iam non dico vos servos, quia servus nescit quid facit dominus eius; vos autem dixi amicos, quia omnia, quae audivi a Patre meo, nota feci vobis.

[33] Jn 15:1-5: 1 "I am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower. 2 He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit, and everyone that does he prunes 3 so that it bears more fruit. 3 You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you. 4 Remain in me, as I remain in you. Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own unless it remains on the vine, so neither can you unless you remain in me. 5 I am the vine, you are the branches. Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit, because without me you can do nothing. 6 Anyone who does not remain in me will be thrown out like a branch and wither; people will gather them and throw them into a fire and they will be burned. 7 If you remain in me and my words remain in you, ask for whatever you want and it will be done for you. 8 By this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit and become my disciples. 9 As the Father loves me, so I also love you. Remain in my love. 10 If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love, just as I have kept my Father's commandments and remain in his love. 11 "I have told you this so that my joy may be in you and your joy may be complete. 12 This is my commandment: love one another as I love you. 13 No one has greater love than this, to lay down his life for his friends. 14 You are my friends if you do what I command you. 15 I no longer call you slaves, because a slave does not know what his master is doing. I have called you friends, because I have told you everything I have heard from my Father.

[34] I Cor 3,9*

[34] 1 Cor 3:9*

[35] Mt 21,42*

[35] Mt 21:42*

[35b] Cf. Act 4,11: 8 Tunc Petrus repletus Spiritu Sancto dixit ad eos: «Principes populi et seniores, 9 si nos hodie diiudicamur in benefacto hominis infirmi, in quo iste salvus factus est, 10 notum sit omnibus vobis et omni plebi Israel quia in nomine Iesu Christi Nazareni, quem vos crucifixistis, quem Deus suscitavit a mortuis, in hoc iste astat coram vobis sanus. 11 Hic est lapis, qui reprobatus est a vobis aedificatoribus, qui factus est in caput anguli. 12 Et non est in alio aliquo salus, nec enim nomen aliud est sub caelo datum in hominibus, in quo oportet nos salvos fieri».

[35b] Cf. Acts 4:11: 8 Then Peter, filled with the holy Spirit, answered them, "Leaders of the people and elders: 9 If we are being examined today about a good deed done to a cripple, namely, by what means he was saved, 10 then all of you and all the people of Israel should know that it was in the name of Jesus Christ the Nazarean whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead; in his name this man stands before you healed. 11 He is 'the stone rejected by you, the builders, which has become the cornerstone.' 12 There is no salvation through anyone else, nor is there any other name under heaven given to the human race by which we are to be saved."

[35c] Cf. I Pet 2,7: 1 Deponentes igitur omnem malitiam et omnem dolum et simulationes et invidias et omnes detractiones, 2 sicut modo geniti infantes, rationale sine dolo lac concupiscite, ut in eo crescatis in salutem, 3 si gustastis quoniam dulcis Dominus. 4 Ad quem accedentes, lapidem vivum, ab hominibus quidem reprobatum, coram Deo autem electum, pretiosum, 5 et ipsi tamquam lapides vivi aedificamini domus spiritalis in sacerdotium sanctum offerre spiritales hostias acceptabiles Deo per Iesum Christum. 6 Propter quod continet Scriptura: «Ecce pono in Sion lapidem angularem, electum, pretiosum; et, qui credit in eo, non confundetur». 7 Vobis igitur honor credentibus; non credentibus autem «Lapis, quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli» 8 et «lapis offensionis et petra scandali»; qui offendunt verbo non credentes, in quod et positi sunt. 9 Vos autem genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus in acquisitionem, ut virtutes annuntietis eius, qui de tenebris vos vocavit in admirabile lumen suum: 10 qui aliquando non populus, nunc autem populus Dei; qui non consecuti misericordiam, nunc autem misericordiam consecuti.

[35c] Cf. 1 Pet 2:7: 1 Rid yourselves of all malice and all deceit, insincerity, envy, and all slander; 2 like newborn infants, long for pure spiritual milk so that through it you may grow into salvation, 3 for you have tasted that the Lord is good. 4 Come to him, a living stone, rejected by human beings but chosen and precious in the sight of God, 5 and, like living stones, let yourselves be built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 6 For it says in scripture: "Behold, I am laying a stone in Zion, a cornerstone, chosen and precious, and whoever believes in it shall not be put to shame." 7 Therefore, its value is for you who have faith, but for those without faith: "The stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone," 8 and "A stone that will make people stumble, and a rock that will make them fall." They stumble by disobeying the word, as is their destiny. 9 But you are "a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people of his own, so that you may announce the praises" of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light. 10 Once you were "no people" but now you are God's people; you "had not received mercy" but now you have received mercy.

[35d] Cf. Ps 118(117),22: 22 Lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli;

[35d] Cf. Ps 118(117):22: 22 The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone.

[36] Cf. I Cor 3,11*

[36] Cf. 1 Cor 3:11*

[37] I Tim 3,15: 1 Fidelis sermo: si quis episcopatum appetit, bonum opus desiderat. 2 Oportet ergo episcopum irreprehensibilem esse, unius uxoris virum, sobrium, prudentem, ornatum, hospitalem, doctorem, 3 non vinolentum, non percussorem sed modestum, non litigiosum, non cupidum, 4 suae domui bene praepositum, filios habentem in subiectione cum omni castitate 5 -- si quis autem domui suae praeesse nescit, quomodo ecclesiae Dei curam habebit? --, 6 non neophytum, ne in superbia elatus in iudicium incidat Diaboli. 7 Oportet autem illum et testimonium habere bonum ab his, qui foris sunt, ut non in opprobrium incidat et laqueum Diaboli. 8 Diaconos similiter pudicos, non bilingues, non multo vino deditos, non turpe lucrum sectantes, 9 habentes mysterium fidei in conscientia pura. 10 Et hi autem probentur primum, deinde ministrent nullum crimen habentes. 11 Mulieres similiter pudicas, non detrahentes, sobrias, fideles in omnibus. 12 Diaconi sint unius uxoris viri, qui filiis suis bene praesint et suis domibus; 13 qui enim bene ministraverint, gradum sibi bonum acquirent et multam fiduciam in fide, quae est in Christo Iesu. 14 Haec tibi scribo sperans venire ad te cito; 15 si autem tardavero, ut scias quomodo oporteat in domo Dei conversari, quae est ecclesia Dei vivi, columna et firmamentum veritatis. 16 Et omnium confessione magnum est pietatis mysterium: Qui manifestatus est in carne, iustificatus est in Spiritu, apparuit angelis, praedicatus est in gentibus, creditus est in mundo, assumptus est in gloria.

[37] 1 Tim 3:15: 1 This saying is trustworthy: whoever aspires to the office of bishop desires a noble task. 2 Therefore, a bishop must be irreproachable, married only once, temperate, self-controlled, decent, hospitable, able to teach, 3 not a drunkard, not aggressive, but gentle, not contentious, not a lover of money. 4 He must manage his own household well, keeping his children under control with perfect dignity; 5 for if a man does not know how to manage his own household, how can he take care of the church of God? 6 He should not be a recent convert, so that he may not become conceited and thus incur the devil's punishment. 7 He must also have a good reputation among outsiders, so that he may not fall into disgrace, the devil's trap. 8 Similarly, deacons must be dignified, not deceitful, not addicted to drink, not greedy for sordid gain, 9 holding fast to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. 10 Moreover, they should be tested first; then, if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons. 11 Women, similarly, should be dignified, not slanderers, but temperate and faithful in everything. 12 Deacons may be married only once and must manage their children and their households well. 13 Thus those who serve well as deacons gain good standing and much confidence in their faith in Christ Jesus. 14 I am writing you about these matters, although I hope to visit you soon. 15 But if I should be delayed, you should know how to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of truth. 16 Undeniably great is the mystery of devotion, Who was manifested in the flesh, vindicated in the spirit, seen by angels, proclaimed to the Gentiles, believed in throughout the world, taken up in glory.

[38] Eph 2,19-22*

[38] Eph 2:19-22*

[39] Apoc 21,3: 1 Et vidi caelum novum et terram novam; primum enim caelum et prima terra abierunt, et mare iam non est. 2 Et civitatem sanctam Ierusalem novam vidi descendentem de caelo a Deo, paratam sicut sponsam ornatam viro suo. 3 Et audivi vocem magnam de throno dicentem: «Ecce tabernaculum Dei cum hominibus! Et habitabit cum eis, et ipsi populi eius erunt, et ipse Deus cum eis erit eorum Deus; 4 et absterget omnem lacrimam ab oculis eorum, et mors ultra non erit, neque luctus neque clamor neque dolor erit ultra, quia prima abierunt». 5 Et dixit, qui sedebat super throno: «Ecce nova facio omnia». Et dicit: «Scribe: Haec verba fidelia sunt et vera». 6 Et dixit mihi: «Facta sunt! Ego sum Alpha et Omega, principium et finis. Ego sitienti dabo de fonte aquae vivae gratis. 7 Qui vicerit, hereditabit haec, et ero illi Deus, et ille erit mihi filius. 8 Timidis autem et incredulis et exsecratis et homicidis et fornicatoribus et veneficis et idololatris et omnibus mendacibus, pars illorum erit in stagno ardenti igne et sulphure, quod est mors secunda». 9 Et venit unus de septem angelis habentibus septem phialas plenas septem plagis novissimis et locutus est mecum dicens: «Veni, ostendam tibi sponsam uxorem Agni».

[39] Rev 21:3: 1 Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth. The former heaven and the former earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. 2 I also saw the holy city, a new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. 3 I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, "Behold, God's dwelling is with the human race. He will dwell with them and they will be his people and God himself will always be with them (as their God). 4 He will wipe every tear from their eyes, and there shall be no more death or mourning, wailing or pain, (for) the old order has passed away." 5 The one who sat on the throne said, "Behold, I make all things new." Then he said, "Write these words down, for they are trustworthy and true." 6 He said to me, "They are accomplished. I (am) the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. To the thirsty I will give a gift from the spring of life-giving water. 7 The victor will inherit these gifts, and I shall be his God, and he will be my son. 8 But as for cowards, the unfaithful, the depraved, murderers, the unchaste, sorcerers, idol-worshipers, and deceivers of every sort, their lot is in the burning pool of fire and sulfur, which is the second death." 9 One of the seven angels who held the seven bowls filled with the seven last plagues came and said to me, "Come here. I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb."

[40] I Pt 2,5*

[40] 1 Pet 2:5*

[41] Apoc 21,2*

[41] Rev 21:2*

[42] Gal 4,26: 19 filioli mei, quos iterum parturio, donec formetur Christus in vobis! 20 Vellem autem esse apud vos modo et mutare vocem meam, quoniam incertus sum in vobis. 21 Dicite mihi, qui sub lege vultis esse: Legem non auditis? 22 Scriptum est enim quoniam Abraham duos filios habuit, unum de ancilla et unum de libera. 23 Sed qui de ancilla, secundum carnem natus est; qui autem de libera, per promissionem. 24 Quae sunt per allegoriam dicta; ipsae enim sunt duo Testamenta, unum quidem a monte Sinai, in servitutem generans, quod est Agar. 25 Illud vero Agar mons est Sinai in Arabia, respondet autem Ierusalem, quae nunc est; servit enim cum filiis suis. 26 Illa autem, quae sursum est Ierusalem, libera est, quae est mater nostra;

[42] Gal 4:26: 19 My children, for whom I am again in labor until Christ be formed in you! 20 I would like to be with you now and to change my tone, for I am perplexed because of you. 21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law, do you not listen to the law? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman and the other by the freeborn woman. 23 The son of the slave woman was born naturally, the son of the freeborn through a promise. 24 Now this is an allegory. These women represent two covenants. One was from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery; this is Hagar. 25 Hagar represents Sinai, a mountain in Arabia; it corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery along with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem above is freeborn, and she is our mother.

[42b] Cf. Apoc 12,17: 17 Et iratus est draco in mulierem et abiit facere proelium cum reliquis de semine eius, qui custodiunt mandata Dei et habent testimonium Iesu.

[42b] Cf. Rev 12:17: 17 Then the dragon became angry with the woman and went off to wage war against the rest of her offspring, those who keep God's commandments and bear witness to Jesus.

[43] Apoc 19,7: 6 Et audivi quasi vocem turbae magnae et sicut vocem aquarum multarum et sicut vocem tonitruum magnorum dicentium: «Alleluia, quoniam regnavit Dominus, Deus noster omnipotens. 7 Gaudeamus et exsultemus et demus gloriam ei, quia venerunt nuptiae Agni, et uxor eius praeparavit se. 8 Et datum est illi, ut cooperiat se byssino splendenti mundo: byssinum enim iustificationes sunt sanctorum». 9 Et dicit mihi: «Scribe: Beati, qui ad cenam nuptiarum Agni vocati sunt!». Et dicit mihi: «Haec verba Dei vera sunt». 10 Et cecidi ante pedes eius, ut adorarem eum. Et dicit mihi: «Vide, ne feceris! Conservus tuus sum et fratrum tuorum habentium testimonium Iesu. Deum adora. Testimonium enim Iesu est spiritus prophetiae».

[43] Rev 19:7: 6 Then I heard something like the sound of a great multitude or the sound of rushing water or mighty peals of thunder, as they said: "Alleluia! The Lord has established his reign, (our) God, the almighty. 7 Let us rejoice and be glad and give him glory. For the wedding day of the Lamb has come, his bride has made herself ready. 8 She was allowed to wear a bright, clean linen garment." (The linen represents the righteous deeds of the holy ones.) 9 Then the angel said to me, "Write this: Blessed are those who have been called to the wedding feast of the Lamb." And he said to me, "These words are true; they come from God." 10 I fell at his feet to worship him. But he said to me, "Don't! I am a fellow servant of yours and of your brothers who bear witness to Jesus. Worship God. Witness to Jesus is the spirit of prophecy."

[43b] Apoc 21,2 and 9*

[43b] Rev 21:2 and 9*

[43c] Apoc 22,17*

[43c] Rev 22:17*

[44] Eph 5,26: 21 subiecti invicem in timore Christi. 22 Mulieres viris suis sicut Domino, 23 quoniam vir caput est mulieris, sicut et Christus caput est ecclesiae, ipse salvator corporis. 24 Sed ut ecclesia subiecta est Christo, ita et mulieres viris in omnibus. 25 Viri, diligite uxores, sicut et Christus dilexit ecclesiam et seipsum tradidit pro ea, 26 ut illam sanctificaret mundans lavacro aquae in verbo, 27 ut exhiberet ipse sibi gloriosam ecclesiam non habentem maculam aut rugam aut aliquid eiusmodi, sed ut sit sancta et immaculata. 28 Ita et viri debent diligere uxores suas ut corpora sua. Qui suam uxorem diligit, seipsum diligit; 29 nemo enim umquam carnem suam odio habuit, sed nutrit et fovet eam sicut et Christus ecclesiam, 30 quia membra sumus corporis eius. 31 Propter hoc relinquet homo patrem et matrem et adhaerebit uxori suae, et erunt duo in carne una. 32 Mysterium hoc magnum est; ego autem dico de Christo et ecclesia! 33 Verumtamen et vos singuli unusquisque suam uxorem sicut seipsum diligat; uxor autem timeat virum.

[44] Eph 5:26: 21 Be subordinate to one another out of reverence for Christ. 22 Wives should be subordinate to their husbands as to the Lord. 23 For the husband is head of his wife just as Christ is head of the church, he himself the savior of the body. 24 As the church is subordinate to Christ, so wives should be subordinate to their husbands in everything. 25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ loved the church and handed himself over for her 26 to sanctify her, cleansing her by the bath of water with the word, 27 that he might present to himself the church in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish. 28 So (also) husbands should love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 29 For no one hates his own flesh but rather nourishes and cherishes it, even as Christ does the church, 30 because we are members of his body. 31 "For this reason a man shall leave (his) father and (his) mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh." 32 This is a great mystery, but I speak in reference to Christ and the church. 33 In any case, each one of you should love his wife as himself, and the wife should respect her husband.

[45] Eph 5,29*

[45] Eph 5:29*

[46] Cf. Eph 5,24*

[46] Cf. Eph 5:24*

[47] Cf. Eph 3,19: 14 Huius rei gratia flecto genua mea ad Patrem, 15 ex quo omnis paternitas [πατριὰ: lineage, family] in caelis et in terra nominatur, 16 ut det vobis secundum divitias gloriae suae virtute corroborari per Spiritum eius in interiorem hominem, 17 habitare Christum per fidem in cordibus vestris, in caritate radicati et fundati, 18 ut valeatis comprehendere cum omnibus sanctis quae sit latitudo et longitudo et sublimitas et profundum, 19 scire etiam supereminentem scientiae caritatem Christi, ut impleamini in omnem plenitudinem Dei.

[47] Cf. Eph 3:19: 14 For this reason I kneel before the Father, 15 from whom every family [πατριὰ: lineage] in heaven and on earth is named, 16 that he may grant you in accord with the riches of his glory to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inner self, 17 and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, rooted and grounded in love, 18 may have strength to comprehend with all the holy ones what is the breadth and length and height and depth, 19 and to know the love of Christ that surpasses knowledge, so that you may be filled with all the fullness of God.

[48] Cf. II Cor 5,6: 6 Audentes igitur semper et scientes quoniam, dum praesentes sumus in corpore, peregrinamur a Domino; 7 per fidem enim ambulamus et non per speciem. 8 Audemus autem et bonam voluntatem habemus magis peregrinari a corpore et praesentes esse ad Dominum. 9 Et ideo contendimus sive praesentes sive absentes placere illi. 10 Omnes enim nos manifestari oportet ante tribunal Christi, ut referat unusquisque pro eis, quae per corpus gessit, sive bonum sive malum. 11 Scientes ergo timorem Domini hominibus suademus, Deo autem manifesti sumus; spero autem et in conscientiis vestris manifestos nos esse. 12 Non iterum nos commendamus vobis, sed occasionem damus vobis gloriandi pro nobis, ut habeatis ad eos, qui in facie gloriantur et non in corde. 13 Sive enim mente excedimus, Deo; sive sobrii sumus, vobis. 14 Caritas enim Christi urget nos, aestimantes, hoc, quoniam, si unus pro omnibus mortuus est, ergo omnes mortui sunt; 15 et pro omnibus mortuus est, ut et, qui vivunt, iam non sibi vivant, sed ei, qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit. 16 Itaque nos ex hoc neminem novimus secundum carnem; et si cognovimus secundum carnem Christum, sed nunc iam non novimus. 17 Si quis ergo in Christo, nova creatura; vetera transierunt, ecce, facta sunt nova. 18 Omnia autem ex Deo, qui reconciliavit nos sibi per Christum et dedit nobis ministerium reconciliationis, 19 quoniam quidem Deus erat in Christo mundum reconcilians sibi, non reputans illis delicta ipsorum; et posuit in nobis verbum reconciliationis. 20 Pro Christo ergo legatione fungimur, tamquam Deo exhortante per nos. Obsecramus pro Christo, reconciliamini Deo. 21 Eum, qui non noverat peccatum, pro nobis peccatum fecit, ut nos efficeremur iustitia Dei in ipso.

[48] Cf. 2 Cor 5:6: 6 So we are always courageous, although we know that while we are at home in the body we are away from the Lord, 7 for we walk by faith, not by sight. 8 Yet we are courageous, and we would rather leave the body and go home to the Lord. 9 Therefore, we aspire to please him, whether we are at home or away. 10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive recompense, according to what he did in the body, whether good or evil. 11 Therefore, since we know the fear of the Lord, we try to persuade others; but we are clearly apparent to God, and I hope we are also apparent to your consciousness. 12 We are not commending ourselves to you again but giving you an opportunity to boast of us, so that you may have something to say to those who boast of external appearance rather than of the heart. 13 For if we are out of our minds, it is for God; if we are rational, it is for you. 14 For the love of Christ impels us, once we have come to the conviction that one died for all; therefore, all have died. 15 He indeed died for all, so that those who live might no longer live for themselves but for him who for their sake died and was raised. 16 Consequently, from now on we regard no one according to the flesh; even if we once knew Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know him so no longer. 17 So whoever is in Christ is a new creation: the old things have passed away; behold, new things have come. 18 And all this is from God, who has reconciled us to himself through Christ and given us the ministry of reconciliation, 19 namely, God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting their trespasses against them and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation. 20 So we are ambassadors for Christ, as if God were appealing through us. We implore you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. 21 For our sake he made him to be sin who did not know sin, so that we might become the righteousness of God in him.

[49] Cf. Col 3,1-4: 1 Igitur, si conresurrexistis Christo, quae sursum sunt quaerite, ubi Christus est in dextera Dei sedens; 2 quae sursum sunt sapite, non quae supra terram. 3 Mortui enim estis, et vita vestra abscondita est cum Christo in Deo! 4 Cum Christus apparuerit, vita vestra, tunc et vos apparebitis cum ipso in gloria. 5 Mortificate ergo membra, quae sunt super terram: fornicationem, immunditiam, libidinem, concupiscentiam malam et avaritiam, quae est simulacrorum servitus, 6 propter quae venit ira Dei super filios incredulitatis; 7 in quibus et vos ambulastis aliquando, cum viveretis in illis. 8 Nunc autem deponite et vos omnia: iram, indignationem, malitiam, blasphemiam, turpem sermonem de ore vestro; 9 nolite mentiri invicem, qui exuistis vos veterem hominem cum actibus eius 10 et induistis novum, eum, qui renovatur in agnitionem secundum imaginem eius, qui creavit eum, 11 ubi non est Graecus et Iudaeus, circumcisio et praeputium, barbarus, Scytha, servus, liber, sed omnia et in omnibus Christus. 12 Induite vos ergo, sicut electi Dei, sancti et dilecti, viscera misericordiae, benignitatem, humilitatem, mansuetudinem, longanimitatem, 13 supportantes invicem et donantes vobis ipsis, si quis adversus aliquem habet querelam; sicut et Dominus donavit vobis, ita et vos; 14 super omnia autem haec: caritatem, quod est vinculum perfectionis. 15 Et pax Christi dominetur in cordibus vestris, ad quam et vocati estis in uno corpore. Et grati estote.

[49] Cf. Col 3:1-4: 1 If then you were raised with Christ, seek what is above, where Christ is seated at the right hand of God. 2 Think of what is above, not of what is on earth. 3 For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. 4 When Christ your life appears, then you too will appear with him in glory. 5 Put to death, then, the parts of you that are earthly: immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and the greed that is idolatry. 6 Because of these the wrath of God is coming (upon the disobedient). 7 By these you too once conducted yourselves, when you lived in that way. 8 But now you must put them all away: anger, fury, malice, slander, and obscene language out of your mouths. 9 Stop lying to one another, since you have taken off the old self with its practices 10 and have put on the new self, which is being renewed, for knowledge, in the image of its creator. 11 Here there is not Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, slave, free; but Christ is all and in all. 12 Put on then, as God's chosen ones, holy and beloved, heartfelt compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness, and patience, 13 bearing with one another and forgiving one another, if one has a grievance against another; as the Lord has forgiven you, so must you also do. 14 And over all these put on love, that is, the bond of perfection. 15 And let the peace of Christ control your hearts, the peace into which you were also called in one body. And be thankful.

[50] Cf. Gal 6,15: 15 Neque enim circumcisio aliquid est neque praeputium sed nova creatura.

[50] Cf. Gal 6:15 15 For neither does circumcision mean anything, nor does uncircumcision, but only a new creation.

[50b] Cf. II Cor 5,17*

[50b] Cf. 2 Cor 5:17*

[51] I Cor 12,13*

[51] 1 Cor 12:13*

[52] Rom 6,4-5: 1 Quid ergo dicemus? Permanebimus in peccato, ut gratia abundet? 2 Absit! Qui enim mortui sumus peccato, quomodo adhuc vivemus in illo? 3 An ignoratis quia, quicumque baptizati sumus in Christum Iesum, in mortem ipsius baptizati sumus? 4 Consepulti ergo sumus cum illo per baptismum in mortem, ut quemadmodum suscitatus est Christus a mortuis per gloriam Patris, ita et nos in novitate vitae ambulemus. 5 Si enim complantati facti sumus similitudini mortis eius, sed et resurrectionis erimus; 6 hoc scientes quia vetus homo noster simul crucifixus est, ut destruatur corpus peccati, ut ultra non serviamus peccato. 7 Qui enim mortuus est, iustificatus est a peccato. 8 Si autem mortui sumus cum Christo, credimus quia simul etiam vivemus cum eo; 9 scientes quod Christus suscitatus ex mortuis iam non moritur, mors illi ultra non dominatur. 10 Quod enim mortuus est, peccato mortuus est semel; quod autem vivit, vivit Deo. 11 Ita et vos existimate vos mortuos quidem esse peccato, viventes autem Deo in Christo Iesu. 12 Non ergo regnet peccatum in vestro mortali corpore, ut oboediatis concupiscentiis eius, 13 neque exhibeatis membra vestra arma iniustitiae peccato, sed exhibete vos Deo tamquam ex mortuis viventes et membra vestra arma iustitiae Deo. 14 Peccatum enim vobis non dominabitur; non enim sub lege estis sed sub gratia. 15 Quid ergo? Peccabimus, quoniam non sumus sub lege sed sub gratia? Absit! 16 Nescitis quoniam, cui exhibetis vos servos ad oboedientiam, servi estis eius, cui oboeditis, sive peccati ad mortem, sive oboeditionis ad iustitiam? 17 Gratias autem Deo quod fuistis servi peccati, oboedistis autem ex corde in eam formam doctrinae, in quam traditi estis, 18 liberati autem a peccato servi facti estis iustitiae. 19 Humanum dico propter infirmitatem carnis vestrae. Sicut enim exhibuistis membra vestra servientia immunditiae et iniquitati ad iniquitatem, ita nunc exhibete membra vestra servientia iustitiae ad sanctificationem. 20 Cum enim servi essetis peccati, liberi eratis iustitiae. 21 Quem ergo fructum habebatis tunc, in quibus nunc erubescitis? Nam finis illorum mors! 22 Nunc vero liberati a peccato, servi autem facti Deo, habetis fructum vestrum in sanctificationem, finem vero vitam aeternam! 23 Stipendia enim peccati mors, donum autem Dei vita aeterna in Christo Iesu Domino nostro.

[52] Rom 6:4-5: 1 What then shall we say? Shall we persist in sin that grace may abound? Of course not! 2 How can we who died to sin yet live in it? 3 Or are you unaware that we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 4 We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might live in newness of life. 5 For if we have grown into union with him through a death like his, we shall also be united with him in the resurrection. 6 We know that our old self was crucified with him, so that our sinful body might be done away with, that we might no longer be in slavery to sin. 7 For a dead person has been absolved from sin. 8 If, then, we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. 9 We know that Christ, raised from the dead, dies no more; death no longer has power over him. 10 As to his death, he died to sin once and for all; as to his life, he lives for God. 11 Consequently, you too must think of yourselves as (being) dead to sin and living for God in Christ Jesus. 12 Therefore, sin must not reign over your mortal bodies so that you obey their desires. 13 And do not present the parts of your bodies to sin as weapons for wickedness, but present yourselves to God as raised from the dead to life and the parts of your bodies to God as weapons for righteousness. 14 For sin is not to have any power over you, since you are not under the law but under grace. 15 What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the law but under grace? Of course not! 16 Do you not know that if you present yourselves to someone as obedient slaves, you are slaves of the one you obey, either of sin, which leads to death, or of obedience, which leads to righteousness? 17 But thanks be to God that, although you were once slaves of sin, you have become obedient from the heart to the pattern of teaching to which you were entrusted. 18 Freed from sin, you have become slaves of righteousness. 19 I am speaking in human terms because of the weakness of your nature. For just as you presented the parts of your bodies as slaves to impurity and to lawlessness for lawless ness, so now present them as slaves to righteousness for sanctification. 20 For when you were slaves of sin, you were free from righteousness. 21 But what profit did you get then from the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 22 But now that you have been freed from sin and have become slaves of God, the benefit that you have leads to sanctification, and its end is eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

[53] I Cor 10,17*

[53] 1 Cor 10:17*

[54] Cf. I Cor 12,27*

[54] Cf. 1 Cor 12:27*

[55] Rom 12,5: 1 Obsecro itaque vos, fratres, per misericordiam Dei, ut exhibeatis corpora vestra hostiam viventem, sanctam, Deo placentem, rationabile obsequium vestrum; 2 et nolite conformari huic saeculo, sed transformamini renovatione mentis, ut probetis quid sit voluntas Dei, quid bonum et bene placens et perfectum. 3 Dico enim per gratiam, quae data est mihi, omnibus, qui sunt inter vos, non altius sapere quam oportet sapere, sed sapere ad sobrietatem, unicuique sicut Deus divisit mensuram fidei. 4 Sicut enim in uno corpore multa membra habemus, omnia autem membra non eundem actum habent, 5 ita multi unum corpus sumus in Christo, singuli autem alter alterius membra. 6 Habentes autem donationes secundum gratiam, quae data est nobis, differentes: sive prophetiam, secundum rationem fidei; 7 sive ministerium, in ministrando; sive qui docet, in doctrina; 8 sive qui exhortatur, in exhortando; qui tribuit, in simplicitate; qui praeest, in sollicitudine; qui miseretur, in hilaritate.

[55] Rom 12:5: 1 I urge you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship. 2 Do not conform yourselves to this age but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and pleasing and perfect. 3 For by the grace given to me I tell everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than one ought to think, but to think soberly, each according to the measure of faith that God has apportioned. 4 For as in one body we have many parts, and all the parts do not have the same function, 5 so we, though many, are one body in Christ and individually parts of one another. 6 Since we have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us exercise them: if prophecy, in proportion to the faith; 7 if ministry, in ministering; if one is a teacher, in teaching; 8 if one exhorts, in exhortation; if one contributes, in generosity; if one is over others, with diligence; if one does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.

[56] Cf. I Cor 12,12*

[56] Cf. 1 Cor 12:12*

[57] Cf. I Cor 12,1-11*

[57] Cf. 1 Cor 12:1-11*

[58] Cf. I Cor 14: 1 Sectamini caritatem, aemulamini spiritalia, magis autem, ut prophetetis. 2 Qui enim loquitur lingua, non hominibus loquitur sed Deo; nemo enim audit, spiritu autem loquitur mysteria. 3 Qui autem prophetat, hominibus loquitur aedificationem et exhortationem et consolationes. 4 Qui loquitur lingua, semetipsum aedificat; qui autem prophetat, ecclesiam aedificat. 5 Volo autem omnes vos loqui linguis, magis autem prophetare; maior autem est qui prophetat, quam qui loquitur linguis, nisi forte interpretetur, ut ecclesia aedificationem accipiat. 6 Nunc autem, fratres, si venero ad vos linguis loquens, quid vobis prodero, nisi vobis loquar aut in revelatione aut in scientia aut in prophetia aut in doctrina? 7 Tamen, quae sine anima sunt vocem dantia, sive tibia sive cithara, nisi distinctionem sonituum dederint, quomodo scietur quod tibia canitur, aut quod citharizatur? 8 Etenim si incertam vocem det tuba, quis parabit se ad bellum? 9 Ita et vos per linguam nisi manifestum sermonem dederitis, quomodo scietur id, quod dicitur? Eritis enim in aera loquentes. 10 Tam multa, ut puta, genera linguarum sunt in mundo, et nihil sine voce est. 11 Si ergo nesciero virtutem vocis, ero ei, qui loquitur, barbarus; et, qui loquitur, mihi barbarus. 12 Sic et vos, quoniam aemulatores estis spirituum, ad aedificationem ecclesiae quaerite, ut abundetis. 13 Et ideo, qui loquitur lingua, oret, ut interpretetur. 14 Nam si orem lingua, spiritus meus orat, mens autem mea sine fructu est. 15 Quid ergo est? Orabo spiritu, orabo et mente; psallam spiritu, psallam et mente. 16 Ceterum si benedixeris in spiritu, qui supplet locum idiotae, quomodo dicet «Amen!» super tuam benedictionem, quoniam quid dicas nescit? 17 Nam tu quidem bene gratias agis, sed alter non aedificatur. 18 Gratias ago Deo, quod omnium vestrum magis linguis loquor; 19 sed in ecclesia volo quinque verba sensu meo loqui, ut et alios instruam, quam decem milia verborum in lingua. 20 Fratres, nolite pueri effici sensibus, sed malitia parvuli estote; sensibus autem perfecti estote. 21 In lege scriptum est: «In aliis linguis et in labiis aliorum loquar populo huic, et nec sic exaudient me», dicit Dominus. 22 Itaque linguae in signum sunt non fidelibus sed infidelibus, prophetia autem non infidelibus sed fidelibus. 23 Si ergo conveniat universa ecclesia in unum, et omnes linguis loquantur, intrent autem idiotae aut infideles, nonne dicent quod insanitis? 24 Si autem omnes prophetent, intret autem quis infidelis vel idiota, convincitur ab omnibus, diiudicatur ab omnibus, 25 occulta cordis eius manifesta fiunt; et ita cadens in faciem adorabit Deum pronuntians: «Vere Deus in vobis est!». 26 Quid ergo est, fratres? Cum convenitis, unusquisque psalmum habet, doctrinam habet, apocalypsim habet, linguam habet, interpretationem habet: omnia ad aedificationem fiant. 27 Sive lingua quis loquitur, secundum duos aut ut multum tres, et per partes, et unus interpretetur; 28 si autem non fuerit interpres, taceat in ecclesia, sibi autem loquatur et Deo. 29 Prophetae duo aut tres dicant, et ceteri diiudicent; 30 quod si alii revelatum fuerit sedenti, prior taceat. 31 Potestis enim omnes per singulos prophetare, ut omnes discant, et omnes exhortentur; 32 et spiritus prophetarum prophetis subiecti sunt; 33 non enim est dissensionis Deus sed pacis. Sicut in omnibus ecclesiis sanctorum, 34 mulieres in ecclesiis taceant, non enim permittitur eis loqui; sed subditae sint, sicut et Lex dicit. 35 Si quid autem volunt discere, domi viros suos interrogent; turpe est enim mulieri loqui in ecclesia. 36 An a vobis verbum Dei processit aut in vos solos pervenit? 37 Si quis videtur propheta esse aut spiritalis, cognoscat, quae scribo vobis, quia Domini est mandatum. 38 Si quis autem ignorat, ignorabitur. 39 Itaque, fratres mei, aemulamini prophetare et loqui linguis nolite prohibere; 40 omnia autem honeste et secundum ordinem fiant.

[58] Cf. 1 Cor 14: 1 Pursue love, but strive eagerly for the spiritual gifts, above all that you may prophesy. 2 For one who speaks in a tongue does not speak to human beings but to God, for no one listens; he utters mysteries in spirit. 3 On the other hand, one who prophesies does speak to human beings, for their building up, encouragement, and solace. 4 Whoever speaks in a tongue builds himself up, but whoever prophesies builds up the church. 5 Now I should like all of you to speak in tongues, but even more to prophesy. One who prophesies is greater than one who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church may be built up. 6 Now, brothers, if I should come to you speaking in tongues, what good will I do you if I do not speak to you by way of revelation, or knowledge, or prophecy, or instruction? 7 Likewise, if inanimate things that produce sound, such as flute or harp, do not give out the tones distinctly, how will what is being played on flute or harp be recognized? 8 And if the bugle gives an indistinct sound, who will get ready for battle? 9 Similarly, if you, because of speaking in tongues, do not utter intelligible speech, how will anyone know what is being said? For you will be talking to the air. 10 It happens that there are many different languages in the world, and none is meaningless; 11 but if I do not know the meaning of a language, I shall be a foreigner to one who speaks it, and one who speaks it a foreigner to me. 12 So with yourselves: since you strive eagerly for spirits, seek to have an abundance of them for building up the church. 13 Therefore, one who speaks in a tongue should pray to be able to interpret. 14 (For) if I pray in a tongue, my spirit is at prayer but my mind is unproductive. 15 So what is to be done? I will pray with the spirit, but I will also pray with the mind. I will sing praise with the spirit, but I will also sing praise with the mind. 16 Otherwise, if you pronounce a blessing (with) the spirit, how shall one who holds the place of the uninstructed say the "Amen" to your thanksgiving, since he does not know what you are saying? 17 For you may be giving thanks very well, but the other is not built up. 18 I give thanks to God that I speak in tongues more than any of you, 19 but in the church I would rather speak five words with my mind, so as to instruct others also, than ten thousand words in a tongue. 20 Brothers, stop being childish in your thinking. In respect to evil be like infants, but in your thinking be mature. 21 It is written in the law: "By people speaking strange tongues and by the lips of foreigners I will speak to this people, and even so they will not listen to me, says the Lord." 22 Thus, tongues are a sign not for those who believe but for unbelievers, whereas prophecy is not for unbelievers but for those who believe. 23 So if the whole church meets in one place and everyone speaks in tongues, and then uninstructed people or unbelievers should come in, will they not say that you are out of your minds? 24 But if everyone is prophesying, and an unbeliever or uninstructed person should come in, he will be convinced by everyone and judged by everyone, 25 and the secrets of his heart will be disclosed, and so he will fall down and worship God, declaring, "God is really in your midst." 26 So what is to be done, brothers? When you assemble, one has a psalm, another an instruction, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Everything should be done for building up. 27 If anyone speaks in a tongue, let it be two or at most three, and each in turn, and one should interpret. 28 But if there is no interpreter, the person should keep silent in the church and speak to himself and to God. 29 Two or three prophets should speak, and the others discern. 30 But if a revelation is given to another person sitting there, the first one should be silent. 31 For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all be encouraged. 32 Indeed, the spirits of prophets are under the prophets' control, 33 since he is not the God of disorder but of peace. As in all the churches of the holy ones, 34 women should keep silent in the churches, for they are not allowed to speak, but should be subordinate, as even the law says. 35 But if they want to learn anything, they should ask their husbands at home. For it is improper for a woman to speak in the church. 36 Did the word of God go forth from you? Or has it come to you alone? 37 If anyone thinks that he is a prophet or a spiritual person, he should recognize that what I am writing to you is a commandment of the Lord. 38 If anyone does not acknowledge this, he is not acknowledged. 39 So, (my) brothers, strive eagerly to prophesy, and do not forbid speaking in tongues, 40 but everything must be done properly and in order.

[59] Cf. I Cor 12,26*

[59] Cf. 1 Cor 12:26*

[60] Cf. Col 1,15-18*

[60] Cf. Col 1:15-18*

[61] Cf. Eph 1,18-23: 13 in quo [Christo] et vos cum audissetis verbum veritatis, evangelium salutis vestrae, in quo et credentes signati estis Spiritu promissionis Sancto, 14 qui est arrabo hereditatis nostrae in redemptionem acquisitionis, in laudem gloriae ipsius. 15 Propterea et ego audiens fidem vestram, quae est in Domino Iesu, et dilectionem in omnes sanctos, 16 non cesso gratias agens pro vobis memoriam faciens in orationibus meis, 17 ut Deus Domini nostri Iesu Christi, Pater gloriae, det vobis Spiritum sapientiae et revelationis in agnitione eius, 18 illuminatos oculos cordis vestri, ut sciatis quae sit spes vocationis eius, quae divitiae gloriae hereditatis eius in sanctis, 19 et quae sit supereminens magnitudo virtutis eius in nos, qui credimus, secundum operationem potentiae virtutis eius, 20 quam operatus est in Christo, suscitans illum a mortuis et constituens ad dexteram suam in caelestibus 21 supra omnem principatum et potestatem et virtutem et dominationem et omne nomen, quod nominatur non solum in hoc saeculo sed et in futuro; 22 et omnia subiecit sub pedibus eius et ipsum dedit caput supra omnia ecclesiae, 23 quae est corpus ipsius, plenitudo eius, qui omnia in omnibus adimpletur.

[61] Cf. Eph 1:18-23: 13 In him you also, who have heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him, were sealed with the promised holy Spirit, 14 which is the first installment of our inheritance toward redemption as God's possession, to the praise of his glory. 15 Therefore, I, too, hearing of your faith in the Lord Jesus and of your love for all the holy ones, 16 do not cease giving thanks for you, remembering you in my prayers, 17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give you a spirit of wisdom and revelation resulting in knowledge of him. 18 May the eyes of (your) hearts be enlightened, that you may know what is the hope that belongs to his call, what are the riches of glory in his inheritance among the holy ones, 19 and what is the surpassing greatness of his power for us who believe, in accord with the exercise of his great might, 20 which he worked in Christ, raising him from the dead and seating him at his right hand in the heavens, 21 far above every principality, authority, power, and dominion, and every name that is named not only in this age but also in the one to come. 22 And he put all things beneath his feet and gave him as head over all things to the church, 23 which is his body, the fullness of the one who fills all things in every way.

[62] Cf. Gal 4,19*

[62] Cf. Gal 4:19*

[63] Cf. Phil 3,21: 20 Noster enim municipatus in caelis est, unde etiam salvatorem exspectamus Dominum Iesum Christum, 21 qui transfigurabit corpus humilitatis nostrae, ut illud conforme faciat corpori gloriae suae secundum operationem, qua possit etiam subicere sibi omnia.

[63] Cf. Phil 3:21: 20 But our citizenship is in heaven, and from it we also await a savior, the Lord Jesus Christ. 21 He will change our lowly body to conform with his glorified body by the power that enables him also to bring all things into subjection to himself.

[63b] Cf. II Tim 2,11: 10 Ideo omnia sustineo propter electos, ut et ipsi salutem consequantur, quae est in Christo Iesu cum gloria aeterna. 11 Fidelis sermo, Nam, si commortui sumus, et convivemus; 12 si sustinemus, et conregnabimus; si negabimus, et ille negabit nos;

[63b] Cf. 2 Tim 2:11: 10 Therefore, I bear with everything for the sake of those who are chosen, so that they too may obtain the salvation that is in Christ Jesus, together with eternal glory. 11 This saying is trustworthy: If we have died with him we shall also live with him; 12 if we persevere we shall also reign with him. But if we deny him he will deny us.

[63c] Cf. Eph 2,6*

[63c] Cf. Eph 2:6*

[63d] Cf. Col 2,12: 8 Videte, ne quis vos depraedetur per philosophiam et inanem fallaciam secundum traditionem hominum, secundum elementa mundi et non secundum Christum; 9 quia in ipso inhabitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis corporaliter, 10 et estis in illo repleti, qui est caput omnis principatus et potestatis; 11 in quo et circumcisi estis circumcisione non manufacta in exspoliatione corporis carnis, in circumcisione Christi; 12 consepulti ei in baptismo, in quo et conresuscitati estis per fidem operationis Dei, qui suscitavit illum a mortuis; 13 et vos, cum mortui essetis in delictis et praeputio carnis vestrae, convivificavit cum illo, donans nobis omnia delicta, 14 delens, quod adversum nos erat, chirographum decretis, quod erat contrarium nobis, et ipsum tulit de medio affigens illud cruci; 15 exspolians principatus et potestates traduxit confidenter, triumphans illos in semetipso. 16 Nemo ergo vos iudicet in cibo aut in potu aut ex parte diei festi aut neomeniae aut sabbatorum, 17 quae sunt umbra futurorum, corpus autem Christi. 18 Nemo vos bravio defraudet complacens sibi in humilitate et religione angelorum propter ea, quae vidit, ingrediens, frustra inflatus sensu carnis suae 19 et non tenens caput, ex quo totum corpus per nexus et coniunctiones subministratum et compaginatum crescit in augmentum Dei.

[63d] Cf. Col 2:12 8 See to it that no one captivate you with an empty, seductive philosophy according to human tradition, according to the elemental powers of the world and not according to Christ. 9 For in him dwells the whole fullness of the deity bodily, 10 and you share in this fullness in him, who is the head of every principality and power. 11 In him you were also circumcised with a circumcision not administered by hand, by stripping off the carnal body, with the circumcision of Christ. 12 You were buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead. 13 And even when you were dead (in) transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, he brought you to life along with him, having forgiven us all our transgressions; 14 obliterating the bond against us, with its legal claims, which was opposed to us, he also removed it from our midst, nailing it to the cross; 15 despoiling the principalities and the powers, he made a public spectacle of them, leading them away in triumph by it. 16 Let no one, then, pass judgment on you in matters of food and drink or with regard to a festival or new moon or sabbath. 17 These are shadows of things to come; the reality belongs to Christ. 18 Let no one disqualify you, delighting in self-abasement and worship of angels, taking his stand on visions, inflated without reason by his fleshly mind, 19 and not holding closely to the head, from whom the whole body, supported and held together by its ligaments and bonds, achieves the growth that comes from God.

[64] Cf. Rom 8,17*

[64] Cf. Rom 8:17*

[65] Col 2,19*

[65] Col 2:19*

[66] Cf. Eph 4,11-16*

[66] Cf. Eph 4:11-16*

[67] Cf. Eph 4,23*

[67] Cf. Eph 4:23*

[68] Cf. Eph 5,25-28*

[68] Cf. Eph 5:25-28*

[69] Cf. Eph 5,23-24*

[69] Cf. Eph 5:23-24*

[70] Col 2,9*

[70] Col 2:9*

[71] Cf. Eph 1,22-23*

[71] Cf. Eph 1:22-23*

[72] Cf. Eph 3,19*

[72] Cf. Eph 3:19*

[73] Cf. Eph 4,16*

[73] Cf. Eph 4:16*

[74] Io 21,17: 15 Cum ergo prandissent, dicit Simoni Petro Iesus: «Simon Ioannis, diligis me plus his?». Dicit ei: «Etiam, Domine, tu scis quia amo te». Dicit ei: «Pasce agnos meos». 16 Dicit ei iterum secundo: «Simon Ioannis, diligis me?». Ait illi: «Etiam, Domine, tu scis quia amo te». Dicit ei: «Pasce oves meas». 17 Dicit ei tertio: «Simon Ioannis, amas me?». Contristatus est Petrus quia dixit ei tertio: «Amas me?», et dicit ei: «Domine, tu omnia scis, tu cognoscis quia amo te». Dicit ei: «Pasce oves meas. 18 Amen, amen dico tibi: Cum esses iunior, cingebas teipsum et ambulabas, ubi volebas; cum autem senueris, extendes manus tuas, et alius te cinget et ducet, quo non vis». 19 Hoc autem dixit significans qua morte clarificaturus esset Deum. Et hoc cum dixisset, dicit ei: «Sequere me».

[74] Jn 21:17: 15 When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs." 16 He then said to him a second time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord, you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep." 17 He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was distressed that he had said to him a third time, "Do you love me?" and he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." (Jesus) said to him, "Feed my sheep. 18 Amen, amen, I say to you, when you were younger, you used to dress yourself and go where you wanted; but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you and lead you where you do not want to go." 19 He said this signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God. And when he had said this, he said to him, "Follow me."

[75] Cf. Mt 28,18ss.: 16 Undecim autem discipuli abierunt in Galilaeam, in montem ubi constituerat illis Iesus, 17 et videntes eum adoraverunt; quidam autem dubitaverunt. 18 Et accedens Iesus locutus est eis dicens: «Data est mihi omnis potestas in caelo et in terra. 19 Euntes ergo docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, 20 docentes eos servare omnia, quaecumque mandavi vobis. Et ecce ego vobiscum sum omnibus diebus usque ad consummationem saeculi».

[75] Cf. Mt 28:18ff: 16 The eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had ordered them. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped, but they doubted. 18 Then Jesus approached and said to them, "All power in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, until the end of the age."

[76] I Tim 3,15*

[76] 1 Tim 3:15*

[77] Phil 2,6: 5 Hoc sentite in vobis, quod et in Christo Iesu:

6 qui cum in forma Dei esset, non rapinam arbitratus est esse se aequalem Deo, 7 sed semetipsum exinanivit formam servi accipiens, in similitudinem hominum factus; et habitu inventus ut homo, 8 humiliavit semetipsum factus oboediens usque ad mortem, mortem autem crucis. 9 Propter quod et Deus illum exaltavit et donavit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen, 10 ut in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur caelestium et terrestrium et infernorum, 11 et omnis lingua confiteatur «Dominus Iesus Christus!», in gloriam Dei Patris.

[77] Phil 2:6: 5 Have among yourselves the same attitude that is also yours in Christ Jesus,

6 Who, though he was in the form of God, did not regard equality with God something to be grasped. 7 Rather, he emptied himself, taking the form of a slave, coming in human likeness; and found human in appearance, 8 he humbled himself, becoming obedient to death, even death on a cross. 9 Because of this, God greatly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, 10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bend, of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth, 11 and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

[78] II Cor 8,9: 7 Sed sicut in omnibus abundatis, fide et sermone et scientia et omni sollicitudine et caritate ex nobis in vobis, ut et in hac gratia abundetis. 8 Non quasi imperans dico, sed per aliorum sollicitudinem etiam vestrae caritatis ingenitum bonum comprobans; 9 scitis enim gratiam Domini nostri Iesu Christi, quoniam propter vos egenus factus est, cum esset dives, ut illius inopia vos divites essetis. 10 Et consilium in hoc do. Hoc enim vobis utile est, qui non solum facere, sed et velle coepistis ab anno priore; 11 nunc vero et facto perficite, ut, quemadmodum promptus est animus velle, ita sit et perficere ex eo, quod habetis.

[78] 2 Cor 8:9: 7 Now as you excel in every respect, in faith, discourse, knowledge, all earnestness, and in the love we have for you, may you excel in this gracious act also. 8 I say this not by way of command, but to test the genuineness of your love by your concern for others. 9 For you know the gracious act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that for your sake he became poor although he was rich, so that by his poverty you might become rich. 10 And I am giving counsel in this matter, for it is appropriate for you who began not only to act but to act willingly last year: 11 complete it now, so that your eager willingness may be matched by your completion of it out of what you have.

[79] Lc 4,18: 16 Et venit Nazareth, ubi erat nutritus, et intravit secundum consuetudinem suam die sabbati in synagogam et surrexit legere. 17 Et tradi tus est illi liber prophetae Isaiae; et ut revolvit librum, invenit locum, ubi scriptum erat: 18 «Spiritus Domini super me; propter quod unxit me evangelizare pauperibus, misit me praedicare captivis remissionem et caecis visum, dimittere confractos in remissione, 19 praedicare annum Domini acceptum». 20 Et cum plicuisset librum, reddidit ministro et sedit; et omnium in synagoga oculi erant intendentes in eum. 21 Coepit autem dicere ad illos: «Hodie impleta est haec Scriptura in auribus vestris».

[79] Lk 4:18: 16 He came to Nazareth, where he had grown up, and went according to his custom into the synagogue on the sabbath day. He stood up to read 17 and was handed a scroll of the prophet Isaiah. He unrolled the scroll and found the passage where it was written: 18 "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free, 19 and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord." 20 Rolling up the scroll, he handed it back to the attendant and sat down, and the eyes of all in the synagogue looked intently at him. 21 He said to them, "Today this scripture passage is fulfilled in your hearing."

[80] Lc 19,10: 8 Stans autem Zacchaeus dixit ad Dominum: «Ecce dimidium bonorum meorum, Domine, do pauperibus et, si quid aliquem defraudavi, reddo quadruplum». 9 Ait autem Iesus ad eum: «Hodie salus domui huic facta est, eo quod et ipse filius sit Abrahae; 10 venit enim Filius hominis quaerere et salvum facere, quod perierat».

[80] Lk 19:10: 8 But Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord, "Behold, half of my possessions, Lord, I shall give to the poor, and if I have extorted anything from anyone I shall repay it four times over." 9 And Jesus said to him, "Today salvation has come to this house because this man too is a descendant of Abraham. 10 For the Son of Man has come to seek and to save what was lost."

[81] Hebr 7,26*

[81] Heb 7:26*

[82] II Cor 5,21*

[82] 2 Cor 5:21*

[83] Cf. Hebr 2,17: 16 Nusquam enim angelos apprehendit, sed semen Abrahae apprehendit. 17 Unde debuit per omnia fratribus similari, ut misericors fieret et fidelis pontifex in iis, quae sunt ad Deum, ut repropitiaret delicta populi; 18 in quo enim passus est ipse tentatus, po tens est eis, qui tentantur, auxiliari.

[83] Cf. Heb 2:17: 16 Surely he did not help angels but rather the descendants of Abraham; 17 therefore, he had to become like his brothers in every way, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest before God to expiate the sins of the people. 18 Because he himself was tested through what he suffered, he is able to help those who are being tested.

[84] I Cor 11,26: 23 Ego enim accepi a Domino, quod et tradidi vobis, quoniam Dominus Iesus, in qua nocte tradebatur, accepit panem 24 et gratias agens fregit et dixit: «Hoc est corpus meum, quod pro vobis est; hoc facite in meam commemorationem»; 25 similiter et calicem, postquam cenatum est, dicens: «Hic calix novum testamentum est in meo sanguine; hoc facite, quotiescumque bibetis, in meam commemorationem». 26 Quotiescumque enim manducabitis panem hunc et calicem bibetis, mortem Domini annuntiatis, donec veniat. 27 Itaque, quicumque manducaverit panem vel biberit calicem Domini indigne, reus erit corporis et sanguinis Domini. 28 Probet autem seipsum homo, et sic de pane illo edat et de calice bibat; 29 qui enim manducat et bibit, iudicium sibi manducat et bibit non diiudicans corpus.

[84] Cf. 1 Cor 11:26: 23 For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus, on the night he was handed over, took bread, 24 and, after he had given thanks, broke it and said, "This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." 25 In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me." 26 For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes. 27 Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord unworthily will have to answer for the body and blood of the Lord. 28 A person should examine himself, and so eat the bread and drink the cup. 29 For anyone who eats and drinks without discerning the body, eats and drinks judgment on himself.

[85] Act 10,35: 31 et ait: «Corneli, exaudita est oratio tua, et eleemosynae tuae commemoratae sunt in conspectu Dei. 32 Mitte ergo in Ioppen et accersi Simonem, qui cognominatur Petrus; hic hospitatur in domo Simonis coriarii iuxta mare». 33 Confestim igitur misi ad te, et tu bene fecisti veniendo. Nunc ergo omnes nos in conspectu Dei adsumus audire omnia, quaecumque tibi praecepta sunt a Domino». 34 Aperiens autem Petrus os dixit: «In veritate comperio quoniam non est personarum acceptor Deus, 35 sed in omni gente, qui timet eum et operatur iustitiam, acceptus est illi. ...»

[85] Cf. Acts 10:35: 31 'Cornelius, your prayer has been heard and your almsgiving remembered before God. 32 Send therefore to Joppa and summon Simon, who is called Peter. He is a guest in the house of Simon, a tanner, by the sea.' 33 So I sent for you immediately, and you were kind enough to come. Now therefore we are all here in the presence of God to listen to all that you have been commanded by the Lord." 34 Then Peter proceeded to speak and said, "In truth, I see that God shows no partiality. 35 Rather, in every nation whoever fears him and acts uprightly is acceptable to him. ..."

[86] Ier 31,31-34: 31 Ecce dies veniunt, dicit Dominus, et feriam domui Israel et domui Iudae pactum novum; 32 non secundum pactum, quod pepigi cum patribus eorum in die qua apprehendi manum eorum, ut educerem eos de terra Aegypti, pactum, quod irritum fecerunt, et ego dominatus sum eorum, dicit Dominus. 33 Sed hoc erit pactum, quod feriam cum domo Israel post dies illos, dicit Dominus: Dabo legem meam in visceribus eorum et in corde eorum scribam eam; et ero eis in Deum, et ipsi erunt mihi in populum. 34 Et non docebit ultra vir proximum suum, et vir fratrem suum dicens: «Cognosce Dominum»; omnes enim cognoscent me, a minimo eorum usque ad maximum, ait Dominus, quia propitiabor iniquitati eorum et peccati eorum non memorabor amplius.

[86] Jer 31:31-34: 31 The days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah. 32 It will not be like the covenant I made with their fathers the day I took them by the hand to lead them forth from the land of Egypt; for they broke my covenant and I had to show myself their master, says the LORD. 33 But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD. I will place my law within them, and write it upon their hearts; I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 34 No longer will they have need to teach their friends and kinsmen how to know the LORD. All, from least to greatest, shall know me, says the LORD, for I will forgive their evildoing and remember their sin no more.

[87] Cf. I Cor 11,25*

[87] Cf. 1 Cor 11:25*

[88] I Pt 1,23: 22 Animas vestras castificantes in oboedientia veritatis ad fraternitatis amorem non fictum, ex corde invicem diligite attentius, 23 renati non ex semine corruptibili sed incorruptibili per verbum Dei vivum et permanens: 24 quia omnis caro ut fenum, et omnis gloria eius tamquam flos feni. Exaruit fenum, et flos decidit; 25 verbum autem Domini manet in aeternum. Hoc est autem verbum, quod evangelizatum est in vos.

[88] Cf. 1 Pet 1:23: 22 Since you have purified yourselves by obedience to the truth for sincere mutual love, love one another intensely from a (pure) heart. 23 You have been born anew, not from perishable but from imperishable seed, through the living and abiding word of God, 24 for: "All flesh is like grass, and all its glory like the flower of the field; the grass withers, and the flower wilts; 25 but the word of the Lord remains forever." This is the word that has been proclaimed to you.

[89] Io 3,5-6: 4 Dicit ad eum Nicodemus: «Quomodo potest homo nasci, cum senex sit? Numquid potest in ventrem matris suae iterato introire et nasci?». 5 Respondit Iesus: «Amen, amen dico tibi: Nisi quis natus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu, non potest introire in regnum Dei. 6 Quod natum est ex carne, caro est; et, quod natum est ex Spiritu, spiritus est. 7 Non mireris quia dixi tibi: Oportet vos nasci denuo. 8 Spiritus, ubi vult, spirat, et vocem eius audis, sed non scis unde veniat et quo vadat; sic est omnis, qui natus est ex Spiritu».

[89] Cf. Jn 3:5-6: 4 Nicodemus said to him, "How can a person once grown old be born again? Surely he cannot reenter his mother's womb and be born again, can he?" 5 Jesus answered, "Amen, amen, I say to you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and Spirit. 6 What is born of flesh is flesh and what is born of spirit is spirit. 7 Do not be amazed that I told you, 'You must be born from above.' 8 The wind blows where it wills, and you can hear the sound it makes, but you do not know where it comes from or where it goes; so it is with everyone who is born of the Spirit."

[90] I Pt 2,9-10*

[90] 1 Pet 2:9-10*

[91] Rom 4,25: 20 [Abraham] in repromissione autem Dei non haesitavit diffidentia, sed confortatus est fide, dans gloriam Deo, 21 et plenissime sciens quia, quod promisit, potens est et facere. 22 Ideo et reputatum est illi ad iustitiam. 23 Non est autem scriptum tantum propter ipsum: reputatum est illi, 24 sed et propter nos, quibus reputabitur, credentibus in eum, qui suscitavit Iesum Dominum nostrum a mortuis, 25 qui traditus est propter delicta nostra et suscitatus est propter iustificationem nostram.

[91] Rom 4:25: 20 [Abraham] did not doubt God's promise in unbelief; rather, he was empowered by faith and gave glory to God 21 and was fully convinced that what he had promised he was also able to do. 22 That is why "it was credited to him as righteousness." 23 But it was not for him alone that it was written that "it was credited to him"; 24 it was also for us, to whom it will be credited, who believe in the one who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 who was handed over for our transgressions and was raised for our justification.

[92] Io 13,34: 34 Mandatum novum do vobis, ut diligatis invicem; sicut dilexi vos, ut et vos diligatis invicem. 35 In hoc cognoscent omnes quia mei discipuli estis: si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem.

[92] Cf. Jn 13:34: 34 I give you a new commandment: love one another. As I have loved you, so you also should love one another. 35 This is how all will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another.

[93] Cf. Col 3,4*

[93] Cf. Col 3:4*

[94] Rom 8,21*

[94] Rom 8:21*

[95] Mt 5,13-16: 1 Videns autem turbas, ascendit in montem; et cum sedisset, ac cesserunt ad eum discipuli eius; 2 et aperiens os suum docebat eos dicens: 3 Beati pauperes spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum. 4 Beati, qui lugent, quoniam ipsi consolabuntur. 5 Beati mites, quoniam ipsi possidebunt terram. 6 Beati, qui esuriunt et sitiunt iustitiam, quoniam ipsi saturabuntur. 7 Beati misericordes, quia ipsi misericordiam consequentur. 8 Beati mundo corde, quoniam ipsi Deum videbunt. 9 Beati pacifici, quoniam filii Dei vocabuntur. 10 Beati, qui persecutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum. 11 Beati estis cum maledixerint vobis et persecuti vos fuerint et dixerint omne malum adversum vos, mentientes, propter me. 12 Gaudete et exsultate, quoniam merces vestra copiosa est in caelis; sic enim persecuti sunt prophetas, qui fuerunt ante vos. 13 Vos estis sal terrae; quod si sal evanuerit, in quo salietur? Ad nihilum valet ultra, nisi ut mittatur foras et conculcetur ab hominibus. 14 Vos estis lux mundi. Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita; 15 neque accendunt lucernam et ponunt eam sub modio, sed super candelabrum, ut luceat omnibus, qui in domo sunt. 16 Sic luceat lux vestra coram hominibus, ut videant vestra bona opera et glorificent Patrem vestrum, qui in caelis est.

[95] Cf. Mt 5:13-16: 1 When he saw the crowds, he went up the mountain, and after he had sat down, his disciples came to him. 2 He began to teach them, saying: 3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are they who mourn, for they will be comforted. 5 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the land. 6 Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be satisfied. 7 Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy. 8 Blessed are the clean of heart, for they will see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. 10 Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11 Blessed are you when they insult you and persecute you and utter every kind of evil against you (falsely) because of me. 12 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven. Thus they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 13 "You are the salt of the earth. But if salt loses its taste, with what can it be seasoned? It is no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and trampled underfoot. 14 You are the light of the world. A city set on a mountain cannot be hidden. 15 Nor do they light a lamp and then put it under a bushel basket; it is set on a lampstand, where it gives light to all in the house. 16 Just so, your light must shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your heavenly Father.

[96] Neh 13,1: 1 In die autem illo lectum est in volumine Moysi, audiente populo, et inventum est scriptum in eo quod non debeant introire Ammonites et Moabites in ecclesiam Dei usque in aeternum, 2 eo quod non occurrerint filiis Israel cum pane et aqua et conduxerint adversum eos Balaam ad maledicendum eis, et convertit Deus noster maledictionem in benedictionem. 3 Factum est autem, cum audissent legem, separaverunt omnem promiscuum ab Israel.

[96] Neh 13:1: 1 At that time, when there was reading from the book of Moses in the hearing of the people, it was found written there that "no Ammonite or Moabite may ever be admitted into the assembly of God; 2 for they would not succor the Israelites with food and water, but they hired Balaam to curse them, though our God turned the curse into a blessing." 3 When they had heard the law, they separated from Israel every foreign element.

[96b] Cf. Deut 23,1ss.: 1 Non accipiet homo uxorem patris sui nec revelabit operi mentum eius. 2 Non intrabit eunuchus, attritis vel amputatis testiculis et absciso veretro, ecclesiam Domini. 3 Non ingredietur mamzer in ecclesiam Domini neque decima generatione. 4 Ammonites et Moabites etiam in decima generatione non intrabunt ecclesiam Domini in aeternum, 5 quia noluerunt vobis occurrere cum pane et aqua in via, quando egressi estis de Aegypto, et quia conduxerunt contra te Balaam filium Beor de Phethor in Aramnaharaim, ut malediceret tibi; 6 et noluit Dominus Deus tuus audire Balaam vertitque tibi maledictionem eius in benedictionem, eo quod diligeret te.

[96b] Cf. Deut 23:1ff: 1 A man shall not marry his father's wife, nor shall he dishonor his father's bed. 2 No one whose testicles have been crushed or whose penis has been cut off may be admitted into the community of the LORD. 3 No child of an incestuous union may be admitted into the community of the LORD, nor any descendant of his even to the tenth generation. 4 No Ammonite or Moabite may ever be admitted into the community of the LORD, nor any descendants of theirs even to the tenth generation, 5 because they would not succor you with food and water on your journey after you left Egypt, and because Moab hired Balaam, son of Beor, from Pethor in Aram Naharaim, to curse you; 6 though the LORD, your God, would not listen to Balaam and turned his curse into a blessing for you, because he loves you.

[96c] Cf. Num 20,4: 1 Veneruntque filii Israel et omnis congregatio in desertum Sin mense primo, et mansit populus in Cades. Mortuaque est ibi Maria et sepulta in eodem loco. 2 Cumque indigeret aqua populus, convenerunt adversum Moysen et Aaron 3 et versi in seditionem dixerunt: «Utinam perissemus inter fratres nostros coram Domino! 4 Cur eduxistis ecclesiam Domini in solitudinem, ut et nos et nostra iumenta moriamur? 5 Quare nos fecistis ascendere de Aegypto et adduxistis in locum istum pessimum, qui seri non potest, qui nec ficum gignit nec vineas nec malogranata, insuper et aquam non habet ad bibendum?».

[96c] Cf. Num 20:4: 1 The whole Israelite community arrived in the desert of Zin in the first month, and the people settled at Kadesh. It was here that Miriam died, and here that she was buried. 2 As the community had no water, they held a council against Moses and Aaron. 3 The people contended with Moses, exclaiming, "Would that we too had perished with our kinsmen in the LORD'S presence! 4 Why have you brought the LORD'S community into this desert where we and our livestock are dying? 5 Why did you lead us out of Egypt, only to bring us to this wretched place which has neither grain nor figs nor vines nor pomegranates? Here there is not even water to drink!"

[97] Hebr 13,14: 14 non enim habemus hic manentem civitatem, sed futuram inquirimus. 15 Per ipsum ergo offeramus hostiam laudis semper Deo, id est fructum labiorum confitentium nomini eius. 16 Beneficientiae autem et communionis nolite oblivisci; talibus enim hostiis oblectatur Deus. 17 Oboedite praepositis vestris et subiacete eis; ipsi enim pervigilant pro animabus vestris quasi rationem reddituri, ut cum gaudio hoc faciant et non gementes; hoc enim non expedit vobis.

[97] Cf. Heb 13:14: 14 For here we have no lasting city, but we seek the one that is to come. 15 Through him (then) let us continually offer God a sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name. 16 Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have; God is pleased by sacrifices of that kind. 17 Obey your leaders and defer to them, for they keep watch over you and will have to give an account, that they may fulfill their task with joy and not with sorrow, for that would be of no advantage to you.

[98] Cf. Mt 16,18: 13 Venit autem Iesus in partes Caesareae Philippi et interrogabat discipulos suos dicens: «Quem dicunt homines esse Filium hominis?». 14 At illi dixerunt: «Alii Ioannem Baptistam, alii autem Eliam, alii vero Ieremiam, aut unum ex prophetis». 15 Dicit illis: «Vos autem quem me esse dicitis?». 16 Respondens Simon Petrus dixit: «Tu es Christus, Filius Dei vivi». 17 Respondens autem Iesus dixit ei: «Beatus es, Simon Bariona, quia caro et sanguis non revelavit tibi sed Pater meus, qui in caelis est. 18 Et ego dico tibi: Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam; et portae inferi non praevalebunt adversum eam. 19 Tibi dabo claves regni caelorum; et quodcumque ligaveris super terram, erit ligatum in caelis, et quodcumque solveris super terram, erit solutum in caelis». 20 Tunc praecepit discipulis, ut nemini dicerent quia ipse esset Christus.

[98] Cf. Mt 16:18: 13 When Jesus went into the region of Caesarea Philippi he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 14 They replied, "Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, still others Jeremiah or one of the prophets." 15 He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" 16 Simon Peter said in reply, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." 17 Jesus said to him in reply, "Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my heavenly Father. 18 And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. 19 I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." 20 Then he strictly ordered his disciples to tell no one that he was the Messiah.

[99] Act 20,28: 22 Et nunc ecce alligatus ego Spiritu vado in Ierusalem, quae in ea eventura sint mihi ignorans, 23 nisi quod Spiritus Sanctus per omnes civitates protestatur mihi dicens quoniam vincula et tribulationes me manent. 24 Sed nihili facio animam meam pretiosam mihi, dummodo consummem cursum meum et ministerium, quod accepi a Domino Iesu, testificari evangelium gratiae Dei. 25 Et nunc ecce ego scio quia amplius non videbitis faciem meam vos omnes, per quos transivi praedicans regnum; 26 quapropter contestor vos hodierna die, quia mundus sum a sanguine omnium; 27 non enim subterfugi, quominus annuntiarem omne consilium Dei vobis. 28 Attendite vobis et universo gregi, in quo vos Spiritus Sanctus posuit episcopos, pascere ecclesiam Dei, quam acquisivit sanguine suo. 29 Ego scio quoniam intrabunt post discessionem meam lupi graves in vos non parcentes gregi;

[99] Cf. Acts 20:28: 22 But now, compelled by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem. What will happen to me there I do not know, 23 except that in one city after another the holy Spirit has been warning me that imprisonment and hardships await me. 24 Yet I consider life of no importance to me, if only I may finish my course and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to bear witness to the gospel of God's grace. 25 "But now I know that none of you to whom I preached the kingdom during my travels will ever see my face again. 26 And so I solemnly declare to you this day that I am not responsible for the blood of any of you, 27 for I did not shrink from proclaiming to you the entire plan of God. 28 Keep watch over yourselves and over the whole flock of which the holy Spirit has appointed you overseers, in which you tend the church of God that he acquired with his own blood. 29 I know that after my departure savage wolves will come among you, and they will not spare the flock.

[100] Cf. Hebr 5,1-5*

[100] Cf. Heb 5:1-5*

[101] Apoc 6,1: 1 Et vidi, cum aperuisset Agnus unum de septem sigillis, et audivi unum de quattuor animalibus dicens tamquam voce tonitrui: «Veni».

[101] Rev 6:1: 1 Then I watched while the Lamb broke open the first of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures cry out in a voice like thunder, "Come forward."

[101b] Cf. Apoc 5,9-10: 9 Et cantant novum canticum dicentes: «Dignus es accipere librum et aperire signacula eius, quoniam occisus es et redemisti Deo in sanguine tuo ex omni tribu et lingua et populo et natione; 10 et fecisti eos Deo nostro regnum et sacerdotes, et regnabunt super terram». 11 Et vidi et audivi vocem angelorum multorum in circuitu throni et animalium et seniorum, et erat numerus eorum myriades myriadum et milia milium, 12 dicentium voce magna: «Dignus est Agnus, qui occisus est, accipere virtutem et divitias et sapientiam et fortitudinem et honorem et gloriam et benedictionem». 13 Et omnem creaturam, quae in caelo est et super terram et sub terra et super mare et quae in eis omnia, audivi dicentes: «Sedenti super thronum et Agno benedictio et honor et gloria et potestas in saecula saeculorum». 14 Et quattuor animalia dicebant: «Amen»; et seniores ceciderunt et adoraverunt.

[101b] Cf. Rev 5:9-10: 9 They sang a new hymn: "Worthy are you to receive the scroll and to break open its seals, for you were slain and with your blood you purchased for God those from every tribe and tongue, people and nation. 10 You made them a kingdom and priests for our God, and they will reign on earth." 11 I looked again and heard the voices of many angels who surrounded the throne and the living creatures and the elders. They were countless in number, 12 and they cried out in a loud voice: "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power and riches, wisdom and strength, honor and glory and blessing." 13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, everything in the universe, cry out: "To the one who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor, glory and might, forever and ever." 14 The four living creatures answered, "Amen," and the elders fell down and worshiped.

[102] Cf. 1 Pet 2,4-10*

[102] Cf. 1 Pet 2:4-10*

[103] Cf. Act 2,42-47*

[103] Cf. Acts 2:42-47*

[104] Cf. Rom 12,1*

[104] Cf. Rom 12:1*

[105] Cf. I Pt 3,15: 14 Sed et si patimini propter iustitiam, beati! Timorem autem eorum ne timueritis et non conturbemini, 15 Dominum autem Christum sanctificate in cordibus vestris, parati semper ad defensionem omni poscenti vos rationem de ea, quae in vobis est spe; 16 sed cum mansuetudine et timore, conscientiam habentes bonam, ut in quo de vobis detrectatur, confundantur, qui calumniantur vestram bonam in Christo conversationem.

[105] Cf. 1 Pet 3:15: 14 But even if you should suffer because of righteousness, blessed are you. Do not be afraid or terrified with fear of them, 15 but sanctify Christ as Lord in your hearts. Always be ready to give an explanation to anyone who asks you for a reason for your hope, 16 but do it with gentleness and reverence, keeping your conscience clear, so that, when you are maligned, those who defame your good conduct in Christ may themselves be put to shame.

[106] Cf. Iac 5,14-16: 13 Tristatur aliquis vestrum? Oret. Aequo animo est? Psallat. 14 Infirmatur quis in vobis? Advocet presbyteros ecclesiae, et orent super eum, unguentes eum oleo in nomine Domini. 15 Et oratio fidei salvabit infirmum, et allevabit eum Dominus; et si peccata operatus fuerit, dimittentur ei. 16 Confitemini ergo alterutrum peccata et orate pro invicem, ut sanemini. Multum enim valet deprecatio iusti operans.

[106] Cf. Jas 5:14-16: 13 Is anyone among you suffering? He should pray. Is anyone in good spirits? He should sing praise. 14 Is anyone among you sick? He should summon the presbyters of the church, and they should pray over him and anoint (him) with oil in the name of the Lord, 15 and the prayer of faith will save the sick person, and the Lord will raise him up. If he has committed any sins, he will be forgiven. 16 Therefore, confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The fervent prayer of a righteous person is very powerful.

[107] Cf. Rom 8,17*:

[107] Cf. Rom 8:17*:

[107b] Cf. Col 1:24*:

[107b] Cf. Col 1:24*:

[107c] Cf. 2 Tim 2,11-12*

[107c] Cf. 2 Tim 2:11-12*

[107d] Cf. I Pt 4,13: 10 unusquisque, sicut accepit donationem, in alterutrum illam administrantes, sicut boni dispensatores multiformis gratiae Dei. 11 Si quis loquitur, quasi sermones Dei; si quis ministrat, tamquam ex virtute, quam largitur Deus, ut in omnibus glorificetur Deus per Iesum Christum: cui est gloria et imperium in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 12 Carissimi, nolite mirari in fervore, qui ad tentationem vobis fit, quasi novi aliquid vobis contingat, 13 sed, quemadmodum communicatis Christi passionibus, gaudete, ut et in revelatione gloriae eius gaudeatis exsultantes. 14 Si exprobramini in nomine Christi, beati, quoniam Spiritus gloriae et Dei super vos requiescit.

[107d] Cf. 1 Pet 4:13: 10 As each one has received a gift, use it to serve one another as good stewards of God's varied grace. 11 Whoever preaches, let it be with the words of God; whoever serves, let it be with the strength that God supplies, so that in all things God may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen. 12 Beloved, do not be surprised that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as if something strange were happening to you. 13 But rejoice to the extent that you share in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice exultantly. 14 If you are insulted for the name of Christ, blessed are you, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests upon you.

[108] Cf. Eph 5,32*

[108] Cf. Eph 5:32*

[109] Cf. I Cor 7,7: 7 Volo autem omnes homines esse sicut meipsum; sed unusquisque proprium habet donum ex Deo: alius quidem sic, alius vero sic.

[109] Cf. 1 Cor 7:7: 7 Indeed, I wish everyone to be as I am, but each has a particular gift from God, one of one kind and one of another.

[110] Cf. Hebr 13,15*

[110] Cf. Heb 13:15*

[111] Cf. I Io 2,20 et 27: 20 Sed vos unctionem habetis a Sancto et scitis omnes. 21 Non scripsi vobis quasi nescientibus veritatem sed quasi scientibus eam, et quoniam omne mendacium ex veritate non est. 22 Quis est mendax, nisi is qui negat quoniam Iesus est Christus? Hic est antichristus, qui negat Patrem et Filium. 23 Omnis, qui negat Filium, nec Patrem habet; qui confitetur Filium, et Patrem habet. 24 Vos, quod audistis ab initio, in vobis permaneat; si in vobis permanserit, quod ab initio audistis, et vos in Filio et in Patre manebitis. 25 Et haec est repromissio, quam ipse pollicitus est nobis: vitam aeternam. 26 Haec scripsi vobis de eis, qui seducunt vos. 27 Et vos, unctionem, quam accepistis ab eo, manet in vobis, et non necesse habetis, ut aliquis doceat vos; sed sicut unctio ipsius docet vos de omnibus, et verum est, et non est mendacium, et, sicut docuit vos, manetis in eo.

[111] Cf. 1 Jn 2:20 and 27: 20 But you have the anointing that comes from the holy one, and you all have knowledge. 21 I write to you not because you do not know the truth but because you do, and because every lie is alien to the truth. 22 Who is the liar? Whoever denies that Jesus is the Christ. Whoever denies the Father and the Son, this is the antichrist. 23 No one who denies the Son has the Father, but whoever confesses the Son has the Father as well. 24 Let what you heard from the beginning remain in you. If what you heard from the beginning remains in you, then you will remain in the Son and in the Father. 25 And this is the promise that he made us: eternal life. 26 I write you these things about those who would deceive you. 27 As for you, the anointing that you received from him remains in you, so that you do not need anyone to teach you. But his anointing teaches you about everything and is true and not false; just as it taught you, remain in him.

[112] Cf. I Thess 2,13: 10 Vos testes estis et Deus, quam sancte et iuste et sine querela vobis, qui credidistis, fuimus; 11 sicut scitis qualiter unumquemque vestrum, tamquam pater filios suos, 12 deprecantes vos et consolantes testificati sumus, ut ambularetis digne Deo, qui vocat vos in suum regnum et gloriam. 13 Ideo et nos gratias agimus Deo sine intermissione, quoniam cum accepissetis a nobis verbum auditus Dei, accepistis non ut verbum hominum sed, sicut est vere, verbum Dei, quod et operatur in vobis, qui creditis.

[112] Cf. 1 Thess 2:13: 10 You are witnesses, and so is God, how devoutly and justly and blamelessly we behaved toward you believers. 11 As you know, we treated each one of you as a father treats his children, 12 exhorting and encouraging you and insisting that you conduct yourselves as worthy of the God who calls you into his kingdom and glory. 13 And for this reason we too give thanks to God unceasingly, that, in receiving the word of God from hearing us, you received not a human word but, as it truly is, the word of God, which is now atwork in you who believe.

[113] Cf. Iud 1,3: 3 Carissimi, omnem sollicitudinem faciens scribendi vobis de communi nostra salute, necesse habui scribere vobis, deprecans certare pro semel tradita sanctis fide.

[113] Cf. Jude 1:3: 3 Beloved, although I was making every effort to write to you about our common salvation, I now feel a need to write to encourage you to contend for the faith that was once for all handed down to the holy ones.

[114] I Cor 12,11*

[114] 1 Cor 12:11*

[115] Cf. I Cor 12,7*

[115] Cf. 1 Cor 12:7*

[115b] Cf. I Thess 5,12 et 19-21: 12 Rogamus autem vos, fratres, ut noveritis eos, qui laborant inter vos et praesunt vobis in Domino et monent vos, 13 ut habeatis illos superabundanter in caritate propter opus illorum. Pacem habete inter vos. 14 Hortamur autem vos, fratres: corripite inquietos, consolamini pusillanimes, suscipite infirmos, longanimes estote ad omnes. 15 Videte, ne quis malum pro malo alicui reddat, sed semper, quod bonum est, sectamini et in invicem et in omnes. 16 Semper gaudete, 17 sine intermissione orate, 18 in omnibus gratias agite; haec enim voluntas Dei est in Christo Iesu erga vos. 19 Spiritum nolite exstinguere, 20 prophetias nolite spernere; 21 omnia autem probate, quod bonum est tenete, 22 ab omni specie mala abstinete vos.

[115b] Cf. 1 Thess 5:12 and 19-21: 12 We ask you, brothers, to respect those who are laboring among you and who are over you in the Lord and who admonish you, 13 and to show esteem for them with special love on account of their work. Be at peace among yourselves. 14 We urge you, brothers, admonish the idle, cheer the fainthearted, support the weak, be patient with all. 15 See that no one returns evil for evil; rather, always seek what is good (both) for each other and for all. 16 Rejoice always. 17 Pray without ceasing. 18 In all circumstances give thanks, for this is the will of God for you in Christ Jesus. 19 Do not quench the Spirit. 20 Do not despise prophetic utterances. 21 Test everything; retain what is good. 22 Refrain from every kind of evil.

[116] Cf. Io 11,52: 49 Unus autem ex ipsis, Caiphas, cum esset pontifex anni illius, dixit eis: «Vos nescitis quidquam 50 nec cogitatis quia expedit vobis, ut unus moriatur homo pro populo, et non tota gens pereat!». 51 Hoc autem a semetipso non dixit; sed, cum esset pontifex anni illius, prophetavit quia Iesus moriturus erat pro gente 52 et non tantum pro gente, sed et ut filios Dei, qui erant dispersi, congregaret in unum. 53 Ab illo ergo die cogitaverunt, ut interficerent eum.

[116] Cf. Jn 11:52: 49 But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, "You know nothing, 50 nor do you consider that it is better for you that one man should die instead of the people, so that the whole nation may not perish." 51 He did not say this on his own, but since he was high priest for that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation, 52 and not only for the nation, but also to gather into one the dispersed children of God. 53 So from that day on they planned to kill him.

[117] Cf. Hebr 1,2: 1 Multifariam et multis modis olim Deus locutus patribus in prophetis, 2 in novissimis his diebus locutus est nobis in Filio, quem constituit heredem universorum, per quem fecit et saecula;

[117] Cf. Heb 1:2: 1 In times past, God spoke in partial and various ways to our ancestors through the prophets; 2 in these last days, he spoke to us through a son, whom he made heir of all things and through whom he created the universe ....

[118]

[118] [Note number 118 skipped in English translation.]

[119] Cf. Acts 2,42*

[119] Cf. Acts 2:42*

[120] Cf. Io 18,36: 35 Respondit Pilatus: «Numquid ego Iudaeus sum? Gens tua et pontifices tradiderunt te mihi; quid fecisti?». 36 Respondit Iesus: «Regnum meum non est de mundo hoc; si ex hoc mundo esset regnum meum, ministri mei decertarent, ut non traderer Iudaeis; nunc autem meum regnum non est hinc». 37 Dixit itaque ei Pilatus: «Ergo rex es tu?». Respondit Iesus: «Tu dicis quia rex sum. Ego in hoc natus sum et ad hoc veni in mundum, ut testimonium perhibeam veritati; omnis, qui est ex veritate, audit meam vocem». 38 Dicit ei Pilatus: «Quid est veritas?». Et cum hoc dixisset, iterum exivit ad Iudaeos et dicit eis: «Ego nullam invenio in eo causam. 39 Est autem consuetudo vobis, ut unum dimittam vobis in Pascha; vultis ergo dimittam vobis regem Iudaeorum?». 40 Clamaverunt ergo rursum dicentes: «Non hunc sed Barabbam!». Erat autem Barabbas latro.

[120] Cf. Jn 18:36: 35 Pilate answered, "I am not a Jew, am I? Your own nation and the chief priests handed you over to me. What have you done?" 36 Jesus answered, "My kingdom does not belong to this world. If my kingdom did belong to this world, my attendants (would) be fighting to keep me from being handed over to the Jews. But as it is, my kingdom is not here." 37 So Pilate said to him, "Then you are a king?" Jesus answered, "You say I am a king. For this I was born and for this I came into the world, to testify to the truth. Everyone who belongs to the truth listens to my voice." 38 Pilate said to him, "What is truth?" When he had said this, he again went out to the Jews and said to them, "I find no guilt in him. 39 But you have a custom that I release one prisoner to you at Passover. Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?" 40 They cried out again, "Not this one but Barabbas!" Now Barabbas was a revolutionary.

[121] Cf. Ps 2,8: 1 Quare fremuerunt gentes, et populi meditati sunt inania? 2 Astiterunt reges terrae, et principes convenerunt in unum adversus Dominum et adversus christum eius: 3 «Dirumpamus vincula eorum et proiciamus a nobis iugum ipsorum!». 4 Qui habitat in caelis, irridebit eos, Dominus subsannabit eos. 5 Tunc loquetur ad eos in ira sua et in furore suo conturbabit eos: 6 «Ego autem constitui regem meum super Sion, montem sanctum meum!». 7 Praedicabo decretum eius. Dominus dixit ad me: «Filius meus es tu; ego hodie genui te. 8 Postula a me, et dabo tibi gentes hereditatem tuam et possessionem tuam terminos terrae. 9 Reges eos in virga ferrea et tamquam vas figuli confringes eos». 10 Et nunc, reges, intellegite; erudimini, qui iudicatis terram. 11 Servite Domino in timore et exsultate ei cum tremore. 12 Apprehendite disciplinam, ne quando irascatur, et pereatis de via, cum exarserit in brevi ira eius. Beati omnes, qui confidunt in eo.

[121] Cf. Ps 2:8: 1 Why do the nations protest and the peoples grumble in vain? 2 Kings on earth rise up and princes plot together against the LORD and his anointed: 3 "Let us break their shackles and cast off their chains!" 4 The one enthroned in heaven laughs; the Lord derides them, 5 Then speaks to them in anger, terrifies them in wrath: 6 "I myself have installed my king on Zion, my holy mountain." 7 I will proclaim the decree of the LORD, who said to me, "You are my son; today I am your father. 8 Only ask it of me, and I will make your inheritance the nations, your possession the ends of the earth. 9 With an iron rod you shall shepherd them, like a clay pot you will shatter them." 10 And now, kings, give heed; take warning, rulers on earth. 11 Serve the LORD with fear; with trembling bow down in homage, Lest God be angry and you perish from the way in a sudden blaze of anger. Happy are all who take refuge in God!

[122] Cf. Ps 72(71),10: 1 Salomonis. Deus, iudicium tuum regi da et iustitiam tuam filio regis; 2 iudicet populum tuum in iustitia et pauperes tuos in iudicio. 3 Afferant montes pacem populo, et colles iustitiam. 4 Iudicabit pauperes populi et salvos faciet filios inopis et humiliabit calumniatorem. 5 Et permanebit cum sole et ante lunam in generatione et generationem. 6 Descendet sicut pluvia in gramen, et sicut imber irrigans terram. 7 Florebit in diebus eius iustitia et abundantia pacis, donec auferatur luna. 8 Et dominabitur a mari usque ad mare et a flumine usque ad terminos orbis terrarum. 9 Coram illo procident incolae deserti, et inimici eius terram lingent. 10 Reges Tharsis et insulae munera offerent, reges Arabum et Saba dona adducent. 11 Et adorabunt eum omnes reges, omnes gentes servient ei. 12 Quia liberabit inopem clamantem et pauperem, cui non erat adiutor. 13 Parcet pauperi et inopi et animas pauperum salvas faciet. 14 Ex oppressione et violentia redimet animas eorum, et pretiosus erit sanguis eorum coram illo. - 15 Et vivet, et dabitur ei de auro Arabiae, et orabunt pro ipso semper; tota die benedicent ei. 16 Et erit ubertas frumenti in terra, in summis montium fluctuabit, sicut Libanus fructus eius; et florebunt de civitate sicut fenum terrae. 17 Sit nomen eius benedictum in saecula, ante solem permanebit nomen eius. Et benedicentur in ipso omnes tribus terrae, omnes gentes magnificabunt eum. 18 Benedictus Dominus Deus, Deus Israel, qui facit mirabilia solus. 19 Et benedictum nomen maiestatis eius in aeternum; et replebitur maiestate eius omnis terra. Fiat, fiat.

[122] Cf. Ps 72(71):10: 1 Of Solomon. 2 O God, give your judgment to the king; your justice to the son of kings; That he may govern your people with justice, your oppressed with right judgment, 3 That the mountains may yield their bounty for the people, and the hills great abundance, 4 That he may defend the oppressed among the people, save the poor and crush the oppressor. 5 May he live as long as the sun endures, like the moon, through all generations. 6 May he be like rain coming down upon the fields, like showers watering the earth, 7 That abundance may flourish in his days, great bounty, till the moon be no more. 8 May he rule from sea to sea, from the river to the ends of the earth. 9 May his foes kneel before him, his enemies lick the dust. 10 May the kings of Tarshish and the islands bring tribute, the kings of Arabia and Seba offer gifts. 11 May all kings bow before him, all nations serve him. 12 For he rescues the poor when they cry out, the oppressed who have no one to help. 13 He shows pity to the needy and the poor and saves the lives of the poor. 14 From extortion and violence he frees them, for precious is their blood in his sight. 15 Long may he live, receiving gold from Arabia, prayed for without cease, blessed day by day. 16 May wheat abound in the land, flourish even on the mountain heights. May his fruit increase like Lebanon's, his wheat like the grasses of the land. 17 May his name be blessed forever; as long as the sun, may his name endure. May the tribes of the earth give blessings with his name; may all the nations regard him as favored. 18 Blessed be the LORD, the God of Israel, who alone does wonderful deeds. 19 Blessed be his glorious name forever; may all the earth be filled with the LORD'S glory. Amen and amen. 20 The end of the psalms of David, son of Jesse.

[122b] Cf. Is 60,4-7: 4 Leva in circuitu oculos tuos et vide: omnes isti congregati sunt, venerunt tibi; filii tui de longe veniunt, et filiae tuae in ulnis gestantur. 5 Tunc videbis et illuminaberis, et palpitabit et dilatabitur cor tuum, quia confluet ad te multitudo maris, fortitudo gentium veniet tibi; 6 inundatio camelorum operiet te, dromedarii Madian et Epha; omnes de Saba venient, aurum et tus deferentes et laudem Domini annuntiantes. 7 Omne pecus Cedar congregabitur tibi, arietes Nabaioth ministrabunt tibi; offerentur super placabili altari meo, et domum gloriae meae glorificabo.

[122b] Cf. Is 60:4-7: 4 Raise your eyes and look about; they all gather and come to you: Your sons come from afar, and your daughters in the arms of their nurses. 5 Then you shall be radiant at what you see, your heart shall throb and overflow, For the riches of the sea shall be emptied out before you, the wealth of nations shall be brought to you. 6 Caravans of camels shall fill you, dromedaries from Midian and Ephah; All from Sheba shall come bearing gold and frankincense, and proclaiming the praises of the LORD. 7 All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered for you, the rams of Nebaioth shall be your sacrifices; They will be acceptable offerings on my altar, and I will enhance the splendor of my house.

[122c] Cf. Apoc 21,24: 10 Et sustulit me in spiritu super montem magnum et altum et ostendit mihi civitatem sanctam Ierusalem descendentem de caelo a Deo, 11 habentem claritatem Dei; lumen eius simile lapidi pretiosissimo, tamquam lapidi iaspidi, in modum crystalli; 12 et habebat murum magnum et altum et habebat portas duodecim et super portas angelos duodecim et nomina inscripta, quae sunt duodecim tribuum filiorum Israel. 13 Ab oriente portae tres, et ab aquilone portae tres, et ab austro portae tres, et ab occasu portae tres; 14 et murus civitatis habens fundamenta duodecim, et super ipsis duodecim nomina duodecim apostolorum Agni. 15 Et, qui loquebatur mecum, habebat mensuram arundinem auream, ut metiretur civitatem et portas eius et murum eius. 16 Et civitas in quadro posita est, et longitudo eius tanta est quanta et latitudo. Et mensus est civitatem arundine per stadia duodecim milia; longitudo et latitudo et altitudo eius aequales sunt. 17 Et mensus est murum eius centum quadraginta quattuor cubitorum, mensura hominis, quae est angeli. 18 Et erat structura muri eius ex iaspide, ipsa vero civitas aurum mundum simile vitro mundo. 19 Fundamenta muri civitatis omni lapide pretioso ornata: fundamentum primum iaspis, secundus sapphirus, tertius chalcedonius, quartus smaragdus, 20 quintus sardonyx, sextus sardinus, septimus chrysolithus, octavus beryllus, nonus topazius, decimus chrysoprasus, undecimus hyacinthus, duodecimus amethystus. 21 Et duodecim portae duodecim margaritae sunt, et singulae portae erant ex singulis margaritis. Et platea civitatis aurum mundum tamquam vitrum perlucidum. 22 Et templum non vidi in ea: Dominus enim, Deus omnipotens, templum illius est, et Agnus. 23 Et civitas non eget sole neque luna, ut luceant ei, nam claritas Dei illuminavit eam, et lucerna eius est Agnus. 24 Et ambulabunt gentes per lumen eius, et reges terrae afferunt gloriam suam in illam; 25 et portae eius non claudentur per diem, nox enim non erit illic; 26 et afferent gloriam et divitias gentium in illam. 27 Nec intrabit in ea aliquid coinquinatum et faciens abominationem et mendacium, nisi qui scripti sunt in libro vitae Agni.

[122c] Cf. Rev 21:24: 10 He took me in spirit to a great, high mountain and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. 11 It gleamed with the splendor of God. Its radiance was like that of a precious stone, like jasper, clear as crystal. 12 It had a massive, high wall, with twelve gates where twelve angels were stationed and on which names were inscribed, (the names) of the twelve tribes of the Israelites. 13 There were three gates facing east, three north, three south, and three west. 14 The wall of the city had twelve courses of stones as its foundation, on which were inscribed the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. 15 The one who spoke to me held a gold measuring rod to measure the city, its gates, and its wall. 16 The city was square, its length the same as (also) its width. He measured the city with the rod and found it fifteen hundred miles in length and width and height. 17 He also measured its wall: one hundred and forty-four cubits according to the standard unit of measurement the angel used. 18 The wall was constructed of jasper, while the city was pure gold, clear as glass. 19 The foundations of the city wall were decorated with every precious stone; the first course of stones was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, 20 the fifth sardonyx, the sixth carnelian, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh hyacinth, and the twelfth amethyst. 21 The twelve gates were twelve pearls, each of the gates made from a single pearl; and the street of the city was of pure gold, transparent as glass. 22 I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God almighty and the Lamb. 23 The city had no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God gave it light, and its lamp was the Lamb. 24 The nations will walk by its light, and to it the kings of the earth will bring their treasure. 25 During the day its gates will never be shut, and there will be no night there. 26 The treasure and wealth of the nations will be brought there, 27 but nothing unclean will enter it, nor any (one) who does abominable things or tells lies. Only those will enter whose names are written in the Lamb's book of life.

[123] I Pt 4,10*

[123] 1 Pet 4:10*

[124] Cf. Mc 16,16*

[124] Cf. Mk 16:16*

[124b] Cf. Io 3,5*

[124b] Cf. Jn 3:5*

[125] Cf. Rom 9,4-5: 1 Veritatem dico in Christo, non mentior, testimonium mihi perhibente conscientia mea in Spiritu Sancto, 2 quoniam tristitia est mihi magna, et continuus dolor cordi meo. 3 Optarem enim ipse ego anathema esse a Christo pro fratribus meis, cognatis meis secundum carnem, 4 qui sunt Israelitae, quorum adoptio est filiorum et gloria et testamenta et legislatio et cultus et promissiones, 5 quorum sunt patres, et ex quibus Christus secundum carnem: qui est super omnia Deus benedictus in saecula. Amen. 6 Non autem quod exciderit verbum Dei. Non enim omnes, qui ex Israel, hi sunt Israel;

[125] Cf. Rom 9:4-5: 1 I speak the truth in Christ, I do not lie; my conscience joins with the holy Spirit in bearing me witness 2 that I have great sorrow and constant anguish in my heart. 3 For I could wish that I myself were accursed and separated from Christ for the sake of my brothers, my kin according to the flesh. 4 They are Israelites; theirs the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises; 5 theirs the patriarchs, and from them, according to the flesh, is the Messiah. God who is over all be blessed forever. Amen. 6 But it is not that the word of God has failed. For not all who are of Israel are Israel ...

[126] Cf. Rom 11,28-29*

[126] Cf. Rom 11:28-29*

[127] Cf. Act 17,25-28: 24 Deus, qui fecit mundum et omnia, quae in eo sunt, hic, caeli et terrae cum sit Dominus, non in manufactis templis inhabitat 25 nec manibus humanis colitur indigens aliquo, cum ipse det omnibus vitam et inspirationem et omnia; 26 fecitque ex uno omne genus hominum inhabitare super universam faciem terrae, definiens statuta tempora et terminos habitationis eorum, 27 quaerere Deum, si forte attrectent eum et inveniant, quamvis non longe sit ab unoquoque nostrum. 28 In ipso enim vivimus et movemur et sumus, sicut et quidam vestrum poetarum dixerunt: «Ipsius enim et genus sumus». 29 Genus ergo cum simus Dei, non debemus aestimare auro aut argento aut lapidi, sculpturae artis et cogitationis hominis, divinum esse simile.

[127] Cf. Acts 17:25-28: 24 The God who made the world and all that is in it, the Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in sanctuaries made by human hands, 25 nor is he served by human hands because he needs anything. Rather it is he who gives to everyone life and breath and everything. 26 He made from one the whole human race to dwell on the entire surface of the earth, and he fixed the ordered seasons and the boundaries of their regions, 27 so that people might seek God, even perhaps grope for him and find him, though indeed he is not far from any one of us. 28 For 'In him we live and move and have our being,' as even some of your poets have said, 'For we too are his offspring.' 29 Since therefore we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the divinity is like an image fashioned from gold, silver, or stone by human art and imagination.

[128] Cf. I Tim 2,4: 3 Hoc bonum est et acceptum coram salvatore nostro Deo, 4 qui omnes homines vult salvos fieri et ad agnitionem veritatis venire. 5 Unus enim Deus, unus et mediator Dei et hominum, homo Christus Iesus, 6 qui dedit redemptionem semetipsum pro omnibus, testimonium temporibus suis; 7 in quod positus sum ego praedicator et apostolus -- veritatem dico, non mentior -- doctor gentium in fide et veritate.

[128] Cf. 1 Tim 2:4: 3 This is good and pleasing to God our savior, 4 who wills everyone to be saved and to come to knowledge of the truth. 5 For there is one God. There is also one mediator between God and the human race, Christ Jesus, himself human, 6 who gave himself as ransom for all. This was the testimony at the proper time. 7 For this I was appointed preacher and apostle (I am speaking the truth, I am not lying), teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

[129] Cf. Rom 1,21 et 25: 14 Graecis ac barbaris, sapientibus et insipientibus debitor sum. 15 Itaque, quod in me est, promptus sum et vobis, qui Romae estis, evangelizare. 16 Non enim erubesco evangelium: virtus enim Dei est in salutem omni credenti, Iudaeo primum et Graeco. 17 Iustitia enim Dei in eo revelatur ex fide in fidem, sicut scriptum est: «Iustus autem ex fide vivet». 18 Revelatur enim ira Dei de caelo super omnem impietatem et iniustitiam hominum, qui veritatem in iniustitia detinent, 19 quia, quod noscibile est Dei, manifestum est in illis; Deus enim illis manifestavit. 20 Invisibilia enim ipsius a creatura mundi per ea, quae facta sunt, intellecta conspiciuntur, sempiterna eius et virtus et divinitas, ut sint inexcusabiles; 21 quia, cum cognovissent Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt aut gratias egerunt, sed evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et obscuratum est insipiens cor eorum. 22 Dicentes se esse sapientes, stulti facti sunt, 23 et mutaverunt gloriam incorruptibilis Dei in similitudinem imaginis corruptibilis hominis et volucrum et quadrupedum et serpentium. 24 Propter quod tradidit illos Deus in concupiscentiis cordis eorum in immunditiam, ut ignominia afficiant corpora sua in semetipsis, 25 qui commutaverunt veritatem Dei in mendacio et coluerunt et servierunt creaturae potius quam Creatori, qui est benedictus in saecula. Amen.

[129] Cf. Rom 1:21 and 25: 14 To Greeks and non-Greeks alike, to the wise and the ignorant, I am under obligation; 15 that is why I am eager to preach the gospel also to you in Rome. 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel. It is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: for Jew first, and then Greek. 17 For in it is revealed the righteousness of God from faith to faith; as it is written, "The one who is righteous by faith will live." 18 The wrath of God is indeed being revealed from heaven against every impiety and wickedness of those who suppress the truth by their wickedness. 19 For what can be known about God is evident to them, because God made it evident to them. 20 Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. As a result, they have no excuse; 21 for although they knew God they did not accord him glory as God or give him thanks. Instead, they became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless minds were darkened. 22 While claiming to be wise, they became fools 23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for the likeness of an image of mortal man or of birds or of four-legged animals or of snakes. 24 Therefore, God handed them over to impurity through the lusts of their hearts for the mutual degradation of their bodies. 25 They exchanged the truth of God for a lie and revered and worshiped the creature rather than the creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

[130] Mc 16,15*:

[130] Mk 16:15*:

[131] Cf. Io 20,21: 19 Cum esset ergo sero die illa prima sabbatorum, et fores essent clausae, ubi erant discipuli, propter metum Iudaeorum, venit Iesus et stetit in medio et dicit eis: «Pax vobis!». 20 Et hoc cum dixisset, ostendit eis manus et latus. Gavisi sunt ergo discipuli, viso Domino. 21 Dixit ergo eis iterum: «Pax vobis! Sicut misit me Pater, et ego mitto vos». 22 Et cum hoc dixisset, insufflavit et dicit eis: «Accipite Spiritum Sanctum. 23 Quorum remiseritis peccata, remissa sunt eis; quorum retinueritis, retenta sunt». 24 Thomas autem, unus ex Duodecim, qui dicitur Didymus, non erat cum eis, quando venit Iesus.

[131] Cf. Jn 20:21: 19 On the evening of that first day of the week, when the doors were locked, where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in their midst and said to them, "Peace be with you." 20 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord. 21 (Jesus) said to them again, "Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I send you." 22 And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, "Receive the holy Spirit. 23 Whose sins you forgive are forgiven them, and whose sins you retain are retained." 24 Thomas, called Didymus, one of the Twelve, was not with them when Jesus came.

[132] Mt 28,18-20*

[132] Mt 28:18-20*

[133] Cf. Act 1,8: 1,4 Et convescens praecepit eis ab Hierosolymis ne discederent, sed exspectarent promissionem Patris: «Quam audistis a me, 5 quia Ioannes quidem baptizavit aqua, vos autem baptizabimini in Spiritu Sancto non post multos hos dies». 6 Igitur qui convenerant, interrogabant eum dicentes: «Domine, si in tempore hoc restitues regnum Israeli?». 7 Dixit autem eis: «Non est vestrum nosse tempora vel momenta, quae Pater posuit in sua potestate, 8 sed accipietis virtutem, superveniente Sancto Spiritu in vos, et eritis mihi testes et in Ierusalem et in omni Iudaea et Samaria et usque ad ultimum terrae». 9 Et cum haec dixisset, videntibus illis, elevatus est, et nubes suscepit eum ab oculis eorum. 10 Cumque intuerentur in caelum, eunte illo, ecce duo viri astiterunt iuxta illos in vestibus albis, 11 qui et dixerunt: «Viri Galilaei, quid statis aspicientes in caelum? Hic Iesus, qui assumptus est a vobis in caelum, sic veniet quemadmodum vidistis eum euntem in caelum». 12 Tunc reversi sunt in Ierusalem a monte, qui vocatur Oliveti, qui est iuxta Ierusalem sabbati habens iter. 13 Et cum introissent, in cenaculum ascenderunt, ubi manebant et Petrus et Ioannes et Iacobus et Andreas, Philippus et Thomas, Bartholomaeus et Matthaeus, Iacobus Alphaei et Simon Zelotes et Iudas Iacobi. 14 Hi omnes erant perseverantes unanimiter in oratione cum mulieribus et Maria matre Iesu et fratribus eius. 15 Et in diebus illis exsurgens Petrus in medio fratrum dixit -- erat autem turba hominum simul fere centum viginti: 16 «Viri fratres, oportebat impleri Scripturam, quam praedixit Spiritus Sanctus per os David de Iuda, qui fuit dux eorum, qui comprehenderunt Iesum, 17 quia connumeratus erat in nobis et sortitus est sortem ministerii huius. 18 Hic quidem possedit agrum de mercede iniquitatis; et pronus factus crepuit medius, et diffusa sunt omnia viscera eius. 19 Et notum factum est omnibus habitantibus Ierusalem, ita ut appellaretur ager ille lingua eorum Aceldamach, hoc est ager Sanguinis. 20 Scriptum est enim in libro Psalmorum: “Fiat commoratío eius deserta, et non sit qui inhabitet in ea” et: “Episcopatum eius accipiat alius”. 21 Oportet ergo ex his viris, qui nobiscum congregati erant in omni tempore, quo intravit et exivit inter nos Dominus Iesus, 22 incipiens a baptismate Ioannis usque in diem, qua assumptus est a nobis, testem resurrectionis eius nobiscum fieri unum ex istis». 23 Et statuerunt duos, Ioseph, qui vocabatur Barsabbas, qui cognominatus est Iustus, et Matthiam. 24 Et orantes dixerunt: «Tu, Domine, qui corda nosti omnium, ostende quem elegeris ex his duobus unum 25 accipere locum ministerii huius et apostolatus, de quo praevaricatus est Iudas, ut abiret in locum suum». 26 Et dederunt sortes eis, et cecidit sors super Matthiam, et annumeratus est cum undecim apostolis. 2,1 Et cum compleretur dies Pentecostes, erant omnes pariter in eodem loco. 2 Et factus est repente de caelo sonus tamquam advenientis spiritus vehementis et replevit totam domum, ubi erant sedentes. 3 Et apparuerunt illis dispertitae linguae tamquam ignis, seditque supra singulos eorum; 4 et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto et coeperunt loqui aliis linguis, prout Spiritus dabat eloqui illis.

[133] Cf. Acts 1:8: 1:4 While meeting with them, he enjoined them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for "the promise of the Father 3 about which you have heard me speak; 5 for John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the holy Spirit." 6 When they had gathered together they asked him, "Lord, are you at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?" 7 He answered them, "It is not for you to know the times or seasons that the Father has established by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the holy Spirit comes upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, throughout Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth." 9 When he had said this, as they were looking on, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him from their sight. 10 While they were looking intently at the sky as he was going, suddenly two men dressed in white garments stood beside them. 11 They said, "Men of Galilee, why are you standing there looking at the sky? This Jesus who has been taken up from you into heaven will return in the same way as you have seen him going into heaven." 12 Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a sabbath day's journey away. 13 When they entered the city they went to the upper room where they were staying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas son of James. 14 All these devoted themselves with one accord to prayer, together with some women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 15 During those days Peter stood up in the midst of the brothers (there was a group of about one hundred and twenty persons in the one place). He said, 16 "My brothers, the scripture had to be fulfilled which the holy Spirit spoke beforehand through the mouth of David, concerning Judas, who was the guide for those who arrested Jesus. 17 He was numbered among us and was allotted a share in this ministry. 18 He bought a parcel of land with the wages of his iniquity, and falling headlong, he burst open in the middle, and all his insides spilled out. 19 This became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem, so that the parcel of land was called in their language 'Akeldama,' that is, Field of Blood. 20 For it is written in the Book of Psalms: 'Let his encampment become desolate, and may no one dwell in it.' And: 'May another take his office.' 21 Therefore, it is necessary that one of the men who accompanied us the whole time the Lord Jesus came and went among us, 22 beginning from the baptism of John until the day on which he was taken up from us, become with us a witness to his resurrection." 23 So they proposed two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also known as Justus, and Matthias. 24 Then they prayed, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two you have chosen 25 to take the place in this apostolic ministry from which Judas turned away to go to his own place." 26 Then they gave lots to them, and the lot fell upon Matthias, and he was counted with the eleven apostles. 2:1 When the time for Pentecost was fulfilled, they were all in one place together. 2 And suddenly there came from the sky a noise like a strong driving wind, and it filled the entire house in which they were. 3 Then there appeared to them tongues as of fire, which parted and came to rest on each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the holy Spirit and began to speak in different tongues, as the Spirit enabled them to proclaim.

[134] I Cor 9,16: 15 Ego autem nullo horum usus sum. Non scripsi autem haec, ut ita fiant in me; bonum est enim mihi magis mori quam ut gloriam meam quis evacuet. 16 Nam si evangelizavero, non est mihi gloria; necessitas enim mihi incumbit. Vae enim mihi est, si non evangelizavero! 17 Si enim volens hoc ago, mercedem habeo; si autem invitus, dispensatio mihi credita est.

[134] 1 Cor 9:16: 15 I have not used any of these rights, however, nor do I write this that it be done so in my case. I would rather die. Certainly no one is going to nullify my boast. 16 If I preach the gospel, this is no reason for me to boast, for an obligation has been imposed on me, and woe to me if I do not preach it! 17 If I do so willingly, I have a recompense, but if unwillingly, then I have been entrusted with a stewardship.

[135] Mal 1,11: 11 Ab ortu enim solis usque ad occasum magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, et in omni loco sacrificatur et offertur nomini meo oblatio munda, quia magnum nomen meum in gentibus, dicit Dominus exercituum.

[135] Mal 1:11: 11 For from the rising of the sun, even to its setting, my name is great among the nations; And everywhere they bring sacrifice to my name, and a pure offering; For great is my name among the nations, says the LORD of hosts.

[136] Cf. Io 20,21*

[136] Cf. Jn 20:21*

[137] Cf. Mc 3,13-19: 13 Et ascendit in montem et vocat ad se, quos voluit ipse, et venerunt ad eum. 14 Et fecit Duodecim, ut essent cum illo, et ut mitteret eos praedicare 15 habentes potestatem eiciendi daemonia: 16 et imposuit Simoni nomen Petrum; 17 et Iacobum Zebedaei et Ioannem fratrem Iacobi, et imposuit eis nomina Boanerges, quod est Filii tonitrui; 18 et Andream et Philippum et Bartholomaeum et Matthaeum et Thomam et Iacobum Alphaei et Thaddaeum et Simonem Chananaeum 19 et Iudam Iscarioth, qui et tradidit illum.

[137] Cf. Mk 3:13-19: 13 He went up the mountain and summoned those whom he wanted and they came to him. 14 He appointed twelve (whom he also named apostles) that they might be with him and he might send them forth to preach 15 and to have authority to drive out demons: 16 (he appointed the twelve:) Simon, whom he named Peter; 17 James, son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, whom he named Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder; 18 Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus; Thaddeus, Simon the Cananean, 19 and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him.

[137b] Mt 10,1-42: 1 Et convocatis Duodecim discipulis suis, dedit illis potestatem spirituum immundorum, ut eicerent eos et curarent omnem languorem et omnem infirmitatem. 2 Duodecim autem apostolorum nomina sunt haec: primus Simon, qui dicitur Petrus, et Andreas frater eius, et Iacobus Zebedaei et Ioannes frater eius, 3 Philippus et Bartholomaeus, Thomas et Matthaeus publicanus, Iacobus Alphaei et Thaddaeus, 4 Simon Chananaeus et Iudas Iscariotes, qui et tradidit eum. 5 Hos Duodecim misit Iesus praecipiens eis et dicens: «In viam gentium ne abieritis et in civitates Samaritanorum ne intraveritis; 6 sed potius ite ad oves, quae perierunt domus Israel. 7 Euntes autem praedicate dicentes: “Appropinquavit regnum caelorum”. 8 Infirmos curate, mortuos suscitate, leprosos mundate, daemones eicite; gratis accepistis, gratis date. 9 Nolite possidere aurum neque argentum neque pecuniam in zonis vestris, 10 non peram in via neque duas tunicas neque calceamenta neque virgam; dignus enim est operarius cibo suo. 11 In quamcumque civitatem aut castellum intraveritis, interrogate quis in ea dignus sit; et ibi manete donec exeatis. 12 Intrantes autem in domum, salutate eam; 13 et si quidem fuerit domus digna, veniat pax vestra super eam; si autem non fuerit digna, pax vestra ad vos revertatur. 14 Et quicumque non receperit vos neque audierit sermones vestros, exeuntes foras de domo vel de civitate illa, excutite pulverem de pedibus vestris. 15 Amen dico vobis: Tolerabilius erit terrae Sodomorum et Gomorraeorum in die iudicii quam illi civitati. 16 Ecce ego mitto vos sicut oves in medio luporum; estote ergo prudentes sicut serpentes et simplices sicut columbae. 17 Cavete autem ab hominibus; tradent enim vos in conciliis, et in synagogis suis flagellabunt vos; 18 et ad praesides et ad reges ducemini propter me in testimonium illis et gentibus. 19 Cum autem tradent vos, nolite cogitare quomodo aut quid loquamini; dabitur enim vobis in illa hora quid loquamini. 20 Non enim vos estis, qui loquimini, sed Spiritus Patris vestri, qui loquitur in vobis. 21 Tradet autem frater fratrem in mortem, et pater filium; et insurgent filii in parentes et morte eos afficient. 22 Et eritis odio omnibus propter nomen meum; qui autem perseveraverit in finem, hic salvus erit. 23 Cum autem persequentur vos in civitate ista, fugite in aliam; amen enim dico vobis: Non consummabitis civitates Israel, donec veniat Filius hominis. 24 Non est discipulus super magistrum nec servus super dominum suum. 25 Sufficit discipulo, ut sit sicut magister eius, et servus sicut dominus eius. Si patrem familias Beelzebul vocaverunt, quanto magis domesticos eius! 26 Ne ergo timueritis eos. Nihil enim est opertum, quod non revelabitur, et occultum, quod non scietur. 27 Quod dico vobis in tenebris, dicite in lumine; et, quod in aure auditis, praedicate super tecta. 28 Et nolite timere eos, qui occidunt corpus, animam autem non possunt occidere; sed potius eum timete, qui potest et animam et corpus perdere in gehenna. 29 Nonne duo passeres asse veneunt? Et unus ex illis non cadet super terram sine Patre vestro. 30 Vestri autem et capilli capitis omnes numerati sunt. 31 Nolite ergo timere; multis passeribus meliores estis vos. 32 Omnis ergo qui confitebitur me coram hominibus, confitebor et ego eum coram Patre meo, qui est in caelis; 33 qui autem negaverit me coram hominibus, negabo et ego eum coram Patre meo, qui est in caelis. 34 Nolite arbitrari quia venerim mittere pacem in terram; non veni pacem mittere sed gladium. 35 Veni enim separare hominem adversus patrem suum et filiam adversus matrem suam et nurum adversus socrum suam: 36 et inimici hominis domestici eius. 37 Qui amat patrem aut matrem plus quam me, non est me dignus; et, qui amat filium aut filiam super me, non est me dignus; 38 et, qui non accipit crucem suam et sequitur me, non est me dignus. 39 Qui invenerit animam suam, perdet illam; et, qui perdiderit animam suam propter me, inveniet eam. 40 Qui recipit vos, me recipit; et, qui me recipit, recipit eum, qui me misit. 41 Qui recipit prophetam in nomine prophetae, mercedem prophetae accipiet; et, qui recipit iustum in nomine iusti, mercedem iusti accipiet. 42 Et, quicumque potum dederit uni ex minimis istis calicem aquae frigidae tantum in nomine discipuli, amen dico vobis: Non perdet mercedem suam».

[137b] Mt 10:1-42: 1 Then he summoned his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits to drive them out and to cure every disease and every illness. 2 The names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon called Peter, and his brother Andrew; James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John; 3 Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James, the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddeus; 4 Simon the Cananean, and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him. 5 Jesus sent out these twelve after instructing them thus, "Do not go into pagan territory or enter a Samaritan town. 6 Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 7 As you go, make this proclamation: 'The kingdom of heaven is at hand.' 8 Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, drive out demons. Without cost you have received; without cost you are to give. 9 Do not take gold or silver or copper for your belts; 10 no sack for the journey, or a second tunic, or sandals, or walking stick. The laborer deserves his keep. 11 Whatever town or village you enter, look for a worthy person in it, and stay there until you leave. 12 As you enter a house, wish it peace. 13 If the house is worthy, let your peace come upon it; if not, let your peace return to you. 14 Whoever will not receive you or listen to your words - go outside that house or town and shake the dust from your feet. 15 Amen, I say to you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that town. 16 "Behold, I am sending you like sheep in the midst of wolves; so be shrewd as serpents and simple as doves. 17 But beware of people, for they will hand you over to courts and scourge you in their synagogues, 18 and you will be led before governors and kings for my sake as a witness before them and the pagans. 19 When they hand you over, do not worry about how you are to speak or what you are to say. You will be given at that moment what you are to say. 20 For it will not be you who speak but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you. 21 Brother will hand over brother to death, and the father his child; children will rise up against parents and have them put to death. 22 You will be hated by all because of my name, but whoever endures to the end will be saved. 23 When they persecute you in one town, flee to another. Amen, I say to you, you will not finish the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes. 24 No disciple is above his teacher, no slave above his master. 25 It is enough for the disciple that he become like his teacher, for the slave that he become like his master. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebul, how much more those of his household! 26 "Therefore do not be afraid of them. Nothing is concealed that will not be revealed, nor secret that will not be known. 27 What I say to you in the darkness, speak in the light; what you hear whispered, proclaim on the housetops. 28 And do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather, be afraid of the one who can destroy both soul and body in Gehenna. 29 Are not two sparrows sold for a small coin? Yet not one of them falls to the ground without your Father's knowledge. 30 Even all the hairs of your head are counted. 31 So do not be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows. 32 Everyone who acknowledges me before others I will acknowledge before my heavenly Father. 33 But whoever denies me before others, I will deny before my heavenly Father. 34 "Do not think that I have come to bring peace upon the earth. I have come to bring not peace but the sword. 35 For I have come to set a man 'against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; 36 and one's enemies will be those of his household.' 37 "Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me; 38 and whoever does not take up his cross and follow after me is not worthy of me. 39 Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. 40 "Whoever receives you receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me. 41 Whoever receives a prophet because he is a prophet will receive a prophet's reward, and whoever receives a righteous man because he is righteous will receive a righteous man's reward. 42 And whoever gives only a cup of cold water to one of these little ones to drink because he is a disciple - amen, I say to you, he will surely not lose his reward."

[138] Cf. Lc 6,13: 13 Et cum dies factus esset, vocavit discipulos suos et elegit Duodecim ex ipsis, quos et apostolos nominavit: ....

[138] Cf. Lk 6:13: 13 When day came, he called his disciples to himself, and from them he chose Twelve, 5 whom he also named apostles: ....

[139] Cf. Io 21,15-17*

[139] Cf. Jn 21:15-17*

[140] Cf. Rom 1,16*

[140] Cf. Rom 1:16*

[141] Cf. Mt 28,16-20*

[141] Cf. Mt 28:16-20*

[141b] Cf. Mc 16,15*

[141b] Cf. Mk 16:15*

[141c] Cf. Lc 24,45-48: 45 Tunc aperuit illis sensum, ut intellegerent Scripturas. 46 Et dixit eis: «Sic scriptum est, Christum pati et resurgere a mortuis die tertia, 47 et praedicari in nomine eius paenitentiam in remissionem peccatorum in omnes gentes, incipientibus ab Ierusalem. 48 Vos estis testes horum. 49 Et ecce ego mitto promissum Patris mei in vos; vos autem sedete in civitate, quoadusque induamini virtutem ex alto».

[141c] Cf. Lk 24:45-48: 45 Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures. 46 And he said to them, "Thus it is written that the Messiah would suffer and rise from the dead on the third day 47 and that repentance, for the forgiveness of sins, would be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem. 48 You are witnesses of these things. 49 And (behold) I am sending the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city until you are clothed with power from on high."

[141d] Cf. Io 20,21-23*

[141d] Cf. Jn 20:21-23*

[142] Cf. Mt 28,20*

[142] Cf. Mt 28:20*

[143] Cf. Act 2,1-26*

[143] Cf. Acts 2:1-26*

[144] Act 1,8*

[144] Acts 1:8*

[145] Cf. Mc 16,20*

[145] Cf. Mk 16:20*

[146] Cf. Apoc 21,14*

[146] Cf. Rev 21:14*

[146b] Cf. Mt 16,18*

[146b] Cf. Mt 16:18*

[146c] Cf. Eph 2,20*

[146c] Cf. Eph 2:20*

[147] Cf. Mt 28,20*

[147] Cf. Mt 28:20*

[148] Cf. Act 20,28*

[148] Cf. Acts 20:28*

[149] Cf. Lc 10,16: 1 Post haec autem designavit Dominus alios septuaginta duos et misit illos binos ante faciem suam in omnem civitatem et locum, quo erat ipse venturus. 2 Et dicebat illis: «Messis quidem multa, operarii autem pauci; rogate ergo Dominum messis, ut mittat operarios in messem suam. 3 Ite; ecce ego mitto vos sicut agnos inter lupos. 4 Nolite portare sacculum neque peram neque calceamenta et neminem per viam salutaveritis. 5 In quamcumque domum intraveritis, primum dicite: “Pax huic domui”. 6 Et si ibi fuerit filius pacis, requiescet super illam pax vestra; sin autem, ad vos revertetur. 7 In eadem autem domo manete edentes et bibentes, quae apud illos sunt: dignus enim est operarius mercede sua. Nolite transire de domo in domum. 8 Et in quamcumque civitatem intraveritis, et susceperint vos, manducate, quae apponuntur vobis, 9 et curate infirmos, qui in illa sunt, et dicite illis: “Appropinquavit in vos regnum Dei”. 10 In quamcumque civitatem intraveritis, et non receperint vos, exeuntes in plateas eius dicite: 11 “Etiam pulverem, qui adhaesit nobis ad pedes de civitate vestra, extergimus in vos; tamen hoc scitote, quia appropinquavit regnum Dei”. 12 Dico vobis quia Sodomis in die illa remissius erit quam illi civitati. 13 Vae tibi, Chorazin! Vae tibi, Bethsaida! Quia si in Tyro et Sidone factae fuissent virtutes, quae in vobis factae sunt, olim in cilicio et cinere sedentes paeniterent. 14 Verumtamen Tyro et Sidoni remissius erit in iudicio quam vobis. 15 Et tu, Capharnaum, numquid usque in caelum exaltaberis? Usque ad infernum demergeris! 16 Qui vos audit, me audit; et, qui vos spernit, me spernit; qui autem me spernit, spernit eum, qui me misit».

[149] Cf. Lk 10:16: 1 After this the Lord appointed seventy (-two) others whom he sent ahead of him in pairs to every town and place he intended to visit. 2 He said to them, "The harvest is abundant but the laborers are few; so ask the master of the harvest to send out laborers for his harvest. 3 Go on your way; behold, I am sending you like lambs among wolves. 4 Carry no money bag, no sack, no sandals; and greet no one along the way. 5 Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace to this household.' 6 If a peaceful person lives there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 7 Stay in the same house and eat and drink what is offered to you, for the laborer deserves his payment. Do not move about from one house to another. 8 Whatever town you enter and they welcome you, eat what is set before you, 9 cure the sick in it and say to them, 'The kingdom of God is at hand for you.' 10 Whatever town you enter and they do not receive you, go out into the streets and say, 11 'The dust of your town that clings to our feet, even that we shake off against you.' Yet know this: the kingdom of God is at hand. 12 I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Sodom on that day than for that town. 13 "Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty deeds done in your midst had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would long ago have repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14 But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment than for you. 15 And as for you, Capernaum, 'Will you be exalted to heaven? You will go down to the netherworld.'" 16 Whoever listens to you listens to me. Whoever rejects you rejects me. And whoever rejects me rejects the one who sent me."

[150] Cf. I Cor 4,15: 1 Sic nos existimet homo ut ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum Dei. 2 Hic iam quaeritur inter dispensatores, ut fidelis quis inveniatur. 3 Mihi autem pro minimo est, ut a vobis iudicer aut ab humano die. Sed neque meipsum iudico; 4 nihil enim mihi conscius sum, sed non in hoc iustificatus sum. Qui autem iudicat me, Dominus est! 5 Itaque nolite ante tempus quidquam iudicare, quoadusque veniat Dominus, qui et illuminabit abscondita tenebrarum et manifestabit consilia cordium; et tunc laus erit unicuique a Deo. 6 Haec autem, fratres, transfiguravi in me et Apollo propter vos, ut in nobis discatis illud: «Ne supra quae scripta sunt», ne unus pro alio inflemini adversus alterum. 7 Quis enim te discernit? Quid autem habes, quod non accepisti? Si autem accepisti, quid gloriaris, quasi non acceperis? 8 Iam saturati estis, iam divites facti estis. Sine nobis regnastis; et utinam regnaretis, ut et nos vobiscum regnaremus. 9 Puto enim, Deus nos apostolos novissimos ostendit tamquam morti destinatos, quia spectaculum facti sumus mundo et angelis et hominibus. 10 Nos stulti propter Christum, vos autem prudentes in Christo; nos infirmi, vos autem fortes; vos gloriosi, nos autem ignobiles. 11 Usque in hanc horam et esurimus et sitimus et nudi sumus et colaphis caedimur et instabiles sumus 12 et laboramus operantes manibus nostris; maledicti benedicimus, persecutionem passi sustinemus, 13 blasphemati obsecramus; tamquam purgamenta mundi facti sumus, omnium peripsema, usque adhuc. 14 Non ut confundam vos, haec scribo, sed ut quasi filios meos carissimos moneam; 15 nam si decem milia paedagogorum habeatis in Christo, sed non multos patres, nam in Christo Iesu per evangelium ego vos genui. 16 Rogo ergo vos: imitatorcs mei estote!

[150] Cf. 1 Cor 4:15: 1 Thus should one regard us: as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. 2 Now it is of course required of stewards that they be found trustworthy. 3 It does not concern me in the least that I be judged by you or any human tribunal; I do not even pass judgment on myself; 4 I am not conscious of anything against me, but I do not thereby stand acquitted; the one who judges me is the Lord. 5 Therefore, do not make any judgment before the appointed time, until the Lord comes, for he will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will manifest the motives of our hearts, and then everyone will receive praise from God. 6 I have applied these things to myself and Apollos for your benefit, brothers, so that you may learn from us not to go beyond what is written, so that none of you will be inflated with pride in favor of one person over against another. 7 Who confers distinction upon you? What do you possess that you have not received? But if you have received it, why are you boasting as if you did not receive it? 8 You are already satisfied; you have already grown rich; you have become kings without us! Indeed, I wish that you had become kings, so that we also might become kings with you. 9 For as I see it, God has exhibited us apostles as the last of all, like people sentenced to death, since we have become a spectacle to the world, to angels and human beings alike. 10 We are fools on Christ's account, but you are wise in Christ; we are weak, but you are strong; you are held in honor, but we in disrepute. 11 To this very hour we go hungry and thirsty, we are poorly clad and roughly treated, we wander about homeless 12 and we toil, working with our own hands. When ridiculed, we bless; when persecuted, we endure; 13 when slandered, we respond gently. We have become like the world's rubbish, the scum of all, to this very moment. 14 I am writing you this not to shame you, but to admonish you as my beloved children. 15 Even if you should have countless guides to Christ, yet you do not have many fathers, for I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel. 16 Therefore, I urge you, be imitators of me.

[151] Cf. I Cor 4,1*

[151] Cf. 1 Cor 4:1*

[152] Cf. Rom 15,16: 15 Audacius autem scripsi vobis ex parte, tamquam in memoriam vos reducens propter gratiam, quae data est mihi a Deo, 16 ut sim minister Christi Iesu ad gentes, consecrans evangelium Dei, ut fiat oblatio gentium accepta, sanctificata in Spiritu Sancto.

[152] Cf. Rom 15:16: 15 But I have written to you rather boldly in some respects to remind you, because of the grace given me by God 16 to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in performing the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering up of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the holy Spirit.

[152b] Act 20,24*

[152b] Acts 20:24*

[153] Cf. II Cor 3,8-9: 7 Quod si ministratio mortis, litteris deformata in lapidibus, fuit in gloria, ita ut non possent intendere filii Israel in faciem Moysis propter gloriam vultus eius, quae evacuatur, 8 quomodo non magis ministratio Spiritus erit in gloria? 9 Nam si ministerium damnationis gloria est, multo magis abundat ministerium iustitiae in gloria. 10 Nam nec glorificatum est, quod claruit in hac parte, propter excellentem gloriam; 11 si enim, quod evacuatur, per gloriam est, multo magis, quod manet, in gloria est. 12 Habentes igitur talem spem multa fiducia utimur, 13 et non sicut Moyses: ponebat velamen super faciem suam, ut non intenderent filii Israel in finem illius quod evacuatur. 14 Sed obtusi sunt sensus eorum. Usque in hodiernum enim diem idipsum velamen in lectione Veteris Testamenti manet non revelatum, quoniam in Christo evacuatur; 15 sed usque in hodiernum diem, cum legitur Moyses, velamen est positum super cor eorum. 16 Quando autem conversus fuerit ad Dominum, aufertur velamen. 17 Dominus autem Spiritus est; ubi autem Spiritus Domini, ibi libertas. 18 Nos vero omnes revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes, in eandem imaginem transformamur a claritate in clarita tem tamquam a Domini Spiritu.

[153] Cf. 2 Cor 3:8-9: 7 Now if the ministry of death, carved in letters on stone, was so glorious that the Israelites could not look intently at the face of Moses because of its glory that was going to fade, 8 how much more will the ministry of the Spirit be glorious? 9 For if the ministry of condemnation was glorious, the ministry of righteousness will abound much more in glory. 10 Indeed, what was endowed with glory has come to have no glory in this respect because of the glory that surpasses it. 11 For if what was going to fade was glorious, how much more will what endures be glorious. 12 Therefore, since we have such hope, we act very boldly 13 and not like Moses, who put a veil over his face so that the Israelites could not look intently at the cessation of what was fading. 14 Rather, their thoughts were rendered dull, for to this present day the same veil remains unlifted when they read the old covenant, because through Christ it is taken away. 15 To this day, in fact, whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their hearts, 16 but whenever a person turns to the Lord the veil is removed. 17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18 All of us, gazing with unveiled face on the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, as from the Lord who is the Spirit.

[154] Cf. Act 1,8*

[154] Cf. Acts 1:8*

[154b] Cf. Act 2,4*;

[154b] Cf. Acts 2:4*;

[154c] Cf. Io 20,22-23*

[154c] Cf. Jn 20:22-23*

[155] Cf. I Tim 4,14: 14 Noli neglegere donationem, quae in te est, quae data est tibi per prophetiam cum impositione manuum presbyterii.

[155] Cf. 1 Tim 4:14: 14 Do not neglect the gift you have, which was conferred on you through the prophetic word 8 with the imposition of hands of the presbyterate.

[155b] Cf. II Tim 1,6-7: 6 Propter quam causam admoneo te, ut resuscites donationem Dei, quae est in te per impositionem manuum mearum; 7 non enim dedit nobis Deus Spiritum timoris sed virtutis et dilectionis et sobrietatis.

[155b] Cf. 2 Tim 1:6-7: 6 For this reason, I remind you to stir into flame the gift of God that you have through the imposition of my hands. 7 For God did not give us a spirit of cowardice but rather of power and love and self-control.

[156] Cf. Mt 16,18-19*

[156] Cf. Mt 16:18-19*

[157] Cf. Io 21,15ss*

[157] Cf. Jn 21:15ff*

[158] Mt 16,19*

[158] Mt 16:19*

[159] Cf. Mt 18,18: 18 Amen dico vobis: Quaecumque alligaveritis super terram, erunt ligata in caelo; et, quaecumque solveritis super terram, erunt soluta in caelo.

[159] Cf. Mt 18:18: 18 Amen, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

[159b] Cf. Mt 28,16-20*

[159b] Cf. Mt 28:16-20*

[160] Cf. Mt 5,10*

[160] Cf. Mt 5:10*

[161] Cf. Mt 28,18*

[161] Cf. Mt 28:18*

[161b] Cf. Mc 16,15-16*

[161b] Cf. Mk 16:15-16*

[161c] Cf. Act 26,17s: 14 omnesque nos cum decidissemus in terram, audivi vocem loquentem mihi Hebraica lingua: «Saul, Saul, quid me persequeris? Durum est tibi contra stimulum calcitrare». 15 Ego autem dixi: «Quis es, Domine?». Dominus autem dixit: «Ego sum Iesus, quem tu persequeris. 16 Sed exsurge et sta super pedes tuos; ad hoc enim apparui tibi, ut constituam te ministrum et testem eorum, quae vidisti, et eorum, quibus apparebo tibi, 17 eripiens te de populo et de gentibus, in quas ego mitto te 18 aperire oculos eorum, ut convertantur a tenebris ad lucem et de potestate Satanae ad Deum, ut accipiant remissionem peccatorum et sortem inter sanctificatos per fidem, quae est in me». 19 Unde, rex Agrippa, non fui incredulus caelestis visionis, 20 sed his, qui sunt Damasci primum et Hierosolymis, et in omnem regionem Iudaeae et gentibus annuntiabam, ut paenitentiam agerent et converterentur ad Deum digna paenitentiae opera facientes.

[161c] Cf. Acts 26:17ff: 14 We all fell to the ground and I heard a voice saying to me in Hebrew, "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? It is hard for you to kick against the goad." 15 And I said, "Who are you, sir?" And the Lord replied, "I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 16 Get up now, and stand on your feet. I have appeared to you for this purpose, to appoint you as a servant and witness of what you have seen (of me) and what you will be shown. 17 I shall deliver you from this people and from the Gentiles to whom I send you, 18 to open their eyes that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, so that they may obtain forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who have been consecrated by faith in me." 19 And so, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision. 20 On the contrary, first to those in Damascus and in Jerusalem and throughout the whole country of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, I preached the need to repent and turn to God, and to do works giving evidence of repentance.

[162] Cf. Act 1,8-2,1ff*

[162] Cf. Acts 1:8-2:1ff*

[162b] Cf. Act 9,15: 15 Dixit autem ad eum [Ananias] Dominus: «Vade, quoniam vas electionis est mihi iste, ut portet nomen meum coram gentibus et regibus et filiis Israel; 16 ego enim ostendam illi [Saul] quanta oporteat eum pro nomine meo pati».

[162b] Cf. Acts 9:15: 15 But the Lord said to [Ananias], "Go, for this man [Saul] is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before Gentiles, kings, and Israelites, 16 and I will show him what he will have to suffer for my name."

[163] Cf. Act 1,17 et 25*

[163] Cf. Acts 1:17 and 25*

[163b] Cf. Act 21,19: 19 Quos cum salutasset, narrabat per singula, quae fecisset Deus in gentibus per ministerium ipsius.

[163b] Cf. Acts 21:19: 19 He greeted them, then proceeded to tell them in detail what God had accomplished among the Gentiles through his ministry.

[163c] Cf. Rom 11,13*

[163c] Cf. Rom 11:13*

[163d] Cf. I Tim 1,12: 12 Gratiam habeo ei, qui me confortavit, Christo Iesu Domino nostro, quia fidelem me existimavit ponens in ministerio

[163d] Cf. 1 Tim 1:12: 12 I am grateful to him who has strengthened me, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he considered me trustworthy in appointing me to the ministry.

[164] Cf. Mt 13,52: 52 Ait [Iesus] autem illis: «Ideo omnis scriba doctus in regno caelorum similis est homini patri familias, qui profert de thesauro suo nova et vetera».

[164] Cf. Mt 13:52: 52 And [Jesus] replied, "Then every scribe who has been instructed in the kingdom of heaven is like the head of a household who brings from his storeroom both the new and the old."

[165] Cf. II Tim 4,1-4: 1 Testificor coram Deo et Christo Iesu, qui iudicaturus est vivos ac mortuos, per adventum ipsius et regnum eius: 2 praedica verbum, insta opportune, importune, argue, increpa, obsecra in omni longanimitate et doctrina. 3 Erit enim tempus, cum sanam doctrinam non sustinebunt, sed ad sua desideria coacervabunt sibi magistros prurientes auribus, 4 et a veritate quidem auditum avertent, ad fabulas autem convertentur.

[165] Cf. 2 Tim 4:1-4: 1 I charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who willjudge the living and the dead, and by his appearing and his kingly power: 2 proclaim the word; be persistent whether it is convenient or inconvenient; convince, reprimand, encourage through all patience and teaching. 3 For the time will come when people will not tolerate sound doctrine but, following their own desires and insatiable curiosity, will accumulate teachers 4 and will stop listening to the truth and will be diverted to myths.

[166] Cf. Lc 22,32: 25 Dixit autem eis: «Reges gentium dominantur eorum; et, qui potestatem habent super eos, benefici vocantur. 26 Vos autem non sic, sed qui maior est in vobis, fiat sicut iunior; et, qui praecessor est, sicut ministrator. 27 Nam quis maior est: qui recumbit, an qui ministrat? Nonne qui recumbit? Ego autem in medio vestrum sum, sicut qui ministrat. 28 Vos autem estis, qui permansistis mecum in tentationibus meis; 29 et ego dispono vobis, sicut disposuit mihi Pater meus regnum, 30 ut edatis et bibatis super mensam meam in regno meo et sedeatis super thronos iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel. 31 Simon, Simon, ecce Satanas expetivit vos, ut cribraret sicut triticum; 32 ego autem rogavi pro te, ut non deficiat fides tua. Et tu, aliquando conversus, confirma fratres tuos». 33 Qui dixit ei: «Domine, tecum paratus sum et in carcerem et in mortem ire». 34 Et ille dixit: «Dico tibi, Petre, non cantabit hodie gallus, donec ter abneges nosse me».

[166] Cf. Lk 22:32: 25 He said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them and those in authority over them are addressed as 'Benefactors'; 26 but among you it shall not be so. Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest, and the leader as the servant. 27 For who is greater: the one seated at table or the one who serves? Is it not the one seated at table? I am among you as the one who serves. 28 It is you who have stood by me in my trials; 29 and I confer a kingdom on you, just as my Father has conferred one on me, 30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 31 Simon, Simon, behold Satan has demanded to sift all of you like wheat, 32 but I have prayed that your own faith may not fail; and once you have turned back, you must strengthen your brothers." 33 He said to him, "Lord, I am prepared to go to prison and to die with you." 34 But he replied, "I tell you, Peter, before the cock crows this day, you will deny three times that you know me."

[167] Cf. I Thess 1,5: 5 quia evangelium nostrum non fuit ad vos in sermone tantum sed et in virtute et in Spiritu Sancto et in plenitudine multa, sicut scitis quales fuerimus vobis propter vos.

[167] Cf. 1 Thess 1:5: 5 For our gospel did not come to you in word alone, but also in power and in the holy Spirit and (with) much conviction. You know what sort of people we were (among) you for your sake.

[168] Cf. Rom 1,16*

[168] Cf. Rom 1:16*

[169] Cf. Lc 22,26-27*

[169] Cf. Lk 22:26-27*

[170] Cf. Mt 20,28: 28 sicut Filius hominis non venit ministrari sed ministrare et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.

[170] Cf. Mt 20:28: 28 Just so, the Son of Man did not come to be served but to serve and to give his life as a ransom 11 for many.

[170b] Cf. Mc 10,45*

[170b] Cf. Mk 10:45*

[171] Cf. Io 10,11*

[171] Cf. Jn 10:11*

[172] Cf. Hebr 5,1-2*

[172] Cf. Heb 5:1-2*

[173] Cf. Hebr 13,17*

[173] Cf. Heb 13:17*

[174] Cf. Rom 1,14-15*

[174] Cf. Rom 1:14-15*

[175] Cf. II Cor 4,15: 15 Omnia enim propter vos, ut gratia abundans per multos gratiarum actionem abundare faciat in gloriam Dei.

[175] Cf. 2 Cor 4:15: 15 Everything indeed is for you, so that the grace bestowed in abundance on more and more people may cause the thanksgiving to overflow for the glory of God.

[176] Cf. Io 10,36: 34 Respondit eis Iesus: «Nonne scriptum est in lege vestra: “Ego dixi: Dii estis?”. 35 Si illos dixit deos, ad quos sermo Dei factus est, et non potest solvi Scriptura, 36 quem Pater sanctificavit et misit in mundum, vos dicitis: “Blasphemas!”, quia dixi: Filius Dei sum? 37 Si non facio opera Patris mei, nolite credere mihi; 38 si autem facio, et si mihi non vultis credere, operibus credite, ut cognoscatis et sciatis quia in me est Pater, et ego in Patre».

[176] Cf. Jn 10:36: 34 Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, "You are gods"'? 35 If it calls them gods to whom the word of God came, and scripture cannot be set aside, 36 can you say that the one whom the Father has consecrated and sent into the world blasphemes because I said, 'I am the Son of God'? 37 If I do not perform my Father's works, do not believe me; 38 but if I perform them, even if you do not believe me, believe the works, so that you may realize (and understand) that the Father is in me and I am in the Father."

[177] Hebr 5,1-10*

[177] Heb 5:1-10*

[177b] Hebr 7,24*

[177b] Heb 7:24*

[177c] Hebr 9,11-28: 11 Christus autem cum advenit pontifex futurorum bonorum, per amplius et perfectius tabernaculum, non manufactum, id est non huius creationis, 12 neque per sanguinem hircorum et vitulorum sed per proprium sanguinem introivit semel in Sancta, aeterna redemptione inventa. 13 Si enim sanguis hircorum et taurorum et cinis vitulae aspersus inquinatos sanctificat ad emundationem carnis, 14 quanto magis sanguis Christi, qui per Spiritum aeternum semetipsum obtulit immaculatum Deo, emundabit conscientiam nostram ab operibus mortuis ad serviendum Deo viventi. 15 Et ideo novi testamenti mediator est, ut, morte intercedente in redemptionem earum praevaricationum, quae erant sub priore testamento, repromissionem accipiant, qui vocati sunt aeternae hereditatis. 16 Ubi enim testamentum, mors necesse est afferatur testatoris; 17 testamentum autem in mortuis est confirmatum, nondum enim valet, dum vivit, qui testatus est. 18 Unde ne prius quidem sine sanguine dedicatum est; 19 enuntiato enim omni mandato secundum legem a Moyse universo populo, accipiens sanguinem vitulorum et hircorum cum aqua et lana coccinea et hyssopo, ipsum librum et omnem populum aspersit 20 dicens: “ Hic sanguis testamenti, quod mandavit ad vos Deus ”; 21 etiam tabernaculum et omnia vasa ministerii sanguine similiter aspersit. 22 Et omnia paene in sanguine mundantur secundum legem, et sine sanguinis effusione non fit remissio. 23 Necesse erat ergo figuras quidem caelestium his mundari, ipsa autem caelestia melioribus hostiis quam istis. 24 Non enim in manufacta Sancta Christus introivit, quae sunt similitudo verorum, sed in ipsum caelum, ut appareat nunc vultui Dei pro nobis; 25 neque ut saepe offerat semetipsum, quemadmodum pontifex intrat in Sancta per singulos annos in sanguine alieno. 26 Alioquin oportebat eum frequenter pati ab origine mundi; nunc autem semel in consummatione saeculorum ad destitutionem peccati per sacrificium sui manifestatus est. 27 Et quemadmodum statutum est hominibus semel mori, post hoc autem iudicium, 28 sic et Christus, semel oblatus ad multorum auferenda peccata, secundo sine peccato apparebit exspectantibus se in salutem.

[177c] Heb 9:11-28: 11 But when Christ came as high priest of the good things that have come to be, passing through the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made by hands, that is, not belonging to this creation, 12 he entered once for all into the sanctuary, not with the blood of goats and calves but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the sprinkling of a heifer's ashes can sanctify those who are defiled so that their flesh is cleansed, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal spirit offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from dead works to worship the living God. 15 For this reason he is mediator of a new covenant: since a death has taken place for deliverance from transgressions under the first covenant, those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance. 16 Now where there is a will, the death of the testator must be established. 17 For a will takes effect only at death; it has no force while the testator is alive. 18 Thus not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood. 19 When every commandment had been proclaimed by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves (and goats), together with water and crimson wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, "This is 'the blood of the covenant which God has enjoined upon you.'" 21 In the same way, he sprinkled also the tabernacle and all the vessels of worship with blood. 22 According to the law almost everything is purified by blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 23 Therefore, it was necessary for the copies of the heavenly things to be purified by these rites, but the heavenly things themselves by better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ did not enter into a sanctuary made by hands, a copy of the true one, but heaven itself, that he might now appear before God on our behalf. 25 Not that he might offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters each year into the sanctuary with blood that is not his own; 26 if that were so, he would have had to suffer repeatedly from the foundation of the world. But now once for all he has appeared at the end of the ages to take away sin by his sacrifice. 27 Just as it is appointed that human beings die once, and after this the judgment, 28 so also Christ, offered once to take away the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to take away sin but to bring salvation to those who eagerly await him.

[178] Cf. I Tim 2,5*

[178] Cf. 1 Tim 2:5*

[179] Cf. I Cor 11,26*

[179] Cf. 1 Cor 11:26*

[180] Cf. Hebr 9,11-28*

[180] Cf. Heb 9:11-28*

[181] Cf. Hebr 5,1-4*

[181] Cf. Heb 5:1-4*

[182] Cf. Io 4,24*

[182] Cf. Jn 4:24*

[183] Cf. I Tim 5,17: 17 Qui bene praesunt presbyteri, duplici honore digni habeantur, maxime qui laborant in verbo et doctrina; 18 dicit enim Scriptura: «Non infrenabis os bovi trituranti» et: «Dignus operarius mercede sua».

[183] Cf. 1 Tim 5:17: 17 Presbyters who preside well deserve double honor, especially those who toil in preaching and teaching. 18 For the scripture says, "You shall not muzzle an ox when it is threshing," and, "A worker deserves his pay."

[184] Cf. Eph 4,12*

[184] Cf. Eph 4:12*

[185] Cf. Io 15,15*

[185] Cf. Jn 15:15*

[186] Cf. I Cor 4,15*

[186] Cf. 1 Cor 4:15*

[186b] Cf. I Pt 1,23*

[186b] Cf. 1 Pet 1:23*

[187] Cf. I Pt 5,3*

[187] Cf. 1 Pet 5:3*

[188] Cf. I Cor 1,2: 1 Paulus, vocatus apostolus Christi Iesu per voluntatem Dei, et Sosthenes frater 2 ecclesiae Dei, quae est Corinthi, sanctificatis in Christo Iesu, vocatis sanctis cum omnibus, qui invocant nomen Domini nostri Iesu Christi in omni loco ipsorum et nostro

[188] Cf. 1 Cor 1:2: 1 Paul, called to be an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, 2 to the church of God that is in Corinth, to you who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be holy, with all those everywhere who call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours.

[188b] Cf. II Cor 1,1: 1 Paulus, apostolus Christi Iesu per voluntatem Dei, et Timotheus frater ecclesiae Dei, quae est Corinthi, cum sanctis omnibus, qui sunt in universa Achaia: 2 gratia vobis et pax a Deo Patre nostro et Domino Iesu Christo.

[188b] Cf. 2 Cor 1:1: 1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the church of God that is in Corinth, with all the holy ones throughout Achaia: 2 grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

[189] Cf. Lc 15,4-7: 3 Et ait ad illos parabolam istam dicens: 4 «Quis ex vobis homo, qui habet centum oves et si perdiderit unam ex illis, nonne dimittit nonaginta novem in deserto et vadit ad illam, quae perierat, donec inveniat illam? 5 Et cum invenerit eam, imponit in umeros suos gaudens 6 et veniens domum convocat amicos et vicinos dicens illis: “Congratulamini mihi, quia inveni ovem meam, quae perierat”. 7 Dico vobis: Ita gaudium erit in caelo super uno peccatore paenitentiam agente quam super nonaginta novem iustis, qui non indigent paenitentia. ...»

[189] Cf. Lk 15:4-7: 3 So to them he addressed this parable. 4 "What man among you having a hundred sheep and losing one of them would not leave the ninety-nine in the desert and go after the lost one until he finds it? 5 And when he does find it, he sets it on his shoulders with great joy 6 and, upon his arrival home, he calls together his friends and neighbors and says to them, 'Rejoice with me because I have found my lost sheep.' 7 I tell you, in just the same way there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous people who have no need of repentance. ..."

[190] Eph 4,15-16*

[190] Eph 4:15-16*

[191] Rom 12,4-5*

[191] Rom 12:4-5*

[192] Eph 4,5: 1 Obsecro itaque vos ego, vinctus in Domino, ut digne ambuletis vocatione, qua vocati estis, 2 cum omni humilitate et mansuetudine, cum longanimitate, supportantes invicem in caritate, 3 solliciti servare unitatem spiritus in vinculo pacis; 4 unum corpus et unus Spiritus, sicut et vocati estis in una spe vocationis vestrae; 5 unus Dominus, una fides, unum baptisma; 6 unus Deus et Pater omnium, qui super omnes et per omnia et in omnibus. 7 Unicuique autem nostrum data est gratia secundum mensuram donationis Christi.

[192] Eph 4:5: 1 I, then, a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to live in a manner worthy of the call you have received, 2 with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another through love, 3 striving to preserve the unity of the spirit through the bond of peace: 4 one body and one Spirit, as you were also called to the one hope of your call; 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism; 6 one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. 7 But grace was given to each of us according to the measure of Christ's gift.

[193] Gal 3,28: 27 Quicumque enim in Christum baptizati estis, Christum induistis: 28 non est Iudaeus neque Graecus, non est servus neque liber, non est masculus et femina; omnes enim vos unus estis in Christo Iesu. 29 Si autem vos Christi, ergo Abrahae semen estis, secundum promissionem heredes.

[193] Gal 3:28: 27 For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free person, there is not male and female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's descendant, heirs according to the promise.

[193b] Cf. Col 3,11*

[193b] Cf. Col 3:11*

[194] Cf. II Pt 1,1: 1 Simon Petrus servus et apostolus Iesu Christi his, qui coaequalem nobis sortiti sunt fidem in iustitia Dei nostri et salvatoris Iesu Christi: 2 gratia vobis et pax multiplicetur in cognitione Dei et Iesu Domini nostri.

[194] Cf. 2 Pet 1:1: 1 Symeon Peter, a slave and apostle of Jesus Christ, to those who have received a faith of equal value to ours through the righteousness of our God and savior Jesus Christ: 2 may grace and peace be yours in abundance through knowledge of God and of Jesus our Lord.

[195] I Cor 12,11*

[195] 1 Cor 12:11*

[196] Cf. Mt 20,28*

[196] Cf. Mt 20:28*

[197] Eph 4,7*

[197] Eph 4:7*

[198] Cf. Phil 4,3: 1 Itaque, fratres mei carissimi et desideratissimi, gaudium et corona mea, sic state in Domino, carissimi! 2 Evodiam rogo et Syntychen deprecor idipsum sapere in Domino. 3 Etiam rogo et te, germane compar, adiuva illas, quae mecum concertaverunt in evangelio cum Clemente et ceteris adiutoribus meis, quorum nomina sunt in libro vitae.

[198] Cf. Phil 4:3: 1 Therefore, my brothers, whom I love and long for, my joy and crown, in this way stand firm in the Lord, beloved. 2 I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to come to a mutual understanding in the Lord. 3 Yes, and I ask you also, my true yokemate, to help them, for they have struggled at my side in promoting the gospel, along with Clement and my other co-workers, whose names are in the book of life.

[198b] Cf. Rom 16,3: 1 Commendo autem vobis Phoebem sororem nostram, quae est ministra ecclesiae, quae est Cenchreis, 2 ut eam suscipiatis in Domino digne sanctis et assistatis ei in quocumque negotio vestri indiguerit; etenim ipsa astitit multis et mihi ipsi. 3 Salutate Priscam et Aquilam adiutores meos in Christo Iesu, 4 qui pro anima mea suas cervices supposuerunt, quibus non solus ego gratias ago sed et cunctae ecclesiae gentium;

[198b] Cf. Rom 16:3: 1 I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is (also) a minister of the church at Cenchreae, 2 that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the holy ones, and help her in whatever she may need from you, for she has been a benefactor to many and to me as well. 3 Greet Prisca and Aquila, my co-workers in Christ Jesus, 4 who risked their necks for my life, to whom not only I am grateful but also all the churches of the Gentiles;

[199] Cf. I Pt 2,5*

[199] Cf. 1 Pet 2:5*

[200] Cf. Act 2,17-18*

[200] Cf. Acts 2:17-18*

[200b] Cf. Apoc 19,10*

[200b] Cf. Rev 19:10*

[201] Cf. Eph 5,16: 15 Videte itaque caute quomodo ambuletis, non quasi insipientes sed ut sapientes, 16 redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. 17 Propterea nolite fieri imprudentes, sed intellegite, quae sit voluntas Domini.

[201] Cf. Eph 5:16: 15 Watch carefully then how you live, not as foolish persons but as wise, 16 making the most of the opportunity, because the days are evil. 17 Therefore, do not continue in ignorance, but try to understand what is the will of the Lord.

[201b] Cf. Col 4,5: 1 Domini, quod iustum est et aequum, servis praestate, scientes quoniam et vos Dominum habetis in caelo. 2 Orationi instate, vigilantes in ea in gratiarum actione, 3 orantes simul et pro nobis, ut Deus aperiat nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi, propter quod etiam vinctus sum, 4 ut manifestem illud, ita ut oportet me loqui. 5 In sapientia ambulate ad eos, qui foris sunt, tempus redimentes.

[201b] Cf. Col 4:5: 1 Masters, treat your slaves justly and fairly, realizing that you too have a Master in heaven. 2 Persevere in prayer, being watchful in it with thanksgiving; 3 at the same time, pray for us, too, that God may open a door to us for the word, to speak of the mystery of Christ, for which I am in prison, 4 that I may make it clear, as I must speak. 5 Conduct yourselves wisely toward outsiders, making the most of the opportunity.

[202] Cf. Rom 8,25*

[202] Cf. Rom 8:25*

[203] Eph 6,12: 11 Induite armaturam Dei, ut possitis stare adversus insidias Diaboli. 12 Quia non est nobis colluctatio adversus sanguinem et carnem sed adversus principatus, adversus potestates, adversus mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, adversus spiritalia nequitiae in caelestibus. 13 Propterea accipite armaturam Dei, ut possitis resistere in die malo et, omnibus perfectis, stare.

[203] Eph 6:12: 11 Put on the armor of God so that you may be able to stand firm against the tactics of the devil. 12 For our struggle is not with flesh and blood but with the principalities, with the powers, with the world rulers of this present darkness, with the evil spirits in the heavens. 13 Therefore, put on the armor of God, that you may be able to resist on the evil day and, having done everything, to hold your ground.

[204] Cf. Apoc 21,1*

[204] Cf. Rev 21:1*

[205] Cf. Hebr 11,1: 1 Est autem fides sperandorum substantia, rerum argumentum non apparentium.

[205] Cf. Heb 11:1: 1 Faith is the realization of what is hoped for and evidence of things not seen.

[206] Cf. Phil 2,8-9*

[206] Cf. Phil 2:8-9*

[207] Cf. I Cor 15,27-28: 25 Oportet autem illum regnare, donec ponat omnes inimicos sub pedibus eius. 26 Novissima autem inimica destruetur mors; 27 omnia enim subiecit sub pedibus eius. Cum autem dicat: «Omnia subiecta sunt», sine dubio praeter eum, qui subiecit ei omnia. 28 Cum autem subiecta fuerint illi omnia, tunc ipse Filius subiectus erit illi, qui sibi subiecit omnia, ut sit Deus omnia in omnibus.

[207] Cf. 1 Cor 15:27-28: 25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death, 27 for "he subjected everything under his feet." But when it says that everything has been subjected, it is clear that it excludes the one who subjected everything to him. 28 When everything is subjected to him, then the Son himself will (also) be subjected to the one who subjected everything to him, so that God may be all in all.

[208] Cf. Rom 6,12*

[208] Cf. Rom 6:12*

[209] Cf. Rom 8,21*

[209] Cf. Rom 8:21*

[210] I Cor 3,23*

[210] 1 Cor 3:23*

[211] Cf. Hebr 13,17*

[211] Cf. Heb 13:17*

[212] Cf. Gal 5,22: 18 Quod si Spiritu ducimini, non estis sub lege. 19 Manifesta autem sunt opera carnis, quae sunt fornicatio, immunditia, luxuria, 20 idolorum servitus, veneficia, inimicitiae, contentiones, aemulationes, irae, rixae, dissensiones, sectae, 21 invidiae, ebrietates, comissationes et his similia; quae praedico vobis, sicut praedixi, quoniam, qui talia agunt, regnum Dei non consequentur. 22 Fructus autem Spiritus est caritas, gaudium, pax, longanimitas, benignitas, bonitas, fides, 23 mansuetudo, continentia; adversus huiusmodi non est lex.

[212] Cf. Gal 5:22: 18 But if you are guided by the Spirit, you are not under the law. 19 Now the works of the flesh are obvious: immorality, impurity, licentiousness, 20 idolatry, sorcery, hatreds, rivalry, jealousy, outbursts of fury, acts of selfishness, dissensions, factions, 21 occasions of envy, drinking bouts, orgies, and the like. I warn you, as I warned you before, that those who do such things will not inherit the kingdom of God. 22 In contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.

[213] Cf. Mt 5,3-9*

[213] Cf. Mt 5:3-9*

[214] Cf. Eph 5,25-26*

[214] Cf. Eph 5:25-26*

[215] I Thess 4,3: 1 De cetero ergo, fratres, rogamus vos et obsecramus in Domino Iesu, ut -- quemadmodum accepistis a nobis quomodo vos oporteat ambulare et placere Deo, sicut et ambulatis -- ut abundetis magis. 2 Scitis enim, quae praecepta dederimus vobis per Dominum Iesum. 3 Haec est enim voluntas Dei, sanctificatio vestra, 4 ut abstineatis a fornicatione; ut sciat unusquisque vestrum suum vas possidere in sanctificatione et honore, 5 non in passione desiderii, sicut et gentes, quae ignorant Deum; 6 ut ne quis supergrediatur neque circumveniat in negotio fratrem suum, quoniam vindex est Dominus de his omnibus, sicut et praediximus vobis et testificati sumus.

[215] 1 Thess 4:3: 1 Finally, brothers, we earnestly ask and exhort you in the Lord Jesus that, as you received from us how you should conduct yourselves to please God -- and as you are conducting yourselves -- you do so even more. 2 For you know what instructions we gave you through the Lord Jesus. 3 This is the will of God, your holiness: that you refrain from immorality, 4 that each of you know how to acquire a wife for himself in holiness and honor, 5 not in lustful passion as do the Gentiles who do not know God; 6 not to take advantage of or exploit a brother in this matter, for the Lord is an avenger in all these things, as we told you before and solemnly affirmed.

[215b] Cf. Eph 1,4: 3 Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spiritali in caelestibus in Christo, 4 sicut elegit nos in ipso ante mundi constitutionem, ut essemus sancti et immaculati in conspectu eius in caritate; 5 qui praedestinavit nos in adoptionem filiorum per Iesum Christum in ipsum, secundum beneplacitum voluntatis suae, 6 in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, in qua gratificavit nos in Dilecto

[215b] cf. Eph 1:4: 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavens, 4 as he chose us in him, before the foundation of the world, to be holy and without blemish before him. In love 5 he destined us for adoption to himself through Jesus Christ, in accord with the favor of his will, 6 for the praise of the glory of his grace that he granted us in the beloved.

[216] Mt 5,48: 48 Estote ergo vos perfecti, sicut Pater vester caelestis perfectus est.

[216] Mt 5:48: 48 So be perfect, just as your heavenly Father is perfect.

[217] Cf. Mc 12,30: 28 Et accessit unus de scribis, qui audierat illos conquirentes, videns quoniam bene illis responderit, interrogavit eum: «Quod est primum omnium mandatum?». 29 Iesus respondit: «Primum est: “Audi, Israel: Dominus Deus noster Dominus unus est, 30 et diliges Dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo et ex tota anima tua et ex tota mente tua et ex tota virtute tua”. 31 Secundum est illud: “Diliges proximum tuum tamquam teipsum”. Maius horum aliud mandatum non est».

[217] Cf. Mk 12:30: 28 One of the scribes, when he came forward and heard them disputing and saw how well he had answered them, asked him, "Which is the first of all the commandments?" 29 Jesus replied, "The first is this: 'Hear, O Israel! The Lord our God is Lord alone! 30 You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.' 31 The second is this: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these."

[218] Cf. Io 13,34*

[218] Cf. Jn 13:34*

[218b] Cf. Io 15,12*

[218b] Cf. Jn 15:12*

[219] Eph 5,3: 1 Estote ergo imitatores Dei, sicut filii carissimi, 2 et ambulate in dilectione, sicut et Christus dilexit nos et tradidit seipsum pro nobis oblationem et hostiam Deo in odorem suavitatis. 3 Fornicatio autem et omnis immunditia aut avaritia nec nominetur in vobis, sicut decet sanctos, 4 et turpitudo et stultiloquium aut scurrilitas, quae non decent, sed magis gratiarum actio.

[219] Eph 5:3: 1 So be imitators of God, as beloved children, 2 and live in love, as Christ loved us and handed himself over for us as a sacrificial offering to God for a fragrant aroma. 3 Immorality or any impurity or greed must not even be mentioned among you, as is fitting among holy ones, 4 no obscenity or silly or suggestive talk, which is out of place, but instead, thanksgiving.

[220] Col 3,12*

[220] Col 3:12*

[221] Cf. Gal 5,22: 22 Fructus autem Spiritus est caritas, gaudium, pax, longanimitas, benignitas, bonitas, fides, 23 mansuetudo, continentia; adversus huiusmodi non est lex.

[221] Cf. Gal 5:22: 22 In contrast, the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control. Against such there is no law.

[221b] Cf. Rom 6,22*

[221b] Cf. Rom 6:22*

[222] Cf. Iac 3,2: 1 Nolite plures magistri fieri, fratres mei, scientes quoniam maius iudicium accipiemus. 2 In multis enim offendimus omnes. Si quis in verbo non offendit, hic perfectus est vir, potens etiam freno circumducere totum corpus.

[222] Cf. Jas 3:2: 1 Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers, for you realize that we will be judged more strictly, 2 for we all fall short in many respects. If anyone does not fall short in speech, he is a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body also.

[223] Mt 6,12: 9 Sic ergo vos orabitis: Pater noster, qui es in caelis, sanctificetur nomen tuum, 10 adveniat regnum tuum, fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. 11 Panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie; 12 et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris; 13 et ne inducas nos in tentationem, sed libera nos a Malo.

[223] Mt 6:12: 9 This is how you are to pray: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, 10 your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as in heaven. 11 Give us today our daily bread; 12 and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors; 13 and do not subject us to the final test, but deliver us from the evil one.

[224] Cf. I Pt 5,3*

[224] Cf. 1 Pet 5:3*

[225] Cf. I Tim 3,8-10 et 12-13: 8 Diaconos similiter pudicos, non bilingues, non multo vino deditos, non turpe lucrum sectantes, 9 habentes mysterium fidei in conscientia pura. 10 Et hi autem probentur primum, deinde ministrent nullum crimen habentes. 11 Mulieres similiter pudicas, non detrahentes, sobrias, fideles in omnibus. 12 Diaconi sint unius uxoris viri, qui filiis suis bene praesint et suis domibus; 13 qui enim bene ministraverint, gradum sibi bonum acquirent et multam fiduciam in fide, quae est in Christo Iesu.

[225] Cf. 1 Tim 3:8-10 and 12-13: 8 Similarly, deacons must be dignified, not deceitful, not addicted to drink, not greedy for sordid gain, 9 holding fast to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. 10 Moreover, they should be tested first; then, if there is nothing against them, let them serve as deacons. 11 Women, similarly, should be dignified, not slanderers, but temperate and faithful in everything. 12 Deacons may be married only once and must manage their children and their households well. 13 Thus those who serve well as deacons gain good standing and much confidence in their faith in Christ Jesus.

[226] I Pt 5,10: 10 Deus autem omnis gratiae, qui vocavit vos in aeternam suam gloriam in Christo Iesu, modicum passos ipse perficiet, confirmabit, solidabit, fundabit.

[226] 1 Pet 5:10: 10 The God of all grace who called you to his eternal glory through Christ (Jesus) will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you after you have suffered a little.

[227] I Io 4,16: 16 Et nos, qui credidimus, novimus caritatem, quam habet Deus in nobis. Deus caritas est; et, qui manet in caritate, in Deo manet, et Deus in eo manet.

[227] 1 Jn 4:16: 16 We have come to know and to believe in the love God has for us. God is love, and whoever remains in love remains in God and God in him.

[228] Cf. Rom 5,5: 1 Iustificati igitur ex fide, pacem habemus ad Deum per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, 2 per quem et accessum habemus fide in gratiam istam, in qua stamus et gloriamur in spe gloriae Dei. 3 Non solum autem, sed et gloriamur in tribulationibus, scientes quod tribulatio patientiam operatur, 4 patientia autem probationem, probatio vero spem; 5 spes autem non confundit, quia caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum Sanctum, qui datus est nobis. 6 Adhuc enim Christus, cum adhuc infirmi essemus, secundum tempus pro impiis mortuus est.

[228] Cf. Rom 5:5: 1 Therefore, since we have been justified by faith, we have peace 2 with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 2 through whom we have gained access (by faith) to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in hope of the glory of God. 3 Not only that, but we even boast of our afflictions, knowing that affliction produces endurance, 4 and endurance, proven character, and proven character, hope, 5 and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out into our hearts through the holy Spirit that has been given to us. 6 For Christ, while we were still helpless, yet died at the appointed time for the ungodly.

[229] Cf. Col 3,14*

[229] Cf. Col 3:14*

[229b] Cf. Rom 13,10: 7 Reddite omnibus debita: cui tributum tributum, cui vectigal vectigal, cui timorem timorem, cui honorem honorem. 8 Nemini quidquam debeatis, nisi ut invicem diligatis: qui enim diligit proximum, legem implevit. 9 Nam: Non adulterabis, Non occides, Non furaberis, Non concupisces, et si quod est aliud mandatum, in hoc verbo recapitulatur: Diliges proximum tuum tamquam teipsum. 10 Dilectio proximo malum non operatur; plenitudo ergo legis est dilectio.

[229b] Cf. Rom 13:10: 7 Pay to all their dues, taxes to whom taxes are due, toll to whom toll is due, respect to whom respect is due, honor to whom honor is due. 8 Owe nothing to anyone, except to love one another; for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law. 9 The commandments, "You shall not commit adultery; you shall not kill; you shall not steal; you shall not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this saying, (namely) "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 10 Love does no evil to the neighbor; hence, love is the fulfillment of the law.

[230] Cf. I Io 3,16: 16 In hoc novimus caritatem, quoniam ille pro nobis animam suam posuit; et nos debemus pro fratribus animas ponere.

[230] Cf. 1 Jn 3:16: 16 The way we came to know love was that he laid down his life for us; so we ought to lay down our lives for our brothers.

[230b] Cf. Io 15,13*

[230b] Cf. Jn 15:13*

[231] Cf. I Cor 7,32-34: 24 Unusquisque, in quo vocatus est, fratres, in hoc maneat apud Deum. 25 De virginibus autem praeceptum Domini non habeo; consilium autem do, tamquam misericordiam consecutus a Domino, ut sim fidelis. 26 Existimo ergo hoc bonum esse propter instantem necessitatem, quoniam bonum est homini sic esse. 27 Alligatus es uxori? Noli quaerere solutionem. Solutus es ab uxore? Noli quaerere uxorem. 28 Si autem acceperis uxorem, non peccasti; et si nupserit virgo, non peccavit. Tribulationem tamen carnis habebunt huiusmodi, ego autem vobis parco. 29 Hoc itaque dico, fratres, tempus breviatum est; reliquum est, ut et qui habent uxores, tamquam non habentes sint, 30 et qui flent, tamquam non flentes, et qui gaudent, tamquam non gaudentes, et qui emunt, tamquam non possidentes, 31 et qui utuntur hoc mundo, tamquam non abutentes; praeterit enim figura huius mundi. 32 Volo autem vos sine sollicitudine esse. Qui sine uxore est, sollicitus est, quae Domini sunt, quomodo placeat Domino; 33 qui autem cum uxore est, sollicitus est, quae sunt mundi, quomodo placeat uxori, 34 et divisus est. Et mulier innupta et virgo cogitat, quae Domini sunt, ut sit sancta et corpore et spiritu; quae autem nupta est, cogitat, quae sunt mundi, quomodo placeat viro. 35 Porro hoc ad utilitatem vestram dico, non ut laqueum vobis iniciam, sed ad id quod honestum est, et ut assidue cum Domino sitis sine distractione.

[231] Cf. 1 Cor 7:32-34: 24 Brothers, everyone should continue before God in the state in which he was called. 25 Now in regard to virgins, I have no commandment from the Lord, but I give my opinion as one who by the Lord's mercy is trustworthy. 26 So this is what I think best because of the present distress: that it is a good thing for a person to remain as he is. 27 Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek a separation. Are you free of a wife? Then do not look for a wife. 28 If you marry, however, you do not sin, nor does an unmarried woman sin if she marries; but such people will experience affliction in their earthly life, and I would like to spare you that. 29 I tell you, brothers, the time is running out. From now on, let those having wives act as not having them, 30 those weeping as not weeping, those rejoicing as not rejoicing, those buying as not owning, 31 those using the world as not using it fully. For the world in its present form is passing away. 32 I should like you to be free of anxieties. An unmarried man is anxious about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord. 33 But a married man is anxious about the things of the world, how he may please his wife, 34 and he is divided. An unmarried woman or a virgin is anxious about the things of the Lord, so that she may be holy in both body and spirit. A married woman, on the other hand, is anxious about the things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35 I am telling you this for your own benefit, not to impose a restraint upon you, but for the sake of propriety and adherence to the Lord without distraction.

[232] Cf. Mt 19,11: 7 Dicunt illi: «Quid ergo Moyses mandavit dari libellum repudii et dimittere?». 8 Ait illis: «Moyses ad duritiam cordis vestri permisit vobis dimittere uxores vestras; ab initio autem non sic fuit. 9 Dico autem vobis quia quicumque dimiserit uxorem suam, nisi ob fornicationem, et aliam duxerit, moechatur». 10 Dicunt ei discipuli eius: «Si ita est causa hominis cum uxore, non expedit nubere». 11 Qui dixit eis: «Non omnes capiunt verbum istud, sed quibus datum est. 12 Sunt enim eunuchi, qui de matris utero sic nati sunt; et sunt eunuchi, qui facti sunt ab hominibus; et sunt eunuchi, qui seipsos castraverunt propter regnum caelorum. Qui potest capere, capiat».

[232] Cf. Mt 19:11: 7 They said to him, "Then why did Moses command that the man give the woman a bill of divorce and dismiss (her)?" 8 He said to them, "Because of the hardness of your hearts Moses allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. 9 I say to you, whoever divorces his wife (unless the marriage is unlawful) and marries another commits adultery." 10 [His] disciples said to him, "If that is the case of a man with his wife, it is better not to marry." 11 He answered, "Not all can accept [this] word, but only those to whom that is granted. 12 Some are incapable of marriage because they were born so; some, because they were made so by others; some, because they have renounced marriage for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. Whoever can accept this ought to accept it."

[232b] Cf. I Cor 7,7*

[232b] Cf. 1 Cor 7:7*

[233] Phil 2,7-8*

[233] Phil 2:7-8*

[234] II Cor 8,9*

[234] 2 Cor 8:9*

[235] Cf. I Cor 7,31ff*

[235] Cf. 1 Cor 7:31ff*

[236] Cf. Ez 34,14*

[236] Cf. Ez 34:14*

[237] Cf. Act 3,21: 19 Paenitemini igitur et convertimini, ut deleantur vestra peccata, 20 ut veniant tempora refrigerii a conspectu Domini, et mittat eum, qui praedestinatus est vobis Christus, Iesum, 21 quem oportet caelum quidem suscipere usque in tempora restitutionis omnium, quae locutus est Deus per os sanctorum a saeculo suorum prophetarum.

[237] Cf. Acts 3:21: 19 Repent, therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be wiped away, 20 and that the Lord may grant you times of refreshment and send you the Messiah already appointed for you, Jesus, 21 whom heaven must receive until the times of universal restoration of which God spoke through the mouth of his holy prophets from of old.

[238] Cf. Eph 1,10*

[238] Cf. Eph 1:10*

[238b] Cf. Col 1,20*

[238b] Cf. Col 1:20*

[238c] Cf. II Pt 3,10-13: 10 Adveniet autem dies Domini ut fur, in qua caeli magno impetu transient, elementa vero calore solventur, et terra et opera, quae in ea invenientur. 11 Cum haec omnia ita dissolvenda sint, quales oportet esse vos in sanctis conversationibus et pietatibus, 12 exspectantes et properantes adventum diei Dei, propter quam caeli ardentes solventur, et elementa ignis ardore tabescent! 13 Novos vero caelos et terram novam secundum promissum ipsius exspectamus, in quibus iustitia habitat.

[238c] Cf. 2 Pet 3:10-13: 10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief, and then the heavens will pass away with a mighty roar and the elements will be dissolved by fire, and the earth and everything done on it will be found out. 11 Since everything is to be dissolved in this way, what sort of persons ought (you) to be, conducting yourselves in holiness and devotion, 12 waiting for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved in flames and the elements melted by fire. 13 But according to his promise we await new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.

[239] Cf. Io 12,32*

[239] Cf. Jn 12:32*

[240] Cf. Rom 6,9*

[240] Cf. Rom 6:9*

[241] Cf. Phil 2,12*

[241] Cf. Phil 2:12*

[242] Cf. I Cor 10,11: 11 Haec autem in figura contingebant illis; scripta sunt autem ad correptionem nostram, in quos fines saeculorum devenerunt.

[242] Cf. 1 Cor 10:11: 11 These things happened to them as an example, and they have been written down as a warning to us, upon whom the end of the ages has come.

[243] Cf. 2 Pt 3,13*

[243] Cf. 2 Pet 3:13*

[244] Cf. Rom 8,19-22*

[244] Cf. Rom 8:19-22*

[245] Eph 1,14*

[245] Eph 1:14*

[246] Cf. I Io 3,1: 1 Videte qualem caritatem dedit nobis Pater, ut filii Dei nomine mur, et sumus! Propter hoc mundus non cognoscit nos, quia non cognovit eum. 2 Carissimi, nunc filii Dei sumus, et nondum manifestatum est quid erimus; scimus quoniam, cum ipse apparuerit, similes ei erimus, quoniam videbimus eum, sicuti est.

[246] Cf. 1 Jn 3:1: 1 See what love the Father has bestowed on us that we may be called the children of God. Yet so we are. The reason the world does not know us is that it did not know him. 2 Beloved, we are God's children now; what we shall be has not yet been revealed. We do know that when it is revealed we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.

[247] Cf. Col 3,4*

[247] Cf. Col 3:4*

[248] Cf. I Io 3,2*

[248] Cf. 1 Jn 3:2*

[249] II Cor 5,6*

[249] 2 Cor 5:6*

[250] Cf. Rom 8,23*

[250] Cf. Rom 8:23*

[251] Cf. Phil 1,23: 21 Mihi enim vivere Christus est et mori lucrum. 22 Quod si vivere in carne, hic mihi fructus operis est, et quid eligam ignoro. 23 Coartor autem ex his duobus: desiderium habens dissolvi et cum Christo esse, multo magis melius; 24 permanere autem in carne, magis necessarium est propter vos.

[251] Cf. Phil 1:23: 21 For to me life is Christ, and death is gain. 22 If I go on living in the flesh, that means fruitful labor for me. And I do not know which I shall choose. 23 I am caught between the two. I long to depart this life and be with Christ, (for) that is far better. 24 Yet that I remain (in) the flesh is more necessary for your benefit.

[252] Cf. II Cor 5,15*

[252] Cf. 2 Cor 5:15*

[253] Cf. II Cor 5,9*

[253] Cf. 2 Cor 5:9*

[254] Cf. Eph 6,11-13*

[254] Cf. Eph 6:11-13*

[255] Cf. Hebr 9,27*

[255] Cf. Heb 9:27*

[256] Cf. Mt 25,31-46: 31 Cum autem venerit Filius hominis in gloria sua, et omnes angeli cum eo, tunc sedebit super thronum gloriae suae. 32 Et congregabuntur ante eum omnes gentes; et separabit eos ab invicem, sicut pastor segregat oves ab haedis, 33 et statuet oves quidem a dextris suis, haedos autem a sinistris. 34 Tunc dicet Rex his, qui a dextris eius erunt: «Venite, benedicti Patris mei; possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione mundi. 35 Esurivi enim, et dedistis mihi manducare; sitivi, et dedistis mihi bibere; hospes eram, et collegistis me; 36 nudus, et operuistis me; infirmus, et visitastis me; in carcere eram, et venistis ad me». 37 Tunc respondebunt ei iusti dicentes: «Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem et pavimus, aut sitientem et dedimus tibi potum? 38 Quando autem te vidimus hospitem et collegimus, aut nudum et cooperuimus? 39 Quando autem te vidimus infirmum aut in carcere et venimus ad te?». 40 Et respondens Rex dicet illis: «Amen dico vobis: Quamdiu fecistis uni de his fratribus meis minimis, mihi fecistis». 41 Tunc dicet et his, qui a sinistris erunt: «Discedite a me, maledicti, in ignem aeternum, qui praeparatus est Diabolo et angelis eius. 42 Esurivi enim, et non dedistis mihi manducare; sitivi, et non dedistis mihi potum; 43 hospes eram, et non collegistis me; nudus, et non operuistis me; infirmus et in carcere, et non visitastis me». 44 Tunc respondebunt et ipsi dicentes: «Domine, quando te vidimus esurientem aut sitientem aut hospitem aut nudum aut infirmum vel in carcere et non ministravimus tibi?». 45 Tunc respondebit illis dicens: «Amen dico vobis: Quamdiu non fecistis uni de minimis his, nec mihi fecistis». 46 Et ibunt hi in supplicium aeternum, iusti autem in vitam aeternam.

[256] Cf. Mt 25:31-46: 31 When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, he will sit upon his glorious throne, 32 and all the nations will be assembled before him. And he will separate them one from another, as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats. 33 He will place the sheep on his right and the goats on his left. 34 Then the king will say to those on his right, "Come, you who are blessed by my Father. Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. 35 For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, a stranger and you welcomed me, 36 naked and you clothed me, ill and you cared for me, in prison and you visited me." 37 Then the righteous will answer him and say, "Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you drink? 38 When did we see you a stranger and welcome you, or naked and clothe you? 39 When did we see you ill or in prison, and visit you?" 40 And the king will say to them in reply, "Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me." 41 Then he will say to those on his left, "Depart from me, you accursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels. 42 For I was hungry and you gave me no food, I was thirsty and you gave me no drink, 43 a stranger and you gave me no welcome, naked and you gave me no clothing, ill and in prison, and you did not care for me." 44 Then they will answer and say, "Lord, when did we see you hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or ill or in prison, and not minister to your needs?" 45 He will answer them, "Amen, I say to you, what you did not do for one of these least ones, you did not do for me." 46 And these will go off to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.

[257] Cf. Mt 25,41*

[257] Cf. Mt 25:41*

[258] Cf. Mt 25,26*

[258] Cf. Mt 25:26*

[259] Mt 22,13: 11 Intravit autem rex, ut videret discumbentes, et vidit ibi hominem non vestitum veste nuptiali 12 et ait illi: «Amice, quomodo huc intrasti, non habens vestem nuptialem?». At ille obmutuit. 13 Tunc dixit rex ministris: «Ligate pedes eius et manus et mittite eum in tenebras exteriores: ibi erit fletus et stridor dentium». 14 Multi enim sunt vocati, pauci vero electi.

[259] Mt 22:13: 11 But when the king came in to meet the guests he saw a man there not dressed in a wedding garment. 12 He said to him, "My friend, how is it that you came in here without a wedding garment?" But he was reduced to silence. 13 Then the king said to his attendants, "Bind his hands and feet, and cast him into the darkness outside, where there will be wailing and grinding of teeth." 14 Many are invited, but few are chosen.

[259b] Cf. Mt 25,30*

[259b] Cf. Mt 25:30*

[260] II Cor 5,10*

[260] 2 Cor 5:10*

[261] Io 5,29: 25 Amen, amen dico vobis: Venit hora, et nunc est, quando mortui audient vocem Filii Dei et, qui audierint, vivent. 26 Sicut enim Pater habet vitam in semetipso, sic dedit et Filio vitam habere in semetipso; 27 et potestatem dedit ei iudicium facere, quia Filius hominis est. 28 Nolite mirari hoc, quia venit hora, in qua omnes, qui in monumentis sunt, audient vocem eius; 29 et procedent, qui bona fecerunt, in resurrectionem vitae, qui vero mala egerunt, in resurrectionem iudicii.

[261] Jn 5:29 25 Amen, amen, I say to you, the hour is coming and is now here when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 26 For just as the Father has life in himself, so also he gave to his Son the possession of life in himself. 27 And he gave him power to exercise judgment, because he is the Son of Man. 28 Do not be amazed at this, because the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs will hear his voice 29 and will come out, those who have done good deeds to the resurrection of life, but those who have done wicked deeds to the resurrection of condemnation.

[261b] Cf. Mt 25,46*

[261b] Cf. Mt 25:46*

[262] Rom 8,18*;

[262] Rom 8:18*;

[262b] Cf. 2 Tim 2,11-12*

[262b] Cf. 2 Tim 2:11-12*

[263] Tit 2,13: 11 Apparuit enim gratia Dei salutaris omnibus hominibus 12 erudiens nos, ut abnegantes impietatem et saecularia desideria sobrie et iuste et pie vivamus in hoc saeculo, 13 exspectantes beatam spem et adventum gloriae magni Dei et salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi; 14 qui dedit semetipsum pro nobis, ut nos redimeret ab omni iniquitate et mundaret sibi populum peculiarem, sectatorem bonorum operum.

[263] Tit 2:13: 11 For the grace of God has appeared, saving all 12 and training us to reject godless ways and worldly desires and to live temperately, justly, and devoutly in this age, 13 as we await the blessed hope, the appearance of the glory of the great God and of our savior Jesus Christ, 14 who gave himself for us to deliver us from all lawlessness and to cleanse for himself a people as his own, eager to do what is good.

[264] Phil 3,21*

[264] Phil 3:21*

[265] II Thess 1,10: 6 si quidem iustum est apud Deum retribuere tribulationem his, qui vos tribulant, 7 et vobis, qui tribulamini, requiem nobiscum in revelatione Domini Iesu de caelo cum angelis virtutis eius, 8 in igne flammae, dantis vindictam his, qui non noverunt Deum et qui non oboediunt evangelio Domini nostri Iesu; 9 qui poenas dabunt interitu aeterno a facie Domini et a gloria virtutis eius, 10 cum venerit glorificari in sanctis suis et admirabilis fieri in omnibus, qui crediderunt; quia creditum est testimonium nostrum super vos in die illo.

[265] 2 Thess 1:10: 6 For it is surely just on God's part to repay with afflictions those who are afflicting you, 7 and to grant rest along with us to you who are undergoing afflictions, at the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with his mighty angels, 8 in blazing fire, inflicting punishment on those who do not acknowledge God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9 These will pay the penalty of eternal ruin, separated from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his power, 10 when he comes to be glorified among his holy ones and to be marveled at on that day among all who have believed, for our testimony to you was believed.

[266] Cf. Mt 25,31*

[266] Cf. Mt 25:31*

[267] Cf. I Cor 15,26-27*

[267] Cf. 1 Cor 15:26-27*

[268] Cf. Eph 4,16*

[268] Cf. Eph 4:16*

[269] Cf. I Cor 12,12-27*

[269] Cf. 1 Cor 12:12-27*

[270] Cf. II Cor 5,8*

[270] Cf. 2 Cor 5:8*

[271] Cf. I Tim 2,5*

[271] Cf. 1 Tim 2:5*

[272] Cf. Col 1,24*

[272] Cf. Col 1:24*

[273] II Mac 12,46: 42 ad obsecrationem conversi sunt, rogantes, ut id, quod factum erat, delictum oblivioni ex integro traderetur. At vero fortissimus Iudas hortatus est populum conservare se sine peccato, cum sub oculis vidissent, quae facta sunt propter peccatum eorum, qui prostrati sunt. 43 Et, facta viritim collatione ad duo milia drachmas argenti, misit Hierosolymam offerri pro peccatis sacrificium, valde bene et honeste de resurrectione cogitans. 44 Nisi enim eos, qui ceciderant, resurrecturos speraret, superfluum et vanum esset orare pro mortuis. 45 Deinde considerans quod hi, qui cum pietate dormitionem acceperant, optimum haberent repositum gratiae donum: 46 sancta et pia cogitatio. Unde pro defunctis expiationem fecit, ut a peccato solverentur.

[273] 2 Mac 12:46: 42 Turning to supplication, they prayed that the sinful deed might be fully blotted out. The noble Judas warned the soldiers to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen. 43 He then took up a collection among all his soldiers, amounting to two thousand silver drachmas, which he sent to Jerusalem to provide for an expiatory sacrifice. In doing this he acted in a very excellent and noble way, inasmuch as he had the resurrection of the dead in view; 44 for if he were not expecting the fallen to rise again, it would have been useless and foolish to pray for them in death. 45 But if he did this with a view to the splendid reward that awaits those who had gone to rest in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. 46 Thus he made atonement for the dead that they might be freed from this sin.

[274] Cf. Hebr 13,14*

[274] Cf. Heb 13:14*

[274b] Cf. Hebr 11,10: 8 Fide vocatus Abraham oboedivit in locum exire, quem accepturus erat in hereditatem; et exivit nesciens quo iret. 9 Fide peregrinatus est in terra promissionis tamquam in aliena, in casulis habitando cum Isaac et Iacob, coheredibus promissionis eiusdem; 10 exspectabat enim fundamenta habentem civitatem, cuius artifex et conditor Deus.

[274b] Cf. Heb 11:10: 8 By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance; he went out, not knowing where he was to go. 9 By faith he sojourned in the promised land as in a foreign country, dwelling in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs of the same promise; 10 for he was looking forward to the city with foundations, whose architect and maker is God.

[275] Cf. II Cor 3,18*

[275] Cf. 2 Cor 3:18*

[276] Cf. Hebr 12,1: 1 Ideoque et nos tantam habentes circumpositam nobis nubem testium, deponentes omne pondus et circumstans nos peccatum, per patientiam curramus propositum nobis certamen, 2 aspicientes in ducem fidei et consummatorem Iesum, qui pro gaudio sibi proposito sustinuit crucem, confusione contempta, atque in dextera throni Dei sedet.

[276] Cf. Heb 12:1: 1 Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us rid ourselves of every burden and sin that clings to us and persevere in running the race that lies before us 2 while keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus, the leader and perfecter of faith. For the sake of the joy that lay before him he endured the cross, despising its shame, and has taken his seat at the right of the throne of God.

[277] Cf. Eph 4,1-6*

[277] Cf. Eph 4:1-6*

[278] Cf. Apoc 5,9*

[278] Cf. Rev 5:9*

[279] Cf. Hebr 3,6: 4 Omnis namque domus fabricatur ab aliquo; qui autem omnia fabricavit, Deus est. 5 Et Moyses quidem fidelis erat in tota domo eius tamquam famulus in testimonium eorum, quae dicenda erant, 6 Christus vero tamquam Filius super domum illius; cuius domus sumus nos, si fiduciam et gloriationem spei retineamus.

[279] Cf. Heb 3:6: 4 Every house is founded by someone, but the founder of all is God. 5 Moses was "faithful in all his house" as a "servant" to testify to what would be spoken, 6 but Christ was faithful as a son placed over his house. We are his house, if (only) we hold fast to our confidence and pride in our hope.

[280] Cf. Apoc 21,24*

[280] Cf. Rev 21:24*

[281] Apoc 5,12*

[281] Rev 5:12*

[282] Apoc 5,13-14*

[282] Rev 5:13-14*

[283] Gal 4,4-5*

[283] Gal 4:4-5*

[284] Cf. Gen 3,15: 14 Et ait Dominus Deus ad serpentem: «Quia fecisti hoc, maledictus es inter omnia pecora et omnes bestias agri! Super pectus tuum gradieris et pulverem comedes cunctis diebus vitae tuae. 15 Inimicitias ponam inter te et mulierem et semen tuum et semen illius; ipsum conteret caput tuum, et tu conteres calcaneum eius». 16 Mulieri dixit: «Multiplicabo aerumnas tuas et conceptus tuos: in dolore paries filios, et ad virum tuum erit appetitus tuus, ipse autem dominabitur tui». 17 Adae vero dixit: «Quia audisti vocem uxoris tuae et comedisti de ligno, ex quo praeceperam tibi, ne comederes, maledicta humus propter te! In laboribus comedes ex ea cunctis diebus vitae tuae. 18 Spinas et tribulos germinabit tibi, et comedes herbas terrae; 19 in sudore vultus tui vesceris pane, donec revertaris ad humum, de qua sumptus es, quia pulvis es et in pulverem reverteris».

[284] Cf. Gen 3:15: 14 Then the LORD God said to the serpent: "Because you have done this, you shall be banned from all the animals and from all the wild creatures; On your belly shall you crawl, and dirt shall you eat all the days of your life. 15 I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; He will strike at your head, while you strike at his heel." 16 To the woman he said: "I will intensify the pangs of your childbearing; in pain shall you bring forth children. Yet your urge shall be for your husband, and he shall be your master." 17 To the man he said: "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree of which I had forbidden you to eat, "Cursed be the ground because of you! In toil shall you eat its yield all the days of your life. 18 Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to you, as you eat of the plants of the field. 19 By the sweat of your face shall you get bread to eat, Until you return to the ground, from which you were taken; For you are dirt, and to dirt you shall return."

[285] Cf. Is 7,14: 10 Et adiecit Dominus loqui ad Achaz dicens: 11 «Pete tibi signum a Domino Deo tuo in profundum inferni sive in excelsum supra». 12 Et dixit Achaz: «Non petam et non tentabo Dominum». 13 Et dixit: «Audite ergo, domus David; numquid parum vobis est molestos esse hominibus, quia molesti estis et Deo meo? 14 Propter hoc dabit Dominus ipse vobis signum. Ecce, virgo concipiet et pariet filium et vocabit nomen eius Emmanuel; 15 butyrum et mel comedet, ut ipse sciat reprobare malum et eligere bonum. 16 Quia antequam sciat puer reprobare malum et eligere bonum, desolabitur terra, cuius tu formidas duos reges; 17 adducet Dominus super te et super populum tuum et super domum patris tui dies, qui non venerunt a diebus separationis Ephraim a Iuda, regem Assyriorum».

[285] Cf. Is 7:14: 10 Again the LORD spoke to Ahaz: 11 Ask for a sign from the LORD, your God; let it be deep as the nether world, or high as the sky! 12 But Ahaz answered, "I will not ask! I will not tempt the LORD!" 13 Then he said: Listen, O house of David! Is it not enough for you to weary men, must you also weary my God? 14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you this sign: the virgin shall be with child, and bear a son, and shall name him Immanuel. 15 He shall be living on curds and honey by the time he learns to reject the bad and choose the good. 16 For before the child learns to reject the bad and choose the good, the land of those two kings whom you dread shall be deserted. 17 The LORD shall bring upon you and your people and your father's house days worse than any since Ephraim seceded from Judah. (This means the king of Assyria.)

[285b] Cf. Mic 5,2-3: 1 Sed tu, Bethlehem Ephratha, parvulus in milibus Iudae, ex te mihi egredietur, qui sit dominator in Israel; et egressus eius a temporibus antiquis, a diebus aeternitatis. 2 Propter hoc dabit eos usque ad tempus, in quo parturiens pariet; et reliquiae fratrum eius convertentur ad filios Israel. 3 Et stabit et pascet in fortitudine Domini, in sublimitate nominis Domini Dei sui; et habitabunt secure, quia nunc magnus erit usque ad terminos terrae, 4 et erit iste pax. Assyrius cum venerit in terram nostram et quando calcaverit in domibus nostris, suscitabimus super eum septem pastores et octo primates hominum. 5 Et pascent terram Assyriae in gladio et terram Nemrod in lanceis; et liberabit ab Assyrio, cum venerit in terram nostram et cum calcaverit in finibus nostris.

[285b] Cf. Mic 5:2-3: 1 But you, Bethlehem-Ephrathah too small to be among the clans of Judah, From you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel; Whose origin is from of old, from ancient times. 2 (Therefore the Lord will give them up, until the time when she who is to give birth has borne, And the rest of his brethren shall return to the children of Israel.) 3 He shall stand firm and shepherd his flock by the strength of the LORD, in the majestic name of the LORD, his God; And they shall remain, for now his greatness shall reach to the ends of the earth; 4 he shall be peace. If Assyria invades our country and treads upon our land, We shall raise against it seven shepherds, eight men of royal rank; 5 And they shall tend the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod with the drawn sword; And we shall be delivered from Assyria, if it invades our land and treads upon our borders.

[285c] Cf. Mt 1,22-23: 19 Ioseph autem vir eius, cum esset iustus et nollet eam traducere, voluit occulte dimittere eam. 20 Haec autem eo cogitante, ecce angelus Domini in somnis apparuit ei dicens: «Ioseph fili David, noli timere accipere Mariam coniugem tuam. Quod enim in ea natum est, de Spiritu Sancto est; 21 pariet autem filium, et vocabis nomen eius Iesum: ipse enim salvum faciet populum suum a peccatis eorum». 22 Hoc autem totum factum est, ut adimpleretur id, quod dictum est a Domino per prophetam dicentem: 23 «Ecce, virgo in utero habebit et pariet filium, et vocabunt nomen eius Emmanuel», quod est interpretatum Nobiscum Deus.

[285c] Cf. Mt 1:22-23: 19 Joseph her husband, since he was a righteous man, yet unwilling to expose her to shame, decided to divorce her quietly. 20 Such was his intention when, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary your wife into your home. For it is through the holy Spirit that this child has been conceived in her. 21 She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins." 22 All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: 23 "Behold, the virgin shall be with child and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means "God is with us."

[286] Cf. Lc 1,28: 26 In mense autem sexto missus est angelus Gabriel a Deo in civitatem Galilaeae, cui nomen Nazareth, 27 ad virginem desponsatam viro, cui nomen erat Ioseph de domo David, et nomen virginis Maria. 28 Et ingressus ad eam dixit: «Ave, gratia plena, Dominus tecum». 29 Ipsa autem turbata est in sermone eius et cogitabat qualis esset ista salutatio. 30 Et ait angelus ei: «Ne timeas, Maria; invenisti enim gratiam apud Deum. 31 Et ecce concipies in utero et paries filium et vocabis nomen eius Iesum. 32 Hic erit magnus et Filius Altissimi vocabitur, et dabit illi Dominus Deus sedem David patris eius, 33 et regnabit super domum Iacob in aeternum, et regni eius non erit finis». 34 Dixit autem Maria ad angelum: «Quomodo fiet istud, quoniam virum non cognosco?». 35 Et respondens angelus dixit ei: «Spiritus Sanctus superveniet in te, et virtus Altissimi obumbrabit tibi: ideoque et quod nascetur sanctum, vocabitur Filius Dei. 36 Et ecce Elisabeth cognata tua et ipsa concepit filium in senecta sua, et hic mensis est sextus illi, quae vocatur sterilis, 37 quia non erit impossibile apud Deum omne verbum». 38 Dixit autem Maria: «Ecce ancilla Domini; fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum». Et discessit ab illa angelus. 39 Exsurgens autem Maria in diebus illis abiit in montana cum festinatione in civitatem Iudae 40 et intravit in domum Zachariae et salutavit Elisabeth. 41 Et factum est, ut audivit salutationem Mariae Elisabeth, exsultavit infans in utero eius, et repleta est Spiritu Sancto Elisabeth 42 et exclamavit voce magna et dixit: «Benedicta tu inter mulieres, et benedictus fructus ventris tui. 43 Et unde hoc mihi, ut veniat mater Domini mei ad me? 44 Ecce enim ut facta est vox salutationis tuae in auribus meis, exsultavit in gaudio infans in utero meo. 45 Et beata, quae credidit, quoniam perficientur ea, quae dicta sunt ei a Domino». 46 Et ait Maria:

Magnificat anima mea Dominum, 47 et exsultavit spiritus meus in Deo salvatore meo, 48 quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae. Ecce enim ex hoc beatam me dicent omnes generationes, 49 quia fecit mihi magna, qui potens est, et sanctum nomen eius, 50 et misericordia eius in progenies et progenies timentibus eum. 51 Fecit potentiam in brachio suo, dispersit superbos mente cordis sui; 52 deposuit potentes de sede et exaltavit humiles; 53 esurientes implevit bonis et divites dimisit inanes. 54 Suscepit Israel puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae, 55 sicut locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham et semini eius in saecula.

[286] Cf. Lk 1:28: 26 In the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a town of Galilee called Nazareth, 27 to a virgin betrothed to a man named Joseph, of the house of David, and the virgin's name was Mary. 28 And coming to her, he said, "Hail, favored one! The Lord is with you." 29 But she was greatly troubled at what was said and pondered what sort of greeting this might be. 30 Then the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. 31 Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name him Jesus. 32 He will be great and will be called Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give him the throne of David his father, 33 and he will rule over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end." 34 But Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?" 35 And the angel said to her in reply, "The holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God. 36 And behold, Elizabeth, your relative, has also conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month for her who was called barren; 37 for nothing will be impossible for God." 38 Mary said, "Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord. May it be done to me according to your word." Then the angel departed from her. 39 During those days Mary set out and traveled to the hill country in haste to a town of Judah, 40 where she entered the house of Zechariah and greeted Elizabeth. 41 When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the infant leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth, filled with the holy Spirit, 42 cried out in a loud voice and said, "Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb. 43 And how does this happen to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44 For at the moment the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. 45 Blessed are you who believed that what was spoken to you by the Lord would be fulfilled." 46 And Mary said:

My soul proclaims the greatness of the Lord; 47 my spirit rejoices in God my savior. 48 For he has looked upon his handmaid's lowliness; behold, from now on will all ages call me blessed. 49 The Mighty One has done great things for me, and holy is his name. 50 His mercy is from age to age to those who fear him. 51 He has shown might with his arm, dispersed the arrogant of mind and heart. 52 He has thrown down the rulers from their thrones but lifted up the lowly. 53 The hungry he has filled with good things; the rich he has sent away empty. 54 He has helped Israel his servant, remembering his mercy, 55 according to his promise to our fathers, to Abraham and to his descendants forever.

[287] Lc 1,38*

[287] Lk 1:38*

[288] Cf. Lc 1,41-45*

[288] Cf. Lk 1:41-45*

[289] Cf. Lc 2,34-35: 15 Et factum est, ut discesserunt ab eis angeli in caelum, pastores loquebantur ad invicem: «Transeamus usque Bethlehem et videamus hoc verbum, quod factum est, quod Dominus ostendit nobis». 16 Et venerunt festinantes et invenerunt Mariam et Ioseph et infantem positum in praesepio. 17 Videntes autem notum fecerunt verbum, quod dictum erat illis de puero hoc. 18 Et omnes, qui audierunt, mirati sunt de his, quae dicta erant a pastoribus ad ipsos. 19 Maria autem conservabat omnia verba haec conferens in corde suo. 20 Et reversi sunt pastores glorificantes et laudantes Deum in omnibus, quae audierant et viderant, sicut dictum est ad illos. 21 Et postquam consummati sunt dies octo, ut circumcideretur, vocatum est nomen eius Iesus, quod vocatum est ab angelo, priusquam in utero conciperetur. 22 Et postquam impleti sunt dies purgationis eorum secundum legem Moysis, tulerunt illum in Hierosolymam, ut sisterent Domino, 23 sicut scriptum est in lege Domini: «Omne masculinum adaperiens vulvam sanctum Domino vocabitur», 24 et ut darent hostiam secundum quod dictum est in lege Domini: par turturum aut duos pullos columbarum. 25 Et ecce homo erat in Ierusalem, cui nomen Simeon, et homo iste iustus et timoratus, exspectans consolationem Israel, et Spiritus Sanctus erat super eum; 26 et responsum acceperat ab Spiritu Sancto non visurum se mortem nisi prius videret Christum Domini. 27 Et venit in Spiritu in templum. Et cum inducerent puerum Iesum parentes eius, ut facerent secundum consuetudinem legis pro eo, 28 et ipse accepit eum in ulnas suas et benedixit Deum et dixit: 29 «Nunc dimittis servum tuum, Domine, secundum verbum tuum in pace, 30 quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum, 31 quod parasti ante faciem omnium populorum, 32 lumen ad revelationem gentium et gloriam plebis tuae Israel». 33 Et erat pater eius et mater mirantes super his, quae dicebantur de illo. 34 Et benedixit illis Simeon et dixit ad Mariam matrem eius: «Ecce positus est hic in ruinam et resurrectionem multorum in Israel et in signum, cui contradicetur 35 -- et tuam ipsius animam pertransiet gladius -- ut revelentur ex multis cordibus cogitationes». 36 Et erat Anna prophetissa, filia Phanuel, de tribu Aser. Haec processerat in diebus multis et vixerat cum viro annis septem a virginitate sua; 37 et haec vidua usque ad annos octoginta quattuor, quae non discedebat de templo, ieiuniis et obsecrationibus serviens nocte ac die. 38 Et haec ipsa hora superveniens confitebatur Deo et loquebatur de illo omnibus, qui exspectabant redemptionem Ierusalem. 39 Et ut perfecerunt omnia secundum legem Domini, reversi sunt in Galilaeam in civitatem suam Nazareth. 40 Puer autem crescebat et confortabatur plenus sapientia; et gratia Dei erat super illum. 41 Et ibant parentes eius per omnes annos in Ierusalem in die festo Paschae. 42 Et cum factus esset annorum duodecim, ascendentibus illis secundum consuetudinem diei festi, 43 consummatisque diebus, cum redirent, remansit puer Iesus in Ierusalem, et non cognoverunt parentes eius. 44 Existimantes autem illum esse in comitatu, venerunt iter diei et requirebant eum inter cognatos et notos; 45 et non invenientes regressi sunt in Ierusalem requirentes eum. 46 Et factum est, post triduum invenerunt illum in templo sedentem in medio doctorum, audientem illos et interrogantem eos; 47 stupebant autem omnes, qui eum audiebant, super prudentia et responsis eius. 48 Et videntes eum admirati sunt, et dixit Mater eius ad illum: «Fili, quid fecisti nobis sic? Ecce pater tuus et ego dolentes quaerebamus te». 49 Et ait ad illos: «Quid est quod me quaerebatis? Nesciebatis quia in his, quae Patris mei sunt, oportet me esse?». 50 Et ipsi non intellexerunt verbum, quod locutus est ad illos. 51 Et descendit cum eis et venit Nazareth et erat subditus illis. Et mater eius conservabat omnia verba in corde suo. 52 Et Iesus proficiebat sapientia et aetate et gratia apud Deum et homines.

[289] Cf. Lk 2:34-35: 15 When the angels went away from them to heaven, the shepherds said to one another, "Let us go, then, to Bethlehem to see this thing that has taken place, which the Lord has made known to us." 16 So they went in haste and found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger. 17 When they saw this, they made known the message that had been told them about this child. 18 All who heard it were amazed by what had been told them by the shepherds. 19 And Mary kept all these things, reflecting on them in her heart. 20 Then the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all they had heard and seen, just as it had been told to them. 21 When eight days were completed for his circumcision, he was named Jesus, the name given him by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 22 When the days were completed for their purification according to the law of Moses, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord, 23 just as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male that opens the womb shall be consecrated to the Lord," 24 and to offer the sacrifice of "a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons," in accordance with the dictate in the law of the Lord. 25 Now there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon. This man was righteous and devout, awaiting the consolation of Israel, and the holy Spirit was upon him. 26 It had been revealed to him by the holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Messiah of the Lord. 27 He came in the Spirit into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to perform the custom of the law in regard to him, 28 he took him into his arms and blessed God, saying: 29 "Now, Master, you may let your servant go in peace, according to your word, 30 for my eyes have seen your salvation, 31 which you prepared in sight of all the peoples, 32 a light for revelation to the Gentiles, and glory for your people Israel." 33 The child's father and mother were amazed at what was said about him; 34 and Simeon blessed them and said to Mary his mother, "Behold, this child is destined for the fall and rise of many in Israel, and to be a sign that will be contradicted 35 (and you yourself a sword will pierce) so that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed." 36 There was also a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years, having lived seven years with her husband after her marriage, 37 and then as a widow until she was eighty-four. She never left the temple, but worshiped night and day with fasting and prayer. 38 And coming forward at that very time, she gave thanks to God and spoke about the child to all who were awaiting the redemption of Jerusalem. 39 When they had fulfilled all the prescriptions of the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. 40 The child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him. 41 Each year his parents went to Jerusalem for the feast of Passover, 42 and when he was twelve years old, they went up according to festival custom. 43 After they had completed its days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus remained behind in Jerusalem, but his parents did not know it. 44 Thinking that he was in the caravan, they journeyed for a day and looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances, 45 but not finding him, they returned to Jerusalem to look for him. 46 After three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions, 47 and all who heard him were astounded at his understanding and his answers. 48 When his parents saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, "Son, why have you done this to us? Your father and I have been looking for you with great anxiety." 49 And he said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Did you not know that I must be in my Father's house?" 50 But they did not understand what he said to them. 51 He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them; and his mother kept all these things in her heart. 52 And Jesus advanced (in) wisdom and age and favor before God and man.

[290] Cf. Lc 2,41-51*

[290] Cf. Lk 2:41-51*

[291] Cf. Jn 2,1-11: 1 Et die tertio nuptiae factae sunt in Cana Galilaeae, et erat mater Iesu ibi; 2 vocatus est autem et Iesus et discipuli eius ad nuptias. 3 Et deficiente vino, dicit mater Iesu ad eum: “ Vinum non habent ”. 4 Et dicit ei Iesus: «Quid mihi et tibi, mulier? Nondum venit hora mea». 5 Dicit mater eius ministris: «Quodcumque dixerit vobis, facite». 6 Erant autem ibi lapideae hydriae sex positae secundum purificationem Iudaeorum, capientes singulae metretas binas vel ternas. 7 Dicit eis Iesus: «Implete hydrias aqua». Et impleverunt eas usque ad summum. 8 Et dicit eis: «Haurite nunc et ferte architriclino». Illi autem tulerunt. 9 Ut autem gustavit architriclinus aquam vinum factam et non sciebat unde esset, ministri autem sciebant, qui haurierant aquam, vocat sponsum architriclinus 10 et dicit ei: «Omnis homo primum bonum vinum ponit et, cum inebriati fuerint, id quod deterius est; tu servasti bonum vinum usque adhuc». 11 Hoc fecit initium signorum Iesus in Cana Galilaeae et manifestavit gloriam suam, et crediderunt in eum discipuli eius.

[291] Cf. Jn 2:1-11: 1 On the third day there was a wedding in Cana in Galilee, and the mother of Jesus was there. 2 Jesus and his disciples were also invited to the wedding. 3 When the wine ran short, the mother of Jesus said to him, "They have no wine." 4 (And) Jesus said to her, "Woman, how does your concern affect me? My hour has not yet come." 5 His mother said to the servers, "Do whatever he tells you." 6 Now there were six stone water jars there for Jewish ceremonial washings, each holding twenty to thirty gallons. 7 Jesus told them, "Fill the jars with water." So they filled them to the brim. 8 Then he told them, "Draw some out now and take it to the headwaiter." So they took it. 9 And when the headwaiter tasted the water that had become wine, without knowing where it came from (although the servers who had drawn the water knew), the headwaiter called the bridegroom 10 and said to him, "Everyone serves good wine first, and then when people have drunk freely, an inferior one; but you have kept the good wine until now." 11 Jesus did this as the beginning of his signs 7 in Cana in Galilee and so revealed his glory, and his disciples began to believe in him.

[292]

[292] Cf. Mk 3:35: 31 His mother and his brothers arrived. Standing outside they sent word to him and called him. 32 A crowd seated around him told him, "Your mother and your brothers (and your sisters) are outside asking for you." 33 But he said to them in reply, "Who are my mother and (my) brothers?" 34 And looking around at those seated in the circle he said, "Here are my mother and my brothers. 35 (For) whoever does the will of God is my brother and sister and mother."

[292b] Cf. Lc 11,27-28: 27 Factum est autem, cum haec diceret, extollens vocem quaedam mulier de turba dixit illi: «Beatus venter, qui te portavit, et ubera, quae suxisti!». 28 At ille dixit: «Quinimmo beati, qui audiunt verbum Dei et custodiunt!».

[292b] Cf. Lk 11:27-28: 27 While he was speaking, a woman from the crowd called out and said to him, "Blessed is the womb that carried you and the breasts at which you nursed." 28 He replied, "Rather, blessed are those who hear the word of God and observe it."

[293] Cf. Lc 2,19,51*

[293] Cf. Lk 2:19,51*

[294] Cf. Io 19,25*

[294] Cf. Jn 19:25*

[295] Cf. Io 19,26-27*

[295] Cf. Jn 19:26-27*

[296] Act 1,14*

[296] Acts 1:14*

[297] Cf. Apoc 19,16: 16 Et habet super vestimentum et super femur suum nomen scriptum: Rex regum et Dominus dominorum.

[297] Cf. Rev 19:16: 16 He has a name written on his cloak and on his thigh, "King of kings and Lord of lords."

[298] I Tim 2,5-6*

[298] 1 Tim 2:5-6*

[299] Cf. Rom 8,29*

[299] Cf. Rom 8:29*

[300] Cf. Eph 5,27*

[300] Cf. Eph 5:27*

[301] Lc 1,48*

[301] Lk 1:48*

[302] Cf. Col 1,15-16*

[302] Cf. Col 1:15-16*

[303] Col 1,19*

[303] Col 1:19*

[304] Cf. 2 Pt 3,10*

[304] Cf. 2 Pet 3:10*


SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES (*)

[These notes are from the English translation at vatican.va. They essentially repeat the Latin notes, but change the numbering scheme. Retained here for reference only.]

Chapter I

[1.1] Cfr. S. Cyprianus, Epist. 64, 4: PL 3, 1017. CSEL (Hartcl), III B p. 720. S. Hilarius Pict., In Mt 23, 6: PL 9, 1047. S. Augustinus, passim. S. Cyrillus Alex., Glaph in Gen. 2, 10: PG 69, 110 A.

[1.2] Cfr. S. Gregorius M., Hom in Evang. 19, 1: PL 76, 1154 B. S Augustinus, Serm. 341, 9, 11: PL 39, 1499 s. S. Io. Damascenus, Adv. Iconocl. 11: PG 96, 1357.

[1.3] Cfr. S. Irenaeus, adv. Haer, 111 24, 1: PG 7, 966 B; Harvey 2, 13i, ed. Sagnard, Sources Chr., p 398.

[1.4] S. Cyprianus, De Orat Dom. 23: PL 4, 5 S3, Hartel, III A, p. 28 S. S. Augustinus, Serm. 71, 20, 33: PL 38, 463 s. S. Io. Damascenus, Adv. Iconocl. 12: PG 96, 1358 D.

[1.5] Cfr. Origenes, In Matth. 16, 21: PG 13, 1443 C, Tertullianus Adv. Marc. 3, 7: PL 2, 357 C, CSEL 47, 3 p. 386. Pro documentis liturgicis, cfr. Sacramentarium Gregorianum: PL 78, 160 B.Vel C. Mohlberg, Liber Sactamentorum romanae ecclesiae, Romao 196O, p. 111, XC: «Deus, qui ex omni coaptatione sanctorum aeternum tibi condis habitaculum ...». Hymnus Urbs Ierusalem beata in Breviario monastico, et Coelestis urbs Ierusalem in Breviario romano.

[1.6] Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 62, a. 5, ad 1.

[7] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943 AAS 35 (1943), p. 208.

[1.8] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl Divinum illud, 9 maii 1897: AAS 29 (1896-97) p. 6 S0. Pius XII, Litt Encyl. Mystici Corporis, 1. c., pp 219-220; Denz. 2288 (3808).S. Augustinus, Serm. 268, 2: PL 38 232, ct alibi. S. Io. Chrysostomus, In Eph. Hom. 9, 3: PG 62, 72. Didymus Alex., Trin. 2, 1: PG 39 49 s. S. Thomas, In Col. 1, 18 cet. 5 ed. Marietti, II, n. 46: «Sicut constituitur unum corpus ex unitate animae, ita Ecelesia ex unitate Spiritus ...».

[1.9] Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. 1890 AAS 22 (1889-90) p. 392. Id., Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896; AAS 28 (1895-96) pp. 710 ct 724 ss. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 1. c., pp. 199-200.

[1.10] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 1. c., p. 221 ss. Id., Litt. Encycl. Humani Generis, 12 Aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 571.

[1.11] Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 1. c., p. 713.

[1.12] Cfr. Symbolum Apostolicum: Denz. 6-9 (10-13); Symb. Nic.-Const.: Denz. 86 (150), coll. Prof. fidei Trid.: Denz. 994 et 999 (1862 et 1868).

[1.13] Dicitur: «Sancta (catholica apostolica) Romana Ecclesia»: in Prof. fidei Trid., 1. c. et Concl. Vat. I, Sess. III, Const. dogm. de fide cath. Dei Filius: Denz. 1782 (3001).

[1.14] S. Augustinus, Civ. Dei, XVIII, 51, 2: PL 41, 614.

Chapter II

[2.1] Cfr. S. Cyprianus, Epist. 69, 6: PL 3, 1142 B; Hartel 3 B, p. 754: «inseparabile unitatis sacramentum»

[2.2] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. Magnificate Dominum, 2 nov. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 669. Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p. 555.

[2.3] Cfr. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928) p. 171 s. Pius XII Alloc. Vous nous avez, 22 sept. 1956: AAS 48 (1956) p. 714.

[2.4] Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 63, a. 2.

[2.5] Cfr. S. Cyrillus Hieros., Catech. 17, de Spiritu Sancto, II, 35-37: PG 33, 1009-1012. Nic. Cabasilas, De vita in Christo, lib. III, de utilitate chrismatis: PG 150, 569-580. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 65, a. 3 et q. 72, a. 1 et 5.

[2.6] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), paesertim p. 552 s.

[2.7] I Cor. 7,7: «Unusquisque proprium donum (idion charisma [ἴδιον χάρισμα]) habet ex Deo: alius quidem sic alius vero sic». Cfr. S. Augustinus, De Dono Persev. 14, 37: PL 45, 1015 s.: «Non tantum continentia Dei donum est, sed coniugatorum etiam castitas».

[2.8] Cfr. S. Augustinus, De Praed. Sanct. 14, 27: PL 44, 980.

[2.9] Cfr. S. Io. Chrysostomus, In Io. Hom. 65, 1: PG 59, 361.

[2.10] Cfr. S. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. III, 16, 6; III, 22, 1-3: PG 7, 925 C-926 Aet 955 C - 958 A; Harvey 2, 87 s. et 120-123; Sagnard, Ed. Sources Chret., pp. 290-292 et 372 ss.

[2.11] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., Ad Rom., Praef.: Ed. Funk, I, p. 252.

[2.12] Cfr. S. Augustinus, Bapt. c. Donat. V, 28, 39; PL 43, 197: «Certe manifestum est, id quod dicitur, in Ecclesia intus et foris, in corde, non in corpore cogitandum». Cfr. ib., III, 19, 26: col. 152; V, 18, 24: col. 189; In Io Tr. 61, 2: PL 35, 1800, et alibi saepe.

[2.13] Cfr. Lc. 12, 48: «Omni autem, cui multum datum est, multum quaeretur ab eo». Cfr. etiam Mt. 5, 19-20; 7, 21-22; 25 41-46; Iac., 2, 14.

[2.14] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Apost. Praeclara gratulationis, 20 iun. 1894; AAS 26 (1893-94) p. 707.

[2.15] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96) p. 738. Epist. Encycl. Caritatis studium, 25 iul. 1898: ASS 31 (1898-99) p. 11. Pius XII, Nuntius radioph. Nell'alba, 24 dec. 1941: AAS 34 (1942) p. 21.

[2.16] Cfr. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum Orientalium, 8 sept. 1928: AAS 20 (1928) p. 287. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl Orientalis Ecclesiae [E], 9 apr. 1944: AAS 36 (1944) p. 137

[2.17] Cfr. Inst. S.S.C.S. Officii 20 dec. 1949: AAS 42 (1950) p.142.

[2.18] Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 8, a. 3, ad 1.

[2.19] Cfr. Epist. S.S.C.S. Officii ad Archiep. Boston.: Denz. 3869-72.

[2.20] Cfr. Eusebius Caes., Praeparatio Evangelica, 1, 1: PG 2128 AB.

[2.21] Cfr. Benedictus XV, Epist. Apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919) p. 440, praesertim p. 451 ss. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926) p. 68-69. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fidei Donum, 21 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957) pp. 236-237.

[2.22] Cfr. Didache, 14: ed. Funk I, p. 32. S. Iustinus, Dial. 41: PG 6, 564. S. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. IV 17, 5; PG 7, 1023; Harvey, 2, p. 199 s. Conc. Trid., Sess. 22, cap. 1; Denz. 939 (1742).

Chapter III

[3.1] Cfr. Conc. Vat. I, Sess. IV, Const. Dogm. Pastor aeternus. Denz. 1821 (3050 s.).

[3.2] Cfr. Conc. Flor., Decretum pro Graecis: Denz. 694 (1307) et Conc. Vat. I, ib.: Denz. 1826 (3059)

[3.3] Cfr. Liber sacramentorum S. Gregorii, Praefatio in Cathedra S. Petri, in natali S. Mathiae et S. Thomas: PL 78, 50, 51 et 152. S. Hilarius, In Ps. 67, 10: PL 9, 4 S0; CSEL 22, p. 286. S.Hieronymus, Adv. Iovin. 1, 26: PL 23, 247 A. S. Augustinus, In Ps. 86, 4: PL 37, 1103. S. Gregorius M., Mor. in Iob, XXVIII, V: PL 76, 455-456. Primasius, Comm. in Apoc. V: PL 68, 924 BC. Paschasius Radb., In Matth. L. VIII, cap. 16: PL 120, 561 C. Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: AAS 21 (1888) p. 321.

[3.4] Cfr. Act 6, 2-6; 11, 30; 13, 1, 14, 23; 20, 17; 1 Thess. 5, 12-13; Phil. 1, 1 Col. 4, 11, et passim.

[3.5] Cfr. Act. 20, 25-27; 2 Tim. 4, 6 s. coll. c. I Tim. 5, 22; 2 Tim. 2, 2 Tit. 1, 5; S. Clem. Rom., Ad Cor. 44, 3; ed. Funk, 1, p. 156.

[3.6] S. Clem. Rom., Ad Cor. 44, 2; ed. Funk, I, p. 154 s.

[3.7] Cfr. Tertull., Praescr. Haer. 32; PL 2, 52 s.; S. Ignatius M., passim.

[3.8] Cfr. Tertull., Praescr. Haer. 32; PL 2, 53.

[3.9] Cfr. S. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. III, 3, 1; PG 7, 848 A; Harvey 2, 8; Sagnard, p. 100 s.: «manifestatam».

[3.10] Cfr. S. Irenaeus, Adv. Haer. III, 2, 2; PG 7, 847; Harvey 2, 7; Sagnard, p. 100: «custoditur», cfr. ib. IV, 26, 2; col. 1 O53, Harvey 2, 236, necnon IV, 33, 8; col. 1077; Harvey 2, 262.

[3.11] S. Ign. M., Philad., Praef.; ed. Funk, I, p. 264.

[3.12] S. Ign. M., Philad., 1, 1; Magn. 6, 1; Ed. Funk, I, pp. 264 et 234.

[3.13] S. Clem. Rom., 1. c., 42, 3-4, 44, 3-4; 57, 1-2; Ed. Funk. I, 152, 156, 171 s. S. Ign. M., Philad. 2; Smyrn. 8; Magn. 3; Trall. 7; Ed. Funk, I, p. 265 s.; 282; 232 246 s. etc.; S. Iustinus, Apol., 1, 6 S G 6, 428; S. Cyprianus, Epist. assim.

[3.14] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 896: ASS 28 (1895-96) p. 732.

[3.15] Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. 23, ecr. de sacr. Ordinis, cap. 4; enz. 960 (1768); Conc. Vat. I, ess. 4 Const. Dogm. I De Ecclesia Christi, cap. 3: Denz. 1828 (3061). Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: ASS 35 (1943) p. 209 et 212. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 29 1.

[3.16] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: ASS 21 (1888) p. 321 s.

[3.17] S. Leo M., Serm. 5, 3: PL 54, 154.

[3.18] Conc. Trid., Sess. 23, cap. 3, citat verba 2 Tim. 1, 6-7, ut demonstret Ordinem esse verum sacramentum: Denz. 959 (1766).

[3.19] In Trad. Apost. 3, ed. Botte, Sources Chr., pp. 27-30, Episcopo tribuitur primatus sacerdotii. Cfr. Sacramentarium Leonianum, ed. C. Mohlberg, Sacramentarium Veronense, Romae, 195 S, p. 119: ad summi sacerdotii ministerium ... Comple in sacerdotibus tuis mysterii tui summam .... Idem, Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae Romae, 1960, pp. 121-122: Tribuas eis, Domine, cathedram episcopalem ad regendam Ecclesiam tuam et plebem universam.. Cfr. PL 78, 224.

[3.20] Trad. Apost. 2, ed. Botte, p. 27.

[3.21] Conc. Trid., Sess. 23, cap. 4, docet Ordinis sacramentum imprimere characterem indelebilem: Denz. 960 (1767) . Cfr. Ioannes XXIII, Alloc. Iubilate Deo, 8 maii 1960: AAS S2 (1960) p. 466. Pall1us VI, Homelia in Bas, Vaticana, 20 oct. 1963: AAS 55 (1963) p. 1014.

[3.22] S. Cyprianus, Epist. 63, 14: PL 4, 386; Hartel, III B, p. 713: Saccrdos vice Christi vere fungitur .. S. Io. Chrysostomus, In 2 Tim. Hom. 2, 4: PG 62, 612: Saccrdos est symbolon . Christi. S. Ambrosius, In Ps. 38, 25-26: PL 14, 105 1-52: CSEL 64, 203- 204. Ambrosiascr In I Tim. S 19: PL 17, 479 C ct in Eph. 4, 1;-12: col. 387. C. Theodorus Mops., from. Catech. XV, 21 ct 24: ed. Tonneau, pp. 497 et 503. Hesychiu Hieros., In Lcv. L. 2, 9, 23: PG 93, 894 B.

[3.23] Cfr. Eusebius, Hist. ecl., V, 24, 10: GCS II, 1, p. 49 S; cd. Bardy, Sources Chr. II, p. 69 Dionysius, apud Eusebium, ib. VII 5, 2: GCS 11, 2, p. 638 s.; Bardy, II, p. 168 s.

[3.24] Cfr. de antiquis Conciliis, Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. V, 23-24: GCS 11, 1, p. 488 ss.; Bardy, 11, p. 66 ss. et. passim. Conc. Nicaenum. Can. S: Conc. Oec. Decr. p. 7.

[3.25] Tertullianus, de Ieiunio, 13: PL 2, 972 B; CSFL 20, p. 292,lin. 13-16.

[3.26] S. Cyprianus, Epist. 56, 3: Hartel, 111 B, p. 650; Bayard, p.154.

[3.27] Cfr. Relatio officialis Zinelli, in Conc. Vat. I: Mansi S2,1 109 C.

[3.28] Cfr. Conc. Vat. 1, Schema Const. dogm. 11, de Ecclesia Christi, c. 4: Mansi S3, 310. Cfr. Relatio Kleutgen de Schemate reformato: Mansi S3, 321 B - 322 B et declaratio Zinelli: Mansi 52 1110 A. Vide etiam S. Leonem M. Scrm. 4, 3: PL 54, 151 A.

[3.29] Cfr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 227.

[3.30] Cfr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. Dogm. Pastor aeternus: Denz. 1821 (3050 s.).

[3.31] Cfr. S. Cyprianus, Epist. 66, 8: Hartel 111, 2, p. 733: .. Episcopus in Ecclesia et Ecclesia in Episcopo ..

[3.32] Cfr. S. Cyprianus, Epist. SS, 24: Hartel, p. 642, line. 13: . Una Ecclesia per totum mundum in multa membra divisa. Epist. 36, 4: Hartel, p. 575, lin. 20-21.

[3.33] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fidei donum, 21 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957) p. 237.

[3.34] Cfr. S. Hilarius Pict., In Ps. 14, 3: PL 9, 206; CSEL 22, p. 86. S. Gregorius M., Moral, IV, 7, 12: PL 75, 643 C. Ps.Basilius, In Is. 15, 296: PG 30, 637 C.

[3.35] S. Coelestinus, Epist. 18, 1-2, ad Conc. Eph.: PL 50, 505 AB- Schwartz, Acta Conc. Oec. 1, I, i, p. 22. Cfr. Benedictus XV, Epist. Apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919) p. 440, Pius XI. Litt. Encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae, 28 febr. 1926: AAS 18 (1926) p. 69. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fidei donum, 1. c.

[3.36] Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. I Grande munus, 30 sept. 1880: ASS 13 (1880) p. 14 S. Cfr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 1327; c. 13 S0 2.

[3.37] De iuribus Sedium patriarchalium, cfr. Conc. Nicaenum, I can. 6 de Alexandria et Antiochia, et can. 7 de Hierosolymis: Conc. I Oec. Decr., p. 8. Conc. Later. IV, anno 1215, Constit. V: De dignigate Patriarcharum: ibid. p. 212.-| Conc. Ferr.-Flor.: ibid. p. 504.

[3.38] Cfr. Cod. Iuris pro Eccl. I Orient., c. 216-314: de Patriarchis; c. 324-399: de Archiepiscopis I maioribus; c. 362-391: de aliis dignitariis; in specie, c. 238 3; 216; 240; 251; 255: de Episcopis a Patriarch nominandis.

[3.39] Cfr. Conc. Trid., Decr. de I reform., Sess. V, c. 2, n. 9; et Sess. I XXlV, can. 4; Conc. Oec. Decr. pp. 645 et 739.

[3.40] Cfr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. Dei Filius, 3: Denz. 1712l (3011). Cfr. nota adiecta ad Schema I de Eccl. (desumpta ex.S. Rob. Bellarmino): Mansi 51, I 579 C, necnon Schema reformatum I Const. II de Ecclesia Christi, cum I commentario Kleutgen: Mansi 53, 313 AB. Pius IX, Epist. Tuas libener: Denz. 1683 (2879).

[3.41] Cfr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 1322-1323.

[3.42] Cfr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus: Denz. 1839 (3074).

[3.43] Cfr. ecplicatio Gasscr in Conc. Vat. I: Mansi 52, 1213 AC.

[3.44] Gasser, ib.: Mansi 1214 A.

[3.45] Gasser, ib.: Mansi 1215 CD, 1216-1217 A.

[3.46] Gasser, ib.: Mansi 1213.

[3.47] Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus, 4: Denz. 1836 (3070) no. 26

[3.48] Oratio consecrationis episcopalis in ritu byzantino: Euchologion to mega, Romae, 1873, p. 139.

[3.49] Cfr. S. Ignatius M. Smyrn 8, 1: ed. Funk, 1, p. 282.

[3.50] Cfr. Act. 8, 1; 14, 22-23; 20, 17, et passim.

[3.51] Oratio mozarabica: PL 96 7 S9 B

[3.52] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., Smyrn 8, 1: ed. Funk, I, p. 282.

[3.53] S. Thomas, Summa Theol. III, q. 73, a. 3.

[3.54] Cfr. S. Augustinus, C. Faustum, 12, 20: PL 42, 26 S Serm. 57, 7: PL 38, 389, etc.

[3.55] S. Leo M., Serm. 63, 7: PL 54, 3 S7 C.

[3.56] Traditio Apostolica Hippolyti, 2-3: ed. Botte, pp. 26-30.

[3.57] Cfr. textus examinis in initio consecrationis episcopalis, et Oratio in fine vissae eiusdem consecrationis, post Te Deum.

[3.58] Benedictus XIV, Br. Romana Ecclesia, 5 oct. 1752, p 1: Bullarium Benedicti XIV, t. IV, Romae, 1758, 21: . Episcopus Christi typum gerit, Eiusque munere fungitur. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 1. c., p. 211: "[A]s far as his own diocese is concerned, each one as a true Shepherd feeds the flock entrusted to him and rules it in the name of Christ."

[3.59] Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96) p. 732. Idem, Epist. Officio sanctissimo, 22 dec. 1887: AAS 20 (1887) p. 264. Pius IX itt. Apost. ad Episcopol Geraniae, 12 mart. 1875, et alloc. onsist., 15 mart. 187 S: Denz. 112-3117, in nova ed. tantum.

[3.60] Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus, 3: Denz. 1828 ( 3061) . Cfr. Relatio Zinelli: Mand 1 2, 1114 D.

[3.61] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., ad Ephes. 5, 1: ed. Funk, I, p. 216.

[3.62] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., ad Ephes. 6, 1: cd. Funk, I, p. 218.

[3.63] Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. 23, sacr. Ordinis, cap. 2: Denz. 958 (1765), et can. 6: Denz. 966 (1776).

[3.64] Cfr. Innocentius I, Epist. d Decentium: PL 20, 554 A; sansi 3, 1029; Denz. 98 (215): Presbyteri, licet secundi sint sa erdotcs, pontificatus tamen api em non habent.. S. Cyprianus, Epist. 61, 3: ed. Hartel, p. 696.

[3.65] Cfr. Conc. Trid., l. c., Denz. 962-968 (1763-1778), et in specie l an. 7: Denz. 967 (1777). Pius XII, Const. Apost. Sacramentum Ordinis: Denz. 2301 (38 S7-61).

[3.66] Cfr. Innocentius I, 1. c. S. Gregorius Naz., Apol. II, 22: PGS, 432 B. Ps.-Dionysius, Eccl. ier., 1, 2: PG 3, 372 D.

[3.67] Cfr. Conc. Trid., Sess. 22: Denz. 940 (1743). Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p. 553; Denz. 2300 (3850).

[3.68] Cfr. Conc. Trid. Sess. 22: Denz. 938 (1739-40). Conc. Vat.II, Const. De Sacra Liturgia, n. 7 et n. 47.

[3.69] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 1. c., sub. n. 67.

[3.70] Cfr. S. Cyprianus, Epist. 11, 3: PL 4, 242 B; Hartel, II, 2, p. 497.

[3.71] Ordo consecrationis sacerdotalis, in impositione vestimentorum.

[3.72] Ordo consecrationis sacerdotalis in praefatione.

[3.73] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., Philad. 4: ed. Funk, I, p. 266. S. Cornelius I, apud S. Cyprianum, Epist. 48, 2: Hartel, III, 2, p. 610.

[3.74] Constitutiones Ecclesiae aegyptiacae, III, 2: ed. Funk, Didascalia, II, p. 103. Statuta Eccl. Ant. 371: Mansi 3, 954.

[3.75] S. Polycarpus, Ad Phil. 5, 2: ed. Funk, I, p. 300: Christus dicitur . omnium diaconus factus .. Cfr. Didache, 15, 1: ib., p. 32. S.Ignatius M. Trall. 2, 3: ib., p. 242. Constitutiones Apostolorum, 8, 28, 4: ed. Funk, Didascalia, I, p. 530.

Chapter IV

[4.1] S. Augustinus, Serm. 340, 1: PL 38, 1483.

[4.2] Cfr. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Quadragesimo anno, 15 maii 1931: AAS 23 (1931) p. 121 s. Pius XII, Alloc. De quelle consolation, 14 oct. 1951: AAS 43 (1951) p. 790 s.

[4.3] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. Six ans se sont ecoules, 5 oct. l9 S7: AAS 49 (19 S7) p. 927. De mandato et missione canonica, cfr. Decretum De Apostolatu laicorum, cap. IV, n. 16, cum notis 12 et 15.

[4.4] Ex Praefatione festi Christi Regis.

[4.5] Cfr. Leo XIII, Epist. Encycl. Immortale Dei, 1 nov. 188 S: ASS 18 (188 S) p. 166 ss. Idem, Litt. Encycl. Sapientae christianae, 10 ian. 1890: ASS 22 (1889-90) p. 397 ss. Pius XII, Alloc. Alla vostra filiale. 23 mart. l958: AAS S0 (145 R ) p. 220: Ia Iegittima sana laicita dello Stato ..

[4.6] Cod. Iur. Can., can. 682.

[4.7] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. De quelle consolation, 1. c., p. 789: Dans les batailles decisives, c'est parfois du front que partent les plus heureuses initiatives..Idem Alloc. L'importance de la presse catholique, 17 febr. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 256.

[4.8] Cfr. l Thess. S, 19 et 1 lo. 4, 1.

[4.9] Epist. ad Diogneum, 6: ed. Funk, I, p. 400. Cfr. S. Io. Chrysostomus, In Matth. Hom. 46 (47) 2: PG 58, 78, de fermento in massa.

Chapter V

[5.1] Missale Romanum, Gloria in excelsis. Cfr. Lc. 1, 35; Mc. 1, 24, Lc. 4, 34; Io. 6, 69 (ho hagios tou theou) [Io 6,69: πεπιστεύκαμεν ἐγνώκαμεν ἅγιος θεοῦ]; Act. 3, 14; 4, 27 et 30; Hebr. 7, 26, 1 Io. 2, 20; Apoc. 3, 7.

[5.2] Cfr. Origenes, Comm. Rom. 7, 7: PG 14, 1122 B. Ps.- Macarius, De Oratione, 11: PG 34, 861 AB. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3.

[5.3] Cfr. S. Augustinus Retract. II, 18: PL 32, 637 s. Pius XII Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943) p. 225.

[5.4] Cfr. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Rerum omnium, 26 ian. 1923: AAS 15 (1923) p. 50 ct pp. 59-60. Litt. Encycl. Casti Connubii, 31 dec. 1930: AAS 22 (1930) p. 548. Pius XII, Const. Apost. Provida Mater, 2 febr. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p. 117. Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951) pp. 27-28. Alloc. Nel darvi, 1 iul. 1956: AAS 48 (1956) p. 574 s.

[5.5] Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 5 et 6. De perf . vitae spir., c. 18. Origenes, In Is. Hom. 6, 1: PG 13, 239.

[5.6] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., Magn. 13, 1: ed. Funk, I, p. 241.

[5.7] Cfr. S. Pius X, Exhort. Haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: ASS 41 (1908) p. 560 s. Cod. Iur. Can., can. 124. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936) p. 22 s.

[5.8] Ordo consecrationis sacerdotalis, in Exhortatione initiali.

[5.9] Cfr. S. Ignatius M., Trall. 2, 3: cd. Funk, l, p. 244.

[5.10] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. 1957: AAS 50 (19 S8) p. 36.

[5.11] Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Casti Connubii, 31 dec. 1930. AAS 22 (1930) p. 548 s. Cfr. S. Io Chrysostomus, In Ephes. Hom. 20, 2: P. 62, 136 ss.

[5.12] Cfr. S. Augustinus, Enchir. 121, 32: PL 40 288. S. Thomas Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 1. Pius XII, Adhort. Apost. Menti nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 660.

[5.13] De consiliis in genere, cfr. Origenes, Comm. Rom. X, 14: PG 14 127 S B. S. Augustinus, De S. Viginitate, 15, 15: PL 40, 403. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. I-II, q. 100, a. 2 C (in fine); II-II, q. 44, a. 4 ad 3

[5.14] De praestantia sacrae virginitatis, cfr. Tertullianus, Exhort. Cast. 10: PL 2, 925 C. S. Cyprianus, Hab. Virg. 3 et 22: PL 4, 443 B et 461 A. A. S. Athanasius (?), De Virg.: PG 28, 252 ss. S. Io. Chrysostomus, De Virg.: PG 48, 533 u.

[5.15] De spirituali paupertate et oboedientia testimonia praccipua S.Scripturae et Patrum afferuntur in Relatione pp. 152-153.

[5.16] De praxi effectiva consiliorum quae non omnibus imponitur, cfr. S. Io. Chrysostomus, In Matth. Hom. 7, 7: PG S7, 8 I s. 5. Ambrosius, De Vidu s, 4, 23: PL 16, 241 s.

Chapter VI

[6.1] Cfr. Rosweydus, Vitae patrum, Antwerpiae 1628. Apophtegmata patrum: PG 65. Palladius, Historia Lausiaca: PG 34, 995 ss.; ed. C. Butler, Cambridge 1898 (1904). Pius XI, Const. Apost. Umbratilem, 8 iul. 1924: AAS 16 (1924) pp. 386-387. Pius XII, Alloc. Nous sommes heureux, 11 apr.1958: AAS 50 (1958) p. 283.

[6.2] Paulus VI, Alloc. Magno gaudio, 23 maii 1964: AAS 56 (1964) p. 566.

[6.3] Cfr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 487 et 488, 40. Pius XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950, AAS 43 (1951) p. 27 s. Pius XII, Cons. Apost. Provida Mater, 2 Febr. 1947: AAS 39 (1947) p. 120 ss.

[6.4] Paulus VI, 1. c., p. S67.

[6.5] Cfr. S. Thomas, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3 et q. 188, a. 2. S. Bonaventura, Opusc. X, Apologia Pauperum, c. 3, 3: cd. Opera, Quaracchi, t. 8, 1898, p. 245 a.

[6.6] Cfr. Conc. Vat. I. Schema De Ecclesia Christi, cap. XV, et Adnot. 48: Mansi 51, 549 s. et 619 s. Leo XIII, Epist. Au milieu des consolations, 23 dec. 1900: AAS 33 (1900-01) p. 361. Pius XII, Const. Apost. Provida Mater, 1. c., p. 1145.

[6.7] Cfr. Leo XIII, Const. Romanos Pontifices, 8 maii 1881: AAS 13 (1880-81) p. 483. Pius XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43(1951) p. 28 8.

[6.8] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 1. c., p. 28. Pius XII, Const. Apost. Sedes Sapientiae, 31 maii 19 S6: AAS 48 (1956) p. 355. Paulus VI, 1. c., pp. 570-571.

[6.9] Cfr. Pius XII Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 19 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943) p. 214 s.

[6.10] Cfr. Pius XII, Alloc. Annus sacer, 1. c., p. 30. Alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. l9 S7: AAS 50 (19 S8) p. 39 s.

Chapter VII

[7.1] Conc. Florentinum, Decretum pro Graecis: Denz. 693 (1305).

[7.2] Praeter documenta antiquiora contra quamlibet formam evocationis spirituum inde ab Alexandro IV (27 sept. 1958), cfr Encycl. S.S.C.S. Officii, De magne tismi abusu, 4 aug. 1856: AAS (1865) pp. 177-178, Denz. 1653 1654 (2823-2825); responsioner S.S.C.S. Offici, 24 apr. 1917: 9 (1917) p. 268, Denz. 218 (3642).

[7.3] Videatur synthetiea espositi huius doctrinae paulinae in: Piu XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis AAS 35 (1943) p. 200 et passilr

[7.4] Cfr., i. a., S. Augustinus, Enarr. in Ps. 85, 24: PL 37, 1095 S. Hieronymus, Liber contra Vigilantium, b: PL 23, 344. S. Thomas In 4m Sent., d. 45, q. 3, a. 2. Bonaventura, Libri Quattuor Sententiarum, d. 45, a. 3, q. 2; etc.

[7.5] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943) p. 245.

[7.6] Cfr. Plurimae inscriptione in Catacumbis romanis.

[7.7] Cfr. Gelasius I, Decretalis De libris recipiendis, 3: PL 59, 160, Denz. 165 (353).

[7.8] Cfr. S. Methodius, Symposion, VII, 3: GCS (Bodwetseh), p. 74

[7.9] Cfr. Benedictus XV, Decretum approbationis virtutum in Causa beatificationis et canonizationis Servi Dei Ioannis Nepomuecni Neumann: AAS 14 (1922 p. 23; plures Allocutiones Pii X de Sanetis: Inviti all'croismo Diseorsi ... t. I-III, Romae 1941-1942, passim; Pius XII, Discorsi Radiomessagi, t. 10, 1949, pp 37-43.

[7.10] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl : Mediator Dei: AAS 39 (1947) p . 581.

[7.11] Cfr. Hebr. 13, 7: Eccli 44-50, Nebr. 11, 340. Cfr. etia Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mediator Dei: AAS 39 (1947) pp. 582-583

[7.12] Cfr. Conc. Vaticanum Const. De fide catholica, cap. 3 Denz. 1794 (3013).

[7.13] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943) p. 216.

[7.14] Quoad gratitudinem erga ipsos Sanctos, cfr. E. Diehl, Inscriptiones latinae christianae vereres, 1, Berolini, 1925, nn. 2008 2382 et passim.

[7.15] Conc. Tridentinum, Sess. 25, De invocatione ... Sanctorum: Denz. 984 (1821) .

[7.16] Breviarium Romanum, Invitatorium infesto Sanctorum Omnium.

[7.17] Cfr. v. g., 2 Thess. 1, 10.

[7.18] Conc. Vaticanum II, Const. De Sacra Liturgia, cap. 5, n. 104.

[7.19] Canon Missae Romanae.

[7.20] Conc. Nicaenum II, Act. VII: Denz. 302 (600).

[7.21] Conc. Florentinum, Decretum pro Graecis: Denz. 693 (1304).

[7.22] Conc. Tridentinum Sess. 35, De invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis Sanctorum et sacris imaginibus: Denz. 984-988 (1821-1824); Sess. 25, Decretum de Purgatorio: Denz. 983 (1820); Sess. 6, Decretum de iustificatione, can. 30: Denz. 840 (1580).

[7.23] Ex Praefatione, aliquious dioecesibus concessa.

[7.24] Cfr. S. Petrus Canisius, Catechismus Maior seu Summa Doctrinae christianae, cap. III (ed. crit. F. Streicher) pas I, pp. 15-16, n. 44 et pp. 100-1 O1, n. 49.

[7.25] Cfr. Conc. Vaticanum II Const. De Sacra Liturgia, cap. 1 n. 8.

Chapter VIII

[8.1] Credo in Missa Romana: Symbolum Constantinopolitanum: Mansi 3, 566. Cfr. Conc. Ephesinum, ib. 4, 1130 (necnon ib. 2, 665 et 4, 1071); Conc. Chalcedonense, ib. 7, 111-116; Cow. Constantinopolitanum II, ib. 9, 375-396.

[8.2] Canon Missae Romanae.

[8.3] S. Augustine, De S. Virginitate. 6: PL 40, 399.

[8.4] Cfr. Paulus Pp. VI, allocutio in Concilio, die 4 dec. 1963: AAS 56 (1964) p. 37.

[8.5] Cfr. S. Germanus Const., Nom. in annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 328 A; In Dorm. 2: col. 357. Anastasius Antioch., Serm. 2 de Annunt., 2: PG 89, 1377 AB; Serm. 3, 2: col. 1388 C. S. Andrcas Cret. Can. in B. V. Nat. 4: PG 97, 1321 B. In B. V. Nat., 1: col. 812 A. Hom. in dorm. 1: col. 1068 C. - S. Sophronius, Or. 2 in Annunt., 18: PG 87 (3), 3237 BD.

[8.6] S. Irenaeus, Adv. Hacr. III, 22, 4: PG 7, 9 S9 A; Harvey, 2, 123.

[8.7] S. Irenaeus, ib.; Harvey, 2, 124.

[8.8] S. Epiphanius, Nacr. 78, 18: PG 42, 728 CD; 729 AB.

[8.9] S. Hieronymus, Epist. 22, 21: PL 22, 408. Cfr. S. Augustinus, Serm. Sl, 2, 3: PL 38, 33 S; Serm. 232, 2: col. 1108. - S. Cyrillus Hieros., Catech. 12, 15: PG 33, 741 AB. - S. Io. Chrysostomus, In Ps. 44, 7: PG SS, 193. - S. Io. Damasccnus, Nom. 2 in dorm. B.M.V., 3: PG 96, 728.

[8.10] Cfr. Conc. Lateranense anni 649, Can. 3: Mansi 10, 1151. S. Leo M., Epist. ad Flav.: PL S4, 7 S9. - Conc. Chalcedonense: Mansi 7, 462. - S. Ambrosius, De inst. virg.: PL 16, 320.

[8.11] Cfr. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943) pp. 247-248.

[8.12] Cfr. Pius IX, Bulla Ineffabilis 8 dec. 1854: acta Pii IX, I, I, p. 616; Denz. 1641 (2803).

[8.13] Cfr. Pius XII, Const. Apost. Munificensissimus, 1 no. 1950: AAS 42 (1950) ú Denz. 2333 (3903). Cfr. S. Io. Damascenus, Enc. in dorm. Dei genitricis, Hom. 2 et 3: PG 96, 721-761, speciatim col. 728 B. - S. Germanus Constantinop., in S. Dei gen. dorm. Serm. 1: PG 98 (6), 340-348; Serm. 3: col. 361. - S. Modestus Hier., In dorm. SS. Deiparae: PG 86 (2), 3277-3312.

[8.14] Cfr. Pius XII Litt. Encycl. Ad coeli Reginam, 11 Oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 633-636; Denz. 3913 ss. Cfr. S. Andreas Cret., Hom. 3 in dorm. SS. Deiparae: PG 97, 1089-1109. - S. Io. Damascenus, De fide orth., IV, 14: PG 94, 1153-1161.

[8.15] Cfr. Kleutgen, textus reformatus De mysterio Verbi incarnati, cap. IV: Mansi 53, 290. cfr. S. Andreas Cret., In nat. Mariae, sermo 4: PG 97, 865 A. - S. Germanus Constantinop., In annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 321 BC. In dorm. Deiparae, III: col. 361 D. S. Io. Damascenus, In dorm. B. V. Mariae, Hom. 1, 8: PG 96, 712 BC-713 A.

[8.16] Cfr. Leo XIII, Litt. Encycl. Adiutricem populi, 5 sept. 1895: ASS 15 (1895-96), p. 303. - S. Pius X, Litt. Encycl. Ad diem illum, 2 febr. 1904: Acta, I, p. 154- Denz. 1978 a (3370) . Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Miserentissimus, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928) p. 178. Pius XII, Nuntius Radioph., 13 maii 1946: AAS 38 (1946) p. 266.

[8.17] S. Ambrosius, Epist. 63: PL 16, 1218.

[8.18] S. Ambrosius, Expos. Lc. II, 7: PL 15, 1555.

[8.19] Cfr. Ps.-Petrus Dam. Serm. 63: PL 144, 861 AB. Godefridus a S. Victore. In nat. B. M., Ms. Paris, Mazarine, 1002, fol. 109 r. Gerhohus Reich., De gloria ct honore Filii hominis, 10: PL 194, 1105 AB.

[8.20] S. Ambrosius, l. c. et Expos. Lc. X, 24-25: PL 15, 1810. S. Augustinus, In Io. Tr. 13, 12: PL 35 1499. Cfr. Serm. 191, 2, 3: PL 38 1010; etc. Cfr. etiam Ven. Beda, In Lc. Expos. I, cap. 2: PL 92, 330. Isaac de Stella, Serm. 51. PL 194, 1863 A.

[8.21] Sub tuum praesidium

[8.22] Conc. Nicaenum II, anno 787: Mansi 13. 378-379; Denz. 302 (600-601) . Conc. Trident., sess. 2 S: Mansi 33, 171-172.

[8.23] Cfr. Pius XII, Nuntius radioph., 24 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 679. Litt. Encycl. Ad caeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954) p. 637.

[8.24] Cfr. Pius XI, Litt. Encycl. Ecclesiam Dei, 12 nov. 1923: AAS 15 (1923) p. 581. Pius XII, Litt. Encycl. Fulgens corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953) pp. 590-591.


The Ecclesiology Of The Constitution On The Church, Vatican II, Lumen Gentium

By Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

At the time of the preparation for the Second Vatican Council and during the Council itself, Cardinal Frings often told me of a small episode, which moved him deeply. Pope John XXIII had not personally decided on themes for the Council, but invited the world's bishops to make their suggestions, so that the subjects to be treated by the Council might emerge from the lived experience of the universal Church. In the German Bishops' Conference, topics were presented for the Council but, not only in Germany but throughout the Catholic Church, it was felt that the theme of the Council should be the Church. The First Vatican Council was unable to complete its ecclesiological synthesis because it had been cut short by the Franco-Prussian War, and had to leave the chapter on the primacy and infallibility of the Roman Pontiff to stand by itself. To offer a comprehensive vision of the Church seemed to be the urgent task of the coming Second Vatican Council. The focus on the Church flowed from the cultural atmosphere of the time. The end of the First World War had brought a profound theological upheaval. Liberal theology with its individualistic orientation was completely eclipsed, and a new sensitivity to the Church had been arising. Not only did Romano Guardini speak of a reawakening of the Church in souls. The Evangelical Bishop Otto Dibelius coined the formula "the century of the Church", and Karl Barth gave to his dogmatic synthesis of the reformed (Calvinist) tradition the programmatic title Kirchliche Dogmatik (Church Dogmatics). He explained that a dogmatic theology presupposes the Church, without the Church it does not exist. Among the members of the German Episcopal Conference there was consequently a broad consensus that the theme of the Council should be the Church.

Speak Of Church Within Discourse On God

But the senior Bishop of Regensburg, Bishop Buchberger, who came to be esteemed and respected far beyond his diocese for having conceived of the 10-volume Lexikon fur Teologie und Kirche, now in its third edition. He asked to speak -- as the Archbishop of Cologne told me -- and said: "Dear brothers, at the Council you should first of all speak about God. This is the most important theme". The bishops were deeply impressed; they could not ignore the seriousness of his suggestion. Of course, they could not make up their minds simply to propose the theme of God. But an unspoken concern lingered, at least in Cardinal Frings, who continued to ponder how the bishops might satisfy this imperative.

The episode came to mind when I read the text of the conference given by Johann Baptist Metz in 1993 at the time he retired from his chair in Munster. I would like to quote at least a few significant phrases of his important address. Metz says:

The crisis reached by European Christianity is no longer primarily or at least exclusively an ecclesial crisis ... The crisis is more profound: it is not only rooted in the situation of the Church: the crisis has become a crisis of God. To sum up, one could say "religion yes," "God no," where this "no," in turn, is not meant in the categorical sense of the great forms of atheism. There are no longer any great forms of atheism. Today's atheism can effectively return to speaking of God -- distractedly or calmly -- without really intending him [his person] ... Furthermore, the Church has her own concept of immunization against the crisis of God. She no longer speaks today of God -- as, for example, she still did at the First Vatican Council -- but only -- as she did at the Council -- of God proclaimed through the Church. The crisis of God is codified ecclesiologically.
Words like this from the mouth of the creator of political theology cannot fail to capture our attention. They rightly remind us that the Second Vatican Council was not only an ecclesiological Council, but that first and foremost, spoke of God, and this not only within Christianity, but to the world, of the God who is the God of all, who saves all and is accessible to all. Perhaps the Second Vatican Council, as Metz seems to say, only accepted half the legacy of the First Vatican Council? Obviously a treatment of the ecclesiology of the Council has to deal with this question.

Basic Thesis

Right now I want to state my basic thesis: the Second Vatican Council clearly wanted to speak of the Church within the discourse on God, to subordinate the discourse on the Church to the discourse on God and to offer an ecclesiology that would be theological in a true sense. Until now, however, the way the Council was received has ignored this qualifying characteristic in favour of individual ecclesiological affirmations; it has highlighted single phrases that are easy to repeat, and has thus fallen away from the broad horizons of the Council Fathers. Something similar can be said about the first text on which the Second Vatican Council focused -- the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy. The fact that it was placed at the beginning was basically due to pragmatic motives. But retrospectively, it must be said that it has a deeper meaning within the structure of the Council: adoration comes first. Therefore God comes first. This introduction corresponds to the norm of the Benedictine Rule: Operi Dei nihil praeponatur [Let nothing be placed before the work of God, the divine office]. As the second text of the Council, the Constitution on the Church should be considered as inwardly connected with the text on the liturgy. The Church is guided by prayer, by the mission of glorifying God. By its nature, ecclesiology is connected with the liturgy. It is, therefore, logical that the third Constitution [Dei Verbum] should speak of the Word of God that convokes the Church and renews her in every age. The fourth Constitution [Gaudium et spes] shows how the glorification of God is realized in the active life, since the light received from God is carried into the world and only in this way becomes fully the glorification of God. In the history of the post-Conciliar period, the Constitution on the Liturgy was certainly no longer understood from the viewpoint of the basic primacy of adoration, but rather as a recipe book of what we can do with the Liturgy. In the meantime, the fact that the Liturgy is actually "made" for God and not for ourselves, seems to have escaped the minds of those who are busy pondering how to give the Liturgy an ever more attractive and communicable shape, actively involving an ever greater number of people. However the more we make it for ourselves, the less attractive it is, because everyone perceives clearly that the essential focus on God has increasingly been lost.

Partial Interpretations

As regards the ecclesiology of Lumen gentium, certain key words continue to be kept in mind:

For now I will leave the famous formula untranslated, because -- as was foreseen -- it has received the most contradictory explanations -- which range from the idea that it expresses the uniqueness of the Catholic Church united to the Pope to the idea that it expresses the equivalency of the other Christian Churches with the Catholic Church and that the Catholic Church has given up her claim of being distinctive. In the early stages of the reception of the Council, the concept of "People of God" predominated together with the theme of collegiality; the term "people" was understood in terms of ordinary political usage, later in the context of liberation theology it was understood in terms of the Marxist use of the term people as opposed to the dominating classes, and even more widely, in the sense of the sovereignty of the people, which would now finally be applied to the Church. This in turn gave rise to broad discussions about her structures, in which People of God was interpreted, according to the situation, either in a more Western way as "democratization", or in the Eastern European way as "popular democracy". Gradually these "verbal fireworks" (N. Lohfink) around the concept of People of God burned out, on the one hand, and above all because the power games became empty and had to make room for ordinary work in parish councils, and, on the other, because sound theological work has incontrovertibly shown that the politicization of a concept that comes from a totally different context cannot be supported. As a result of his careful exegetic analyses, the exegete of Bocum, Werner Berg, to take one example, states:
Despite the small number of passages that contain the expression "People of God," from this point of view "People of God" is a rare biblical expression, but nevertheless a common idea emerges: the phrase "People of God" expresses "kinship" with God, a relationship with God, the link between God and what is designated as "People of God," hence a "vertical orientation." The expression lends itself less to describe the hierarchical structure of this community, especially if the "People of God" is described as a "counterpart" to the ministers ... Nor, starting with its biblical significance, does the expression lend itself to a cry of protest against the ministers: "We are the People of God."
Josef Meyer zu Schlotern, the professor of fundamental theology of Paderborn, concludes the examination of the discussion about the concept of "People of God" by observing that the Constitution on the Church of the Second Vatican Council ends the pertinent chapter in such a way as "to outline the Trinitarian structure as the foundation of the ultimate definition of the Church ..." Thus the discussion is led back to the essential point: the Church does not exist for herself, but must be God's instrument, in order to gather man to Himself to prepare for the moment when "God will be all in all" (I Cor 15,28). It was the concept of God that lost out in the "fireworks" sparked by the expression, and in this way the expression, People of God, lost its meaning. In fact, a Church that exists for herself alone is superfluous. And people notice it immediately. The crisis of the Church as it is reflected in the concept of People of God, is a "crisis of God"; it is the consequence of abandoning the essential. What remains is merely a struggle for power. There is enough of this elsewhere in the world, there is no need of the Church for this.

Ecclesiology Of Communion

It can certainly be said that, at the time of the extraordinary Synod of 1985, which was to attempt an evaluation of the 20 years following the Council, there appeared a new effort to sum up conciliar ecclesiology in a basic concept: the ecclesiology of communio. I received this new focus of ecclesiology with joy and did my best to prepare it. Even so, it should be recognized first of all that the word communio does not have a central position in the Council. But if it is properly understood it can serve as a synthesis for the essential elements of conciliar ecclesiology. All of the essential elements of the Christian concept of communio are combined in the famous text of I Io 1,3, which can be taken as the criterion for the correct Christian understanding of communion:

That which we have seen and heard we proclaim also to you, so that you also may have fellowship with us; and our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. And we are writing this that our joy may be complete. (I Io 1,3)
Here the starting point of communio is brought to the fore: the encounter with the Son of God, Jesus Christ, who comes to men and women through the Church's proclamation. So there arises communion among human beings, which in turn is based on communio with the Triune God. We have access to communion with God through the realization of the communion of God with man which is Christ in person; the encounter with Christ creates communion with him and thus with the Father in the Holy Spirit; and from this point unites human beings with one another. The purpose of all this is full joy: the Church carries an eschatological dynamic within her. In the words "full joy", we can glimpse a reference to the farewell discourse of Jesus, to the Easter mystery and to the return of the Lord in his Easter appearances, which prepare for his full return in the new world:
You will weep and lament, but the world will rejoice; you will be sorrowful, but your sorrow will turn into joy ... I will see you again and your hearts will rejoice ... ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full. (Io 16; 20; 22; 24)
If the last sentence is compared with Lc 11,13 -- the invitation to prayer in Luke -- it clearly appears that "joy" and "Holy Spirit" are one and the same, and that the word "joy" in I Io 1,3, conceals the Holy Spirit who is not expressly mentioned here. The word communio therefore, based on the biblical context has a theological, Christological, salvation historical and ecclesiological character. It therefore has within it the sacramental dimension which in Paul appears explicitly:
The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one Bread, we who are many are one body ... . (I Cor 10,16 f.)
The ecclesiology of communion is a profoundly Eucharistic ecclesiology. It is thus very close to the Eucharistic ecclesiology, which Orthodox theologians have developed convincingly in our century. Ecclesiology becomes more concrete and at the same time remains totally spiritual, transcendent and eschatological. In the Eucharist Christ, present in the bread and wine and giving himself ever anew, builds the Church as his body and through his risen body unites us to the Triune God and to one another. The Eucharist is celebrated in different places, and yet at the same time it is universal, because there is only one Christ and only one body of Christ. The Eucharist includes the priestly service of the repraesentatio Christi and thus the network of service, the synthesis of unity and multiplicity, which is already expressed in the word communio. Thus it can be said without a doubt that the concept incorporates an ecclesiological synthesis, which unites the discourse on the Church with the discourse on God and with life from God and with God, a synthesis that takes up all the essential intentions of the Second Vatican Council's ecclesiology and connects them in the right way.

For these reasons I was grateful and pleased when the Synod of 1985 made the concept of communion once again the focus of reflection. However, the years that followed show that no word is safe from misunderstandings, not even the best and most profound.

Partial Interpretations

To the extent that communio became an easy slogan, it was devalued and distorted. As with the concept of "People of God", here too a gradual "horizontalism" should be pointed out, with the giving up of the idea of God. The ecclesiology of communion began to be reduced to the theme of the relationship between the local Church and the universal Church, which in turn degenerated gradually into the problem of the division of the areas of competence between them. Of course, the egalitarian cause, which claimed that there could only be complete equality in communio, was again disseminated. Thus once again the disciples' discussion on who was the greatest became operative, which, of course, will not be settled in any generation. Mark mentions it with the greatest insistence. On the way to Jerusalem, Jesus had spoken for the third time to the disciples about his forthcoming Passion. On arriving in Capernaum he asked them what they had been discussing on the way. "But they were silent", for they had been discussing which of them was the greatest -- a sort of discussion of primacy (Mc 9,33-37). Isn't it still the same today? As the Lord walks towards his Passion, while the Church, he himself within her, is suffering, we reflect on our favourite theme, the discussion of our rights of precedence. And if he were to come among us and ask us what we were discussing along the way, how embarrassed and silent we would have to be!

This does not mean that the Church should not also discuss the proper order and designation of responsibilities; and naturally, imbalances will always be found in her that will require correction. Of course, there can be an excessive Roman centralism, which must be identified and purified. But such matters cannot detract from the Church's true task: the Church must not speak primarily of herself but of God; and only in order that this may happen with integrity, there are also certain intra-ecclesial criticisms for which the connecting of her discourse on God and on common service must provide the proper direction. Finally, it is not by accident that what Jesus said about the last becoming first and the first becoming last returns in various contexts of the evangelical tradition -- as a mirror, that always reflects everyone.

CDF Letter On Communion

To confront the reduction of the concept of communio which has taken place since 1985, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith saw fit to prepare a Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Some Aspects of the Church Understood as Communion, which was published on 28 June 1992.

Since it now seems to have become obligatory for theologians who want to make a big name for themselves to offer a negative appraisal of the documents of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, theologians created a storm of criticism over it from which it could hardly recover. It was the sentence that said that the universal Church is a reality that in its essential mystery is logically and ontologically prior to the particular Churches that was singled out for criticism. In the text, this was supported concisely by recalling that, according to the Fathers, the Church, which is one and unique precedes creation and gives birth to the particular Churches (LG n. 9). Thus the Fathers take up a rabbinical theology which had conceived of the Torah and Israel as pre-existent: creation was considered to be so conceived that there would be room in it for God's will; but this would require a people who would live in accord with God's will and make it the light of the world. Since the Fathers were convinced of the ultimate identity between the Church and Israel, they could not see in the Church something that took place by chance at the last hour, but recognized in the gathering of the peoples in accord with God's will, the internal purpose of creation. The image is broadened and deepened on the basis of Christology: history -- again in relation to the Old Testament -- is explained as a love story between God and man. God finds and prepares a bride for his Son, the single bride who is the unique Church. Starting from the word of Genesis, that the man and his wife will become "one flesh" (Gen 2,24), the image of the bride is united with the idea of the Church as the body of Christ, a metaphor, which in turn comes from the Eucharistic liturgy. The one body of Christ is prepared; Christ and the Church will be two "in one flesh", one body and thus "God will be all in all". This ontological precedence of the universal Church, the one Church, the one body, the one bride, over the concrete empirical realizations in the particular Churches seems to me so obvious that I find it hard to understand the objections to it. Indeed it seems to me that they are only possible if one does not want to see, or no longer succeeds in seeing, the great Church conceived by God -- perhaps out of desperation at her earthly inadequacy --; she now appears as a theological fancy, so all that remains is the empirical image of the Church in the mutual relations and conflicts of the particular Churches. But this means that the Church as a theological subject has been obliterated. If from now on the Church can only be recognized in her human organization, then, in fact, all that is left is desolation. But then one has not only abandoned the ecclesiology of the Fathers, but also that of the New Testament and the conception of Israel in the Old Testament. In t